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2.  I>     V 






Copyright.      Entered  at  Stationers'  Hall, 



.>  ^Vv 

\    J  V 





Bv   W.   A.    WILLS  ami  L.    T.    COLLINGRIDGE. 

With  Contributions  by 

Major    P.    W.    FORBES,    Major    SIR    JOHN    C.    WILLOUGHBY,    Barf., 

Mr.    IL    RIDER  HAGGARD,   Mr.    F.    C.    SELOUS,   F.Z.S., 

ami  Mr.   P.    B.   S.    IVREY,   A.M.  Inst.   C.E. 


"THE  AFRICAN  REVIEW"  OfI'ICes,  io,  Basinghall  Street,  E.G.;    and 

SiMPKiN,  Marshall,  Hamilton,  Kent,  and  Co.,  Ltd. 

The  Argus  Comi-any,  Ltd.,  Cape  Town,  Johannesburg,  Pretoria,  Salisbury,  and 





PRINTED    BY    W.    H.    AND     L.    COLLINGRIDGE, 

148    &     149,    ALDERSGATE    STREET,     E.C. 



INTRODUCTORY  REVIEW  OF  THE    WAR         page  i 

By  Frederick  Courtenay  Selous. 

The  downfall  of  Lobengula — Struggle  between  civilisation  and  savagery— One  of  the 
boldest  enterprises — A  tribute  to  the  brave — The  war  forced  by  the  Matabeli — 
The  little  England  party — Mining  capital  lying  idle — Mr.  Richmond's  Mashona 
boy  killed  —  Mashonaland  abandoned,  or  Lobengula's  power  broken — Memorial 
drawn  up  by  Mr.  Philip  Wrey — Mr.  Rhodes  and  Dr.  Jameson  organise  the  force — 
Diversion  caused  by  Colonel  Goo'd-Adams'  column — Khama's  desertion  unjustifiable 
— Gambo  disheartened — The  effect  of  the  war— Plenty  of  room  for  Englishmen- 
Picturesque  natives — Dutch  or  British  in  Matabeliland — Development  of  the  country — 
Trains  to  Buluwayo — Power  broken  of  military  despotic  rule — Supremacy  of  British 
power  in  South  Africa. 

CHAPTER    n. 


The  Greeks  and  Africa — Vasco  da  Gama  at  Cape  of  Good  Hope — The  expedition  in  1890 — 
A  Dutch  trek — Moselikatsi  natives  across  the  Drakensberg— Early  Matabeli  military 
training — Murder  of  Boers — Battle  at  Vechtkop — Kruger's  first  fight — Defeat  of  the 
Matabeli— Mosehkatsi  driven  further  north — Lobengula  condemned  to  be  strangled  — 
Saved  by  Umcumbate — Policy  of  extermination — Death  laws — Death  of  Mosehkatsi — 
Succeeded  by  Lobengula  in  1868. 



Lobengula  preserves  the  old  traditions — Every  inch  a  king — Cruelty  tempered  with  humanity 
— His  personal  habits — Strength  of  the  Matabeli  army — Matabeliland  coveted  by  the 
Boers — Rival  missions— Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd  and  Mr.  Rochfort  Maguire  win  for  Mr.  Rhodes 
— Effective  occupation — Organising  the  pioneer  force — Selous  as  pioneer — Lobengula's 
opposition — Pioneers  arrive  safely  at  Salisbury — Early  day  troubles — Boer  filibusters 
retire  before  "  Maxim  " — Dr.  Jameson  administrator. 

vi  Contents. 



Cecil  Rhodes  and  General  Gordon— South  Africa  or  Khartoum — The  Consolidation  of  the 
Diamond  mines — The  belief  in  Mr.  Rhodes'  resources  —The  Cape  to  Cairo  idea — Dr. 
Jameson's  career — The  direction  of  the  Chartered  Company — The  Duke  of  Abercorn — 
The  Duke  of  Fife— Lord  Gifford— Sir  H.  B.  Farquhar,  Bart.— Mr.  A.  Beit— Mr.  G. 
Cawston— Mr.  A.  H.  G.  Grey — Mr.  R.  Maguire— Mr.  Herbert  Canning— Dr.  F. 
Rutherfoord  Hariis— Mr.  B.  F.  Hawkesley— Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd -Mr.  F.  C.  Selous— 
Mr.  P.  B.  S.  Wrey. 



By  p.  B.  S.  Wrey,  A.M.I.C.E. 

Matabeli  impis  cross  the  border— Mashonas'  fear  of  the  Matabeli— Dr.  Jameson  remonstrates 
with  Lobengula — Telegraph  wires  cut  at  Gomalla's  kraal— Lobengula  claims  the  right 
to  raid  the  Mashonas— An  impi  at  Victoria,  Sunday,  July  19th — Dr.  Jameson  arrives 
at  Victoria — Loath  to  take  active  measures — The  indaba— Lobengula  breaks  his  compact 
— Young  Matabeli  warriors  beyond  control — The  impi  ordered  to  leave  in  an  hour,  or 
be  driven  out — Threats  of  the  colunists  to  leave  the  country. 



By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Declaration  of  War — Major  Forbes  to  take  command — Dr.  Jameson  arranges  for  starting  to 
Buluwayo— The  Matabeli  fighting  strength— Military  stores  at  Salisbury — Lack  of  horses — 
Organising  the  Salisbury  Horse — Selecting  the  officers — The  conditions  for  volunteering 
— The  Victoria  Column— Buying  the  horses —Leaving  Salisbury — Practicing  military 
manoeuvres — The  Tuli  Column  delayed — The  Matabeli  reported  massing  at  Sbangani 
River — Dr.  Jameson  reviews  the  Salisbury  Horse  at  Charter — Ammunition— Forming 
laager — Manning  the  waggons. 


LEAVING  MASHONALAND  FOR  THE  FRONT  ...         page  83 

By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

The  Salisbury  Column  advance  from  Charter— Crossing  the  Umniati  river— In  Matabeliland— 
— A  scouting  party — Halt  at  Iron  Mine  Hill— Recovering  cattle— First  sight  of  the 
Matabeli— Captain  Campbell  shot— The  Victoria  Column  join  us— Formation  of  their 
laager— Their  strength  and  officers— Difficulties  with  the  Victoria  Artillery  overcome— 
Arrangements  for  the  combined  march— The  realities  of  war— Native  guides. 

Contents.  vii 


FROM  SIGALA   MOUNTAIN  TO    THE   SHANGANI ...        page  97 

By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Advance  of  the  Combined  Columns — A  false  alarm — Finding  gold — Insukameni  kraal  deserted 
— Somabula  Forest — Matabeli  scouts— E.  Burnett  shot— Crossing  the  Shangani  River — 
Capturing  cattle— Arranging  pickets — The  eve  of  the  first  battle— The  first  attack — 
Quested's  natives  driven  in — Plucky  advance  of  the  Insukameni  regiment — Driven 
back  by  the  Maxims — Captain  Heany's  skirmishers  nearly  cut  off — The  enemy  routed — 
Strength  of  the  Matabeli — -Maiabeli  inferior  to  the  Zulu — Effect  of  fire  upon  the  oxen — 
The  Colunms  advance — Captain  Williams  cut  off  and  lost — A  threatened  attack — 
Sighting  the  Matoppo  Hills — Captain  Heany  burns  Enxna  kraal. 


THE     OCCUPATION    OF    BULUWAYO  page  118 

By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Scouts  sent  to  reconnoitre  Buluwayo — News  of  Lobengula — Umsingweni  kraal  burnt  by  the 
natives — An  anxious  march — The  battle  of  Imbembesi — The  horses  stampeded — The 
picket  surprised — The  Matabeli  within  300  yards — Attempt  to  surround  the  laager — 
Plucky  advance  of  Captain  Delamere's  dismounted  men — The  enemy  retire — The  Imbezu 
beaten  by  a  lot  of  boys — The  Matabeli  power  broken — Heading  straight  for  Buluwayo — 
Kraals  deserted — Buluwayo  blown  up — Letter  from  Burnham  and  Eairbairn — Buluwayo 
occupied — Short  of  supplies — News  of  the  Southern  Column — A  messenger  sent  to 
Lobengula — Capturing  the  king's  peacocks — Lobengula's  reply:  "Where  am  I  to  live?" 
— The  first  church  parade  at  Buluwayo — Despatches  for  England. 


THE    PURSUIT   OF   THE   KING page  135 

By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Preparations  for  attackmg  Umhlangeni — The  royal  kraals  deserted — News  of  the  king  on 
the  Bubye  river — Messengers  sent  to  Lobengula  and  the  Imbezu — Captain  Raaf 
objects  to  advance — A  consultation — The  patrol  to  retire  to  Umhlangeni — Imbezu  cattle 
captured  by  our  Mashonas,  driven  off  by  the  Matabeli,  and  again  recaptured — 
Further  messages  sent  to  the  king —  Heavy  rain  storms — Retire  to  Shiloh — Arrival 
of  reinforcements — The  second  advance — Lobengula's  message  to  Dr.  Jameson — Dividing 
the  force— Following  the  king's  spoor — The  Matabeli  tired  of  fighting — Finding  the 
king's  bath  chair  and  two  waggons. 

vlii  Contents. 


THE  LOSS   OF  THE    WILSON  PATROL  page  153 

By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Close  upon  the  king — An  anxious  time  for  the  scouts — Preparations  for  an  attack — The 
king's  camp  deserted — Major  Wilson  sent  to  reconnoitre — Preparations  for  a  dash  for  the 
king— Messengers  sent  back  to  Major  Forbes — Captain  Borrow  sent  with  reinforcements 
— Heavy  firing  across  the  river — The  column  attacked — The  sole  survivors  of  Major 
Wilson's  party — Burnham's  account  of  the  disaster — To  retire  up  the  river — Short  of 
ammunition — News  sent  to  Dr.  Jameson — A  deluge  of  rain — Mr.  Howard's  plucky  swim 
across  the  river. 


THE  RETREAT  FROM  THE   SHANGANI  RIVER  ..         page  173 

By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Down  the  river's  bank — Horses  falling  off  fast — Short  of  food— Capturing  the  royal  cattle — 
A  skirmish  in  the  bush — A  heavy  rain  storm — The  men  depressed — The  last  of  the 
horses  done  up — A  sudden  attack — The  gun  carriages  left  behind — Captain  Raaf 
addresses  the  force — The  first  night  march — Tired  out — Horse  flesh  flavoured  with 
garlic — A  fight  while  on  the  march— The  Matabeli  now  behind  us — Mr.  Selous  brings 
tidings  of  food — Back  to  Umhlangeni  and  Buluwayo— Disbanding  the  force — Pegging 
out  farms — Death  of  Captain  Raaf — A  parade  of  all  forces  before  Mr.  Rhodes— Rumours 
of  Major  Wilson's  party — How  Englishmen  can  die. 


CROSSING    THE  BORDER page  189 

By  Major  Sir  J.  C.  Willoughby,  Bart. 

The  Victoria  incident — The  state  of  public  feeling — The  organisation  of  the  Volunteers — 
Correspondence  with  the  High  Commissioner — The  Southern  Column — The  start  of 
the  Columns — Our   rival  allies — Crossing   the  Border — Junction  of  the   Salisbury   and 

Victoria  Columns. 


THE    CLOSE    OF  THE   CAMPAIGN  page  203 

By  Major  Sir  J.  C.  Willoughby,  Bart. 

The  surrender  of  Indunas — Major  Forbes  instructed  to  pursue  Lobengula — The  Shangani 
reached — Major  Wilson  sent  on  ahead — The  party  surrounded  and  cut  off— The  last 
stand — A  relief  party  organized  —  The  retreat  of  Major  Forbes'  patrol  —  Hardships 
on  the  way— Submission  of  the  Matabeli — The  duties  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company's  Police  and  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police — Messrs.  Dawson  and  Riley's 
mission — The  death  of  Lobengula — The  final  settlement  of  the  country. 

Contents.  ix 


WITH   THE    SOUTHERN    COLUMN       page  215 

The  diversion  of  a  part  of  Lobengula's  army — 8,000  men  under  Gambo  sent  to  intercept 
Colonel  Goold-Adams — Mr.  Dawson's  mission — The  indunas  arrested  — Mantuse  and 
Inqubo,  in  attempting  to  escape,  are  killed — Major  Sawyer's  inquiry — Commandant 
Raaf  joins  the  Column— Meet  Chief  Khama  at  Shashi  River — The  plans  of  the  march — 
Scarcity  of  water — The  Matabeli  in  force  in  front  — The  waggons  attacked — The 
Matabeli  rush  the  rearmost  waggons — Mr.  Selous  wounded — Driven  off  by  the  Maxims 
— Small-pox  breaks  out  amongst  Khama's  men — lie  decides  to  return  home — Sub- 
mission of  Makalaka  chiefs  —  News  of  victories  of  Major  Forbes'  Column  —  At 


THE  PATTERSON  EMBASSY  TO  LOBENGULA      ...        page  227 

By  H,  Rider  Haggard. 

{Being  a  N^ote  on  the  ciraimsiances  attending   the  Deaths  of   Captain  R.   Robert  Patterson, 
Air.  J.  Sargeannt,  and  Air.  Thomas  in  Matabeliland  in  September,  1878.) 


IN    MEMORIAM  page  234 

The  effect  of  the  war — Its  causes — The  vassals  of  the  Matabeli — The  cost  of  the  campaign — 
A  story  of  heroes — The  last  stand — A  hallowed  circle — The  national  regret — The 
memorials  at  Buluwayo  and  Zimbabye — The  conduct  of  the  expedition — Major  Allan 
Wilson — Commandant  P.  J.  Raaf,  C.M.G. —  Captain  H.  J.  Borrow — Captain  A.  L. 
Campbell — Captain  F.  Fitzgerald — Captain  Greenfield — Captain  Judd — Captain  A.  B. 
Kirton — Captain  C.  F.  Lendy,  R.A. — Captain  O.  G.  Williams,  and  the  others. 



The  character  of  the  troops — Their  esprit  de  corps  and  stamina — The  Administrator — The 
Commanding  Officer — Sir  J.  C.  Willoughby,  Bart. —  Major  Hamilton  Browne — Captain 
Finch — Captain  Heany — Captain  Spreckley — Captain  Moberley — Captain  Kennedy — 
Adjutant  Kennelly— Captain  Bastard — Captain  Napier — Captain  Delamere — Captain 
Reid — Captain  White — Captain  Donovan — The  other  officers. 

X  Contents. 



By  p.  B.  S.  Wrey,  A.M.I.CE. 

A  land  of  promise — A  succession  of  gardens— Climatic  conditions — The  question  of  markets — 
A  comparison  with  Johannesburg  in  its  early  days — Labour  and  fuel — The  native 
population — The  administration — A  final  conclusion. 





PH^  30S 

The  extent  of  our  latest  territorial  acquisitions — Xorthern  Zambesia — The  gold  areas— The 
value  of  real  estate — The  terms  of  settlement  with  the  Colonial  Office — Mr.  Rhodes' 
views  on  the  fiscal  policy  of  the  Empire — Railways,  telegraphs,  and  coach  services. — 
Col.  F.  W.  Rhodes — Mr.  James  Dawson. 


Page  i6,  line  6,  for  "contumelious"  read  "contumacious.'  Page  25, 
line  13,  for  "A."  Maguire  read  "  R.''  Maguire.  Page  80,  line  32,  for 
"flanking"  read  "left  flanking,"  Page  81,  line  14,  for  "to  place  his 
men"  read  "to  his  place."  Page  91,  line  23,  for  "taken"  read  "recovered." 
Page  94,  line  4,  for  "  two  "  read  "four."  Page  176,  line  g,for  "before  "  read 
"below."  Page  195,  line  22,  before  "bank"  read  "south."  Page  211,  line 
24,  for  "  Mapondein "  read  "  Umpandine."  J^or  "  G\vynyd "  (Captain 
Williams)  read  "Gwynydd";  and  for  "Raaf"  (Captain)  read  "Raaff,"  wherever 

of  those — whether  commissioned  or  otherwise — who  lost  their  lives  in 
protecting  their  Mashona  dependants,  their  hard-won  interests,  and  in 
providing  for  their  own  safety,  which  was  threatened  by  their  fierce  and 
intractable  neighbours.  This  information  has  necessarily  been  difficult 
to  obtain,  and  the  chapters  devoted  to  the  subject  are  still  incomplete. 
It  is  hoped,  however,  that  relatives  or  friends  will,  before  the  next 
edition,  enable  the  deficiencies  in  this  respect  to  be  remedied  by  for- 
warding biographical  particulars  and  portraits. 

At  the  outset  it  was  not  intended  that  this  Volume  should  take  so 
comprehensive  a  character.  The  announcement  of  its  forthcoming 
publication,  however,  and  the  march  of  events,  brought  forth  such  a 
number  of  valuable  contributions,  and  such  a  mass  of  important 
information   of  various  kinds,  that  the  limits  originally  proposed  were 


It  has  al\va\'s  been  felt  to  be  a  matter  of  ^^leat  regret  that  so  ver}' 
few,  if  indeed  an)-,  reasonablj^  comprehensive  and  authoritative  histories 
of  any  of  the  numerous  campaigns  fought  between  -the  European 
colonists  and  the  warlike  native  tribes  of  South  Africa  have  been  written. 
That  which  is  recorded  on  the  following  pages  has  the  undeniable 
advantage  in  that  the  story  of  the  war  is  told  by  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  forces  engaged.  It  has  further  a  special  feature — and 
one  which  will  be  considerably  amplified  in  subsequent  editions — in 
the  form  of  two  chapters  in  which  a  brief  biographical  reference  has 
been  made  to  most  of  the  officers  of  the  expedition,  and  to  nearly  all 
of  those — whether  commissioned  or  otherwise — who  lost  their  lives  in 
protecting  their  Mashona  dependants,  their  hard-won  interests,  and  in 
providing  for  their  own  safety,  which  was  threatened  by  their  fierce  and 
intractable  neighbours.  This  information  has  necessarily  been  difficult 
to  obtain,  and  the  chapters  devoted  to  the  subject  are  still  incomplete. 
It  is  hoped,  however,  that  relatives  or  friends  will,  before  the  next 
edition,  enable  the  deficiencies  in  this  respect  to  be  remedied  by  for- 
warding biographical  particulars  and  portraits. 

At  the  outset  it  was  not  intended  that  this  Volume  should  take  so 
comprehensive  a  character.  The  announcement  of  its  forthcoming 
publication,  however,  and  the  march  of  events,  brought  forth  such  a 
number  of  valuable  contributions,  and  such  a  mass  of  important 
information   of  various  kinds,  that  the  limits  originally  proposed  were 

xii  Preface. 

insensibly  but  largely  exceeded.  The  occasion  may  be  taken  to 
record  our  obligations  to  members  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company's  forces  and  others  for  much  vahiable  aid  ;  notably  to  Major 
P.  W.  Forbes,  who  has  furnished  a  complete  and  careful  account  of  the 
operations  of  the  columns  under  his  command.  Originally  it  was 
intended  to  print  Major  Sir  John  Willoughby's  account  also  in  full,  but 
as  it  came  to  hand  somewhat  late  for  that  purpose,  and  as  it  was  in  a 
large  measure  practically  identical  with  that  of  Major  Forbes,  it  was 
finally  decided  to  publish  only  such  portions  as  referred  to  the  origina- 
tion of  the  war,  to  the  tragic  but  splendid  incident  which  marked  its 
close,  and  to  the  circumstances  under  which  the  pacification  of  the 
country  was  carried  out.  Thanks  are  also  due  to  Mr.  H.  Rider 
Haggard,  who  has  related  all  that  is  known,  or  reasonably  conjectured, 
as  to  the  murder  by  Lobengula  of  Captain  Patterson's  Embassy  ;  to 
Mr.  F.  C.  Selous,  who  has  traced,  in  his  own  graphic  style,  the  causes  of 
the  war,  and  alluded  to  its  results  ;  to  Mr.  P.  B.  S.  Wrey,  who  has  dealt 
with  "  the  Victoria  incident,"  and  the  prospects  of  the  new  South 
African  colony;  to  Captain  C.  H.  W.  Donovan,  Mr.  Cecil  R.  Batley, 
Mr.  J.  Murray  Gourlay,  Mr.  R.  T.  Coryndon,  Mr.  W.  Hacker,  and 
numerous  others  who  have  assisted  with  much  valuable  information, 
and  a  number  of  notes,  sketches,  and  photographs  which  have  been 
utilised  in  the  body  of  the  book.  Finally,  it  should  be  said  that  in  the 
ensuing  pages  stress  is  naturally  laid  upon  the  services  of  those  volun- 
teers who  formed  the  advancing  columns.  At  the  same  time  it  is  hardly 
necessary  to  say  that  those  volunteers  and  burghers  who  stayed  behind 
to  garrison  the  forts  at  Salisbury,  Victoria,  Charter,  and  Tuli,  and  to 
forward  supplies  to  their  comrades  at  the  front,  formed  an  important 
and  indispensable  portion  of  the  volunteer  army,  and  that  their  services 
demand  grateful  recognition  by  the  Rhodesian  community. 

W.  A.  WILLS. 


lo,   Basinghall   Street,    London,  E.G. 
20///  Aiii^ust,   1894. 

Photo  by  Elliott  &=  Fry,  Baker  Street.~\ 


{Premier  of  the  Cape  Colony  ;  Founder  and  Managing  Director  of  the  British  South  Africa 

Company. ) 



By    Frederick    Courtenay    Selous. 

The  downfall  of  Lobengula — Struggle  between  civilisation  and  savagery — One  of  the 
boldest  enterprises — A  tribute  to  the  brave — The  war  forced  by  the  Matabeli — 
The  little  England  parly — Mining  capital  lying  idle — Mr.  Richmond's  Mashona 
boy  killed  —  Mashonaland  abandoned,  or  Lobengula's  power  broken  —  Memorial 
diawn  up  by  Mr.  Philip  Wrey — Mr.  Rhodes  and  Dr.  Jameson  organise  the  force — 
Diversion  caused  by  Colonel  Gould-Adams'  column — Khama's  desertion  unjustifiable 
— Gambo  disheartened — The  effect  of  the  war — Plenty  of  room  for  Englishmen — 
Picturesque  natives- Dutch  or  British  in  Matabeliland — Development  of  the  country — 
Trains  to  Buluwayo — Power  broken  of  military  despotic  rule— Supremacy  of  British 
power  in  South  Africa. 

The  year  1893,  most  fateful  in  the  history  of  British  enterprise 
in  South  Africa,  has  passed  and  gone  ;  but  the  events  of  that  year, 
culminating  as  they  did  in  the  conquest  of  Matabeliland  and  the 
downfall  of  Lobengula,  will  never  be  forgotten  by  the  colonists  of 
Mashonaland,  who  will  ever  look  back  upon  the  Matabeli  war  with 
feelings  of  pride  mingled  with  sorrow.  Sorrow  for  the  comrades  who 
have  fallen  in  the  struggle  between  civilisation  and  savagery  ;  pride, 
not  alone  in  the  valour  of  those  dead  comrades,  but  also  in  the  steadv 
courage  and  strength  of  purpose  which  marked  the  conduct  of  the 
whole  campaign. 

As  a  detailed  account  of  the  war  will  be  found  in  the  pages  of  the 
book  to  which  this  little  sketch  is  a  prelude  or  preface,  I  shall  not  touch 
upon  the  conduct  of  the  campaign  ;  except  to  say  that,  successful  as 
it  was,  it  was  yet  one  of  the  boldest  enterprises  ever  undertaken  by 


2  •  The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

our  adventurous  race.  A  slight  reverse  at  the  commencement  might 
easily  have  led  to  a  grave  disaster,  and  that  no  reverse  occurred  until 
after  the  white  men  were  in  occupation  of  Buluwayo  is  due,  I  think, 
at  least  as  much  to  the  absolute  want  of  generalship  displayed  by  the 
Matabeli,  as  to  the  care  and  skill  of  the  whites.  The  luck  seems  to  me 
to  have  been  all  on  our  side.  However  successful  though  this  enterprise 
has  been,  the  conquest  of  Matabeliland  has  cost  the  colonists  of 
Mashonaland  dear.  In  number,  the  lives  that  have  been  lost  are  com- 
paratively few,  but  it  is  a  regrettable  fact  that  amongst  the  fallen  are  a 
large  proportion  of  the  best  men  in  the  country — men  like  Allan 
Wilson  and  Henry  Borrow,  whose  places  none  can  fill.  On  the  day 
that  these  two  splendid  specimens  of  the  British  race  fell  fighting  side 
by  side — Allan  Wilson  the  Scotchman  and  Henry  Borrow  the  Engh"sh- 
man — there  fell  with  them  their  thirty  follower'^,  a  picked  band  from 
a  body  of  brave  men.  But  sad  though  the  death  may  be  of  these 
gallant  fellows,  and  wide-spread  as  must  be  the  grief  amongst  relations 
and  friends  at  their  untimely  loss,  the  sorrow  and  grief  must  be  in  some 
sort  mitigated  by  the  manner  of  their  death  and  the  knowledge  that 
their  splendid  spirit  of  comradeship  and  true  nobility  of  character 
have  embalmed  their  memory  in  every  true  man's  heart  wherever  the 
English  language  is  spoken.  Amongst  the  others  who  have  fallen  in 
this  brief  campaign  are  many  to  whose  memory  I  would  fain  pay  a 
tribute  of  regard.  Poor  Ted  Burnett,  by  whose  side  I  have  lain  for 
months  at  a  time  beneath  the  stars  which  look  down  upon  Mashona- 
land, without  ever  a  cross  word  ;  and  Gwynyth  Williams,  untimely 
slain  in  his  early  manhood,  beloved  by  all  who  knew  him,  and  as  gentle 
and  kind  and  brave  as  any  Bayard  ;  and  Lendy,  soldierlike  and  hand- 
some, and  as  kind-hearted  as  he  was  brave;  and  poor  Raaff,  too,  and 
Eustace  Forbes,  who,  like  Lendy,  both  lost  their  lives  after  the  cam- 
paign was  over,  but  were  none  the  less  the  victims  of  the  war.  These 
men  were  all  my  personal  friends,  and  there  are  others  whom  I  did  not 
know  so  well  whose  loss  will  be  deeply  mourned,  not  alone  by  their 
relations  in  this  country,  but  also  by  their  friends  and  fellow  colonists 
in  Mashonaland.  Great,  how^ever,  as  has  been  the  price  paid  in  noble 
lives  for  the  conquest  of  Matabeliland,  I  am  one  of  those  who  think 
that    the    war    was    an    absolute    necessity,    and    the    crushing    of  the 

Introductory  Review  of  4 he    War.  3 

Matabeli  power  at  any  cost  the  only  possible  means  of  maintaining  the 
supremacy  of  our  race  on  the  plateau  of  Central   South  Africa. 

Was  the  war  against  the  Matabeli  justifiable  or  not  ?  In 
Mashonaland  there  has  never  been  but  one  opinion  on  the  subject  ; 
an  opinion,  be  it  noted,  which  was  not  only  held  by  every 
white  man  who  had  gone  to  the  country  with  a  view  to  bettering 
his  condition  in  life,  but  which  was  also  fully  shared  in  by  every 
member  of  every  religious  denomination  in  Mashonaland  with  one 
single  exception,  that  exception  being  Mr.  Douglas  Pelly,  a  member 
of  Bishop  Knight  Bruce's  mission.  This  gentleman,  who,  save  for  a  few 
days  spent  in  the  hospital  at  Salisbury  before  the  outbreak  of  the  war, 
had  been  stationed  in  Manica,  and  who  therefore  could  never  have  seen 
a  Matabeli  in  his  life,  or  had  any  opportunity  of  studying  the  character 
of  these  people,  or  of  knowing  the  paralysing  effect  on  the  enterprise  of 
the  colonists  produced  by  their  encroachments  in  the  district  of  Victoria, 
seems  to  have  been  somewhat  rash  and  presumptuous  in  the  expression 
of  opinions  so  adverse  to  his  fellow-countrymen,  as  that  "  the  war  was  a 
most  unjust  one,  and  was  forced  on  the  Matabeli  by  the  Chartered 
Company."  However,  unjust  as  such  an  opinion  undoubtedly  is,  it  is  as 
well  that  it  should  be  recorded,  if  only  that  the  colonists  should  know 
their  enemies.  With  this  single  exception  all  the  members  of  the 
different  religious  denominations  in  Mashonaland — Wesleyans,  Church 
of  England  ministers,  and  Roman  Catholic  priests — were  in  complete 
accord  that  the  war  with  the  Matabeli  was  a  necessity,  and  was  forced 
on  the  colonists  by  the  action  of  the  Matabeli  themselves.  In  this 
country,  however,  there  is  a  small  and  contemptible  class  of  men,  a  part 
of  whose  political  creed  it  appears  to  be  to  discredit  the  actions  of 
British  colonists  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  these  men  have  not  only 
been  constant  in  their  denunciations  of  all  that  has  been  done  by  their 
countrymen  in  Mashonaland  during  the  last  four  years,  but  have  been 
particularly  venomous  in  their  criticisms  concerning  the  cause  and  the 
conduct  of  the  Matabeli  war.  Mr.  Labouchere  has,  by  his  constant 
attacks  upon  the  dead  and  the  living  alike,  won  for  himself  the 
reputation  of  being  the  most  unscrupulous,  dishonest,  and  virulent 
enemy  of  the  colonists  in  Mashonaland,  and  his  lead  has  been  followed 
by  some  of  the  press  in  this  country,  who,  curiously  enough,  seem  to 

B    2 

4  •       The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 

believe  that  they  are  serving  the  political  ends  they  have  in  view  by 
calumniating  indiscriminately  a  large  body  of  their  fellow-countrymen 
in  South  Africa. 

Mr.  Labouchere  has  summed  up  his  opinion  concerning  the  origin 
of  the  war  in  a  sentence  which  I  quote  from  the  number  of  Truth  for 
November  the  i6th,  1893.  This  sentence  runs: — "The  Mashonaland 
bubble  having  burst,  a  war  was  forced  by  the  Company  on  Lobengula  in 
order  to  get  hold  of  Matabeliland."  My  answer  to  this  charge  was 
lately  given  in  the  course  of  a  lecture  before  the  members  of  the  Royal 
Colonial  Institute,  and  ran  as  follows  : — ''What  exactly  Mr.  Labouchere 
means  to  convey  by  the  expression,  '  the  Mashonaland  bubble  having 
burst,'  I  don't  know;  but  if  he  means  that  Mashonaland  had  been 
proved  by  this  time  to  be  worthless  as  a  field  for  British  enterprise,  and 
that  the  officials  of  the  Chartered  Company  had  therefore  made  all  the 
preparations  necessary  for  a  war  of  aggression  against  the  Matabeli, 
then  I  say  that  Mr.  Labouchere  states  what  is  absolutely  untrue,  for 
what  are  the  facts?  In  July,  1893,  when  the  Victoria  district  was 
devastated  by  the  Matabeli,  and  the  settlers'  servants  were  killed  within 
sight  of  the  houses  ;  when  their  cattle  were  driven  off,  and  their  farm- 
steads destroyed,  there  were  only  thirty-eight  horses  in  the  whole  of  the 
Victoria  district,  and  less  than  150  in  the  whole  of  Mashonaland.  At 
this  time  the  first  half  of  the  dry  season  had  already  passed, 
and  I  ask  if,  given  this  absolute  state  of  unpreparedness  so  late 
in  the  dry  season,  it  is  possible  to  suppose  that  at  this  time — the 
time  of  tlie  Matabeli  invasion  of  the  Victoria  district  of  Mashonaland — 
an  aggressive  war  against  the  Matabeli  could  have  been  in  contemplation 
by  Dr.  Jameson  and  the  officials  of  the  Chartered  Company.''  Now  for 
the  assertion  that  the  '  Mashonaland  bubble  had  burst.'  " 

In  this  connection  I  have  been  authorised  by  Mr.  Philip  Wrey,  the 
mining  engineer  of  the  Mashonaland  Agency,  a  gentleman  who  has 
spent  nearly  three  years  in  Mashonaland,  and  who  is  one  of  the  best, 
because  one  of  the  most  experienced,  authorities  upon  mining  work  in 
that  country,  to  state  that  the  working  capital  represented  by  the 
different  companies  floated  in  London  early  in  1893  for  the  purpose  of 
fully  developing  Mashonaland  amounted  to  between  ^^300,000  and 
;^400,ooo.     Now,  as  the  people  who  subscribed  this  large  sum  of  money 

Introductory  Review  of  the   War.  5 

must  have  been  more  or  less  in  the  confidence  of  the  directors  of  the 
British  South  Africa  Company  in  London,  is  it  to  be  supposed  that  they 
would  have  subscribed  this  amount  of  capital  if  a  war  with  so  powerful 
a  nation  as  the  Matabeli — a  war  which  at  that  time  must  have  seemed  of 
very  doubtful  issue — had  been  in  contemplation  ?  Owing  to  the 
breaking  out  of  the  war  the  greater  part  of  this  capital  has  never  been 
utilised.  At  the  very  time  when  the  raid  took  place  in  the  Victoria 
district,  in  July,  1893,  there  were  120  natives  working  at  Long's  Reef  in 
the  employ  of  the  Mashonaland  Agency,  all  of  whom  had  been  brought, 
at  a  great  expense,  from  the  east  coast,  and  100  more  were  actually  on 
their  way  to  Victoria  from  Inhambane.  At  the  same  time  something 
like  300  men  were  at  work  on  the  "  Cotopaxi,"  one  of  the  properties 
belonging  to  the  "  Gold  Fields  of  Mashonaland,"  whilst  other  large 
gangs  were  working  on  reefs  belonging  to  Willoughby's  Syndicate,  the 
Zambesia  Exploring  Company,  and  many  other  mining  syndicates  in 
Mashonaland.  Indeed,  in  July,  1893,  so  far  from  the  Mashonaland 
bubble  having  burst,  as  Mr.  Labouchere  has  so  often  asserted,  I  fail  to 
see  in  what  way  the  men  who  were  interested  in  the  development  of  the 
country  could  possibly  have  shown  their  belief  in  its  value  in  a  more 
tangible  form  than  by  undertaking  the  works  of  development  upon 
which  they  were  engaged  in  all  the  mining  districts. 

And  what,  I  would  ask,  is  occurring  now  that  the  Matabeli  power 
has  been  crushed  and  Matabeliland  lies  open  to  European  enterprise  ? 
Have  the  mining  operations  in  Mashonaland  been  abandoned  ?  Have 
the  men  whom  Mr.  Labouchere  calls  greedy  adventurers,  border 
ruffians,  riff-raff,  marauders  and  murderers,  abandoned  the  burst 
bubble  of  Mashonaland  en  masse,  and  flocked,  to  use  another  of  Mr. 
Labouchere's  choice  similes,  like  vultures  to  the  fresh-killed  carcase 
of  Matabeliland  }  Not  at  all.  In  every  district  of  Mashonaland  mining 
development  work  and  every  other  enterprise  has  now  been  resumed  » 
and  that  fact  is,  I  think,  the  best  refutation  of  the  false  assertion,  that 
war  was  made  on  the  Matabeli  without  just  cause,  in  order  to  raise 
money,  because  "  the  Mashonaland  bubble  had  burst." 

As  to  the  actual  circumstances  which  led  to  the  war,  I  cannot 
recapitulate  them  at  length  here,  but  the  raid  by  the  Matabeli  into  the 
Victoria  district  in  July,  1893,  is  a  matter  of  history;  and  if  that  raid 

6  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula, 

itself  was  not  a  sufficient  justification  for   the  war  which  was  subse- 
quently undertaken  against  the  Matabeli,  I  fail  to  see  how  any  war 
that  has  ever  taken  place  can  be  justified.     It   is  true  that  no  white 
man  was   murdered   by  the  Matabeli    during   the    prosecution  of   this 
historical  raid  ;  but,  short  of  this,  everything  was  done  to  stir  up  the 
bitterest  feelings  of  exasperation  in  the  hearts  of  the   colonists.     More 
than    400    Mashona   men,   women,   and    children    were   killed    in    the 
neighbourhood   of  the  township  of  Victoria.      This,   Mr.   Labouchere 
tells    us,    ought    not    to    have    been     resented     by    the    settlers,   as 
Lobengula   was   acting   within    his    rights    in    slaughtering    Mashonas 
at    his    pleasure.     Probably    the    colonists    in    Mashonaland     would 
not    have     been     very    strongly    moved     had     they     heard     of    the 
slaughter     of     native     tribes     by    Lobengula     at     a     distance    from 
their    settlements.       But   the  killing     of     natives    in    the    immediate 
vicinity  of  Victoria  created   a  panic  throughout  the  district,  and  not 
only  put  a   stop  to  all   mining  development  work  in  the  country,  but 
brought  every  other  description  of  industry  and   enterprise  to  a  stand- 
still.    Besides  this,  not  only  were  many  natives  killed  by  the  Matabeli 
close  to  the  houses  forming  the  little  township  of  Victoria — so  near,  in 
fact,  that  their  bodies  had    to  be  buried   for    sanitary   reasons,  by   the 
white  men — but  in  several    instances,  personal  servants  of  white  men 
were  killed  before  the  eyes  of  their   masters.       Amongst   others  who 
have  made  sworn  affidavits  to  this  effect,  are  the   Rev.  Mr.  Sylvester, 
the    English    chaplain   at    Victoria,  and  Mr.    Richmond,    a   prospector. 
The    latter    having    been    summoned    to  Victoria    by  Captain    Lendy, 
in  common  with  all  the  white  men  who  were  living  at  the  various  mining 
camps  in  the  outlying  districts,  was  coming  in  with  all  his  worldly  goods 
packed  on  a  donkey.    This  donkey  was  being  led  by  a  Mashona  lad, 
Mr.  Richmond  walking  behind.    A  party  of  Matabeli  being  encountered, 
the   Mashona  boy  let  go  the  donkey,  and  ran  and  clasped  Richmond 
round  the  legs.      The  Matabeli  dragged  him  shrieking  and  assegaied 
him    to  pieces  before  the  eyes  of  his   master.     Richmond,  although  I 
believe    he    had    a    rifle    with    him,    was    afraid     to    use    it  ;    but    he 
remonstrated  strongly  with  the   murderers   of  his  servant,  when  one  of 
them,  placing  his  hand  on  his  arm,  said,  "  You  keep  quiet,  white  man  ; 
we  have  been    ordered    not  to  kill  a  white  man   wo\n,\>\x\.  yotir  day  is 

IntrodiLctory  Rcviciv  of  the    Wai\  7 

coming."  This  same  threat  was  made  to  other  white  men.  Concern- 
ing the  murder  of  this  boy,  Mr.  Richmond,  as  I  have  said  above,  has 
made  a  sworn  statement  before  Dr.  Jameson  and  the  magistrate  at 
Victoria,  whilst  Mr.  W.  B.  Harris  and  others  saw  the  boy  lying  dead 
in  the  road.  A  party  of  Matabeli  also  visited  Mr.  Napier's  farm  near 
Victoria  and  completely  wrecked  his  homestead,  destroying  everything 
in  his  house.  The  throats  of  all  his  fowls  were  cut,  and  the  dead  birds 
left  lying  on  the  ground.  All  his  goats  were  killed  and  skinned  and 
the  carcases  left,  whilst  all  his  cattle  were  driven  off,  and  three  of  his 
cattle  herds  murdered.  Altogether  between  three  and  four  hundred 
head  of  cattle  belonging  to  white  men  were  driven  off  by  the  Matabeli 
in  the  course  of  this  raid.  Now  these  murders  of  white  men's  servants, 
the  wreckage  of  homesteads,  and  the  stealing  of  large  herds  of  cattle 
belonging  to  the  settlers,  are  not  fictions,  but  facts,  which  can  be  sworn 
to  by  between  400  and  500  Europeans,  and  such  being  the  case,  there 
could  be  no  further  safety  for  white  men  in  Mashonaland  until  the  power 
of  the  Matabeli  was  broken.  It  was  absolutely  necessary,  if  the  work 
of  colonisation  was  to  be  carried  on  in  Mashonaland,  to  assert  the 
supremacy  of  the  white  race  at  once  and  for  always.  No  middle  course 
was  possible.  Either  Mashonaland  had  to  be  abandoned,  or  Matabeli- 
land  conquered,  and  the  military  organization  of  Lobengula  broken  up. 
Had  the  colonists  of  Mashonaland  been  the  mean,  sordid,  and 
cowardly  wretches  that  Mr.  Labouchere  has  asserted  them  to  be,  then 
they  would  have  abandoned  the  country  rather  than  embark  on  such  a 
hazardous  enterprise  as  the  invasion  of  Matabeliland.  But  such  a 
course  was  never  dreamt  of,  for  the  men  who  to-day  are  fighting  for  the 
supremacy  of  their  race  on  the  borders  of  our  Empire  in  Africa  never 
forget  that  they  are  the  countrymen  of  Drake  and  Raleigh  and 
Frobisher,  and  of  Clive  and  Warren  Hastings  ;  and  so  they  did  even 
as  those  bold  Englishmen  would  have  done  in  similar  circum- 
stances. Their  success  is  their  crime  with  those  degenerate  Englishmen 
in  whom  the  spirit  of  adventure  has  been  killed  by  a  life  of  soft  luxury 
and  self-indulgence.  Such  men  seem  to  consider  that  the  word 
adventurer  is  a  term  of  reproach  to  an  Englishman,  forgetting  that  it  is 
adventurers  who  have  made  the  British  Empire  what  it  is.  From  the 
time  of  the  raid  on  Victoria,  the  settlers  in  Mashonaland  determined  on 

8  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobeugtda, 

war  with  the  MatabeH,  and  in  a  memorial  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Philip 
Wrey,  and  signed  by  every  white  man  in  Victoria,  they  called  upon  the 
British  South  Africa  Company,  under  whose  auspices  they  had  come 
into  the  country,  to  protect  their  interests  in  the  only  possible  way  in 
which  those  interests  could  be  protected,  by  at  once  supplying  them 
with  horses  and  everything  else  necessary  for  an  immediate  march  on 
Buluwayo.  Luckily  at  this  supreme  moment,  when  the  supremacy  of 
the  British  race  in  South  Africa  trembled  in  the  balance,  there  were  two 
such  men  in  the  country  as  Mr.  Rhodes  at  Cape  Town,  and  Dr. 
Jameson  in  Mashonaland.  All  that  money  and  energy  and  strength  of 
will  could  do  in  Cape  Town  was  done  by  Mr.  Rhodes.  Although, 
owing  to  the  severe  drought  and  consequent  want  of  grass,  the  season 
was  a  most  unfavourable  one  for  sending  any  kind  of  livestock  for  long 
distances  over  the  burnt-up  country,  some  800  or  900  horses  were  bought 
and  sent  up  to  Mashonaland,  and  over  300  men  were  recruited  in 
the  Transvaal  to  assist  their  fellow-countrymen  in  the  coming  struggle. 
In  Mashonaland  itself  Dr.  Jameson  was  untiring  in  his  efforts  to  organise 
and  equip  his  small  force  as  efficiently  as  possible.  In  this  he  was 
most  ably  and  zealously  assisted  by  Sir  John  Willoughby,  Major 
Forbes,  Major  Allan  Wilson,  and  all  the  officers  and  men  under  their 
command.  Thus,  by  the  end  of  the  first  week  in  October,  1893,  Dr. 
Jameson's  little  force  of  670  white  men,  supported  hy  a  small  native 
contingent,  were  ready  to  advance  in  two  columns  from  Victoria  and 
Charter.  These  two  columns  met  at  the  head  of  the  Tukwi  river,  and 
then  travelled  together  to  Buluwayo.  Luckily  this  combined  force, 
though  small,  was  thoroughly  efficient  and  was  especially  strong  in 
artillery,  all  the  guns  being  in  charge  of  first-rate  artillerymen,  such  as 
Captains  Lendy  and  Biscoe,  and  Lieutenants  Reid  and  Llewellyn. 
Another  point,  too,  which  must  not  be  overlooked  in  considering  the 
great  success  of  the  invasion  of  Matabeliland  from  the  east,  and  the 
dispersal  of  a  tribe  so  well  armed  and  organised  as  the  Matabeli  by 
such  a  numerically  small  force  of  white  men,  is  the  fact  that  the  country 
lying  between  Mashonaland  and  Buluwayo  is  for  the  most  part 
of  the  character  of  open  grass  land,  and  therefore  most  favourable  for 
the  operations  of  mounted  men,  supported  by  artillery.  Had  eastern 
Matabeliland  been  a  broken,  hilly  country  covered  with  thick  forest,  I 

Introaudory  Review  of  the    War.  9 

think  that  a  very  much  larger  force  would  have  been  required  than  that 
which  actually  scattered  the  Matabeli  at  the  Shangani  and  the  Imbem- 
bisi,  and  took  possession  of  Buluwayo  after  a  campaign  that  had  lasted 
for  less  than  a  month.  To  the  colonists  of  Mashonaland,  to  Dr. 
Jameson,  and  the  officers  and  men  of  the  Salisbury  and  Victoria  columns, 
is  due  the  lion's  share  of  whatever  laurels  may  be  bestowed  on  the  con- 
querors of  Matabeliland  ,  but  they  themselves  will,  I  think,  be  the  last 
to  refuse  to  recognise  the  great  assistance  rendered  them  by  Colonel 
Goold-Adams,  and  Commandant  Raafif,  and  their  officers  and  men,  who 
by  a  simultaneous  invasion  of  Matabeliland  from  the  west,  through  a 
most  difficult  and  dangerous  country,  diverted  quite  half  the  military 
forces  of  the  Matabeli  nation  from  taking  part  with  their  comrades 
against  the  white  men  who  were  advancing  on  Buluwayo  from  the  east. 
Nor  ought  the  part  played  by  Sir  Henry  Loch,  the  High  Commissioner 
for  South  Africa,  in  the  late  war  to  be  forgotten  by  the  colonists  of 
Mashonaland,  or  by  any  Englishman  who  is  loyal  to  his  race.  In  the 
earlier  phases  of  the  disputes  between  the  colonists  and  the  Matabeli, 
Sir  Henry  Loch  did  everything  in  his  power  to  bring  about  a  peaceful 
solution  of  the  difficulties  that  had  arisen  ;  but  when  he  found  that  war 
was  not  only  justifiable  but  inevitable,  he  exerted  himself  to  the  utmost 
to  do  all  in  his  power  to  assist  his  countrymen,  and  thus  Colonel  Goold- 
Adams,  with  a  small  but  most  efficient  force  of  200  men  of  the  Bechu- 
analand  Border  Police,  was  ready  to  advance  upon  Buluwayo  from  the 
west,  simultaneously  with  Dr.  Jameson's  force  that  was  marching  from 
the  east.  Colonel  Goold-Adams'  little  force  was  supported  by  200  men 
recruited  in  the  Transvaal,  and  commanded  by  Commandant  Raaff,  a 
man  than  whom  there  was  not  in  all  South  Africa  anyone  who  had  had 
a  greater  experience  in  native  warfare.  At  Tati  this  little  force  of  400 
white  men  v/as  joined  by  Khama,  the  chief  of  the  Bamangv/ato,  and 
nearly  2,000  of  his  people  under  the  command  of  his  brother, 
Radi-kladi,  and  his  son  Sikumi.  Khama  and  his  men  were  present 
at,  and  took  a  conspicuous  part  in,  the  fight  with  the  Matabeli  on  the 
Sangezi  River,  near  the  kraal  of  Impandin  ;  but  two  days  later 
they  left  Colonel  Goold-Adams  near  the  Mangme  Pass,  and  returned 
home.  This  action  of  Khama's  naturally  excited  a  great  deal  of 
adverse    criticism,    and    was    strongly  commented    on    in    the    colonial 

!0  The  Doiujifa//  of  Lobcngiila. 

press.  Looked  at  from  a  European  point  of  view,  Khama's 
action  was  certainly  most  unjustifiable,  and  might  have  been  disastrous 
to  Col.  Goold -Adams'  small  force,  which  was  thus  left  without  support 
in  a  very  difficult  country,  and  in  the  face  of  a  large  force  of  Matabeli 
under  Gambo,  Lobcngula's  son-in-law.  However,  as  things  turned  out, 
no  harm  was  done  ;  as  Gambo,  disheartened  by  the  defeat  of  that  portion 
of  his  forces  which  attacked  Col.  Goold-Adams  at  the  Sangezi  river  on 
November  2nd,  and  receiving  the  news  almost  immediateh' afterwards  that 
the  Mashonaland  columns  had  broken  the  Kind's  best  regiments  on  the 
Impembisi  river  and  were  marching  on  Buluwayo,  abandoned  the  strong 
position  he  was  holding  at  Mangwe  Pass,  and  disbanded  his  forces, 
thus  leaving  the  road  to  Buluwayo  from  the  west,  which  leads  through  a 
most  difficult  and  broken  country,  open  and  undefended.  In  Khama's 
defence,  I  will  say  that  I  do  not  think  he  was  able  to  take  the  same  view 
of  things  as  his  critics.  He  and  his  people  were  tired  of  the  campaign, 
and  as  the  season  for  ploughing  had  arrived,  they  were  all  most  anxious 
to  get  home.  On  the  evening  of  November  3rd,  tw^o  of  his  men  were 
taken  ill  of  smallpox  (which  at  the  time  was  rife  amongst  the  Matabeli). 
and  this,  causing  as  it  did  a  scare  amongst  his  people,  decided  him  to 
leave  his  white  allies  and  return  home.  It  is  unfortunate  that  he  should 
have  arrived  at  such  a  decision  at  such  a  time,  but  I  entirely  deny  that 
unfriendliness  to  the  white  men,  or  disagreement  with  Col.  Goold-Adams, 
had  anything  to  do  with  it,  and  I  trust  that  in  any  future  dealings  with 
Khama  and  his  people,  his  conduct  on  this  occasion  will  not  be 
remembered  against  him,  or  allowed  to  outweigh  the  consistent  friend- 
liness he  has  always  shown  towards  the  British  in  South  Africa,  and  the 
great  assistance  he  rendered  us  at  the  time  of  the  occupation  of 
Mashonaland  in  1890. 

As  to  the  effect  of  the  war,  I  will  state  my  view  of  it  in  the 
words  of  the  lecture  which  I  delivered  upon  this  same  subject, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Royal  Colonial  Institute.  The  first 
and  broadest  general  effect  of  the  conquest  of  Matabeliland 
is  that  a  large  tract  of  plateau  land,  well  ^vatered  and  fertile, 
lying  at  an  altitude  of  5,000  feet  above  sea  level,  and  with  a 
climate  that  will  compare  favourably  with  that  of  Southern  Europe, 
is  now   in   the    hands    of   Englishmen,    for    thousands    of  whom    there 

Iiiti'odiictory  Review  of  the    War, 


is  plenty  of  room,  as  well  as  for  the  natives,  instead  of  being 
exclusively  occupied  by  a  savage  and  barbarous  race.  Savages  are 
doubtless  more  picturesque  than  British  settlers,  but  looking  at  the 
question  of  the  conflict  between  savage  and  civilised  races,  which  has 
been  continually  going  on  in  the  world  from  time  immemorial,  from  the 
broadest  point  of  view,  and  recognising  it  as  a  law  that,  when  savages 
come  into  contact  with  an  advancing  civilisation,  causes  of  friction 
must  arise,  which  always  end  in  the  subjugation  of  the  inferior  people ; 
and  knowing,  moreover,  that  in  this  particular  case  the  military  organ- 
isation of  the  Matabeli  was  certain  to  be  broken  either  by  the  Dutch 
or  the  British  in  South  Africa,  I  think  it  is  a  matter  for  congratulation 
and  not  for  sorrow  that  it  is  the  British  and  not  the  Dutch  who  have 
secured  Matabeliland.  It  has  been  said  and  it  will  be  said  again,  that 
neither  Matabeliland  nor  Mashonaland  are  worth  having  ;  that  there  is 
no  gold  in  these  countries,  that  nothing  will  grow  there  ;  and  that  no 
one  can  live  there,  and  so  on.  Let  it  be  remembered  that  forty-five  years 
ago  the  British  Government  was  induced  to  give  up  the  Orange  Free 
State,  then  the  Orange  River  Sovereignty,  very  much  against  the  will  of 
the  bulk  of  its  inhabitants  by  the  expression  of  exactly  the  same  sort  of 
pessimistic  opinions  as  are  now  from  time  to  time  published  by  ignorant 
and  prejudiced  people  concerning  Mashonaland.  The  same  kind  of 
things  were  said,  too,  of  the  Transvaal  many  years  ago  ;  yet  both  the 
Transvaal  and  the  Orange  Free  State  are  now  rich  and  prosperous 
territories  ;  and  so  will  Matabeliland  and  Mashonaland  become  during 
the  first  decade  of  the  next  century.  The  power  of  the  Matabeli  having 
been  broken,  the  development  of  the  gold  industry  in  Mashonaland  can 
now  be  carried  on  without  any  further  fear  of  interruption.  In  all  the 
different  districts  of  the  country  where  payable  reefs  are  found,  a 
European  population  will  be  established  and  townships  will  be  formed  ; 
and  these  centres  of  population  will  afford  markets  for  the  farmers  who 
will  take  up  the  land  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  gold-producing  areas. 
The  resumption  of  enterprise,  and  the  successful  and  continuous 
development  of  both  Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland  will  be  the  direct 
effect  of  the  Matabeli  war,  for  all  enterprise  had  been  paralysed  by  the 
action  of  the  Matabeli  just  previous  to  the  war  In  time  townships  will 
arise  in  Matabeliland  as  they  have  done  in  Mashonaland  ;  the    telegraph 

12  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcngula, 

wire,  which  has  been  already  advanced  to  Tati,  will  be  carried  on  to 
Buluwayo,  and  from  there  to  Victoria  or  Charter ;  railway  lines  will, 
too,  creep  gradually  into  the  country.  The  Beira  railway  will  be  carried 
on  to  Umtali  and  to  Salisbury,  and  from  thence  along  the  watershed 
past  Charter  to  Buluwayo,  with  a  branch  line  to  Victoria.  The  Silati 
line,  too,  will  be  carried  on  to  the  latter  place,  and  the  Mafeking 
extension  will  also  eventually  reach  Buluwayo  by  way  of  Palapye  and 
Tati.  All  this  enterprise  will  not  be  undertaken  and  completed  in  a 
day,  or  a  month,  or  a  year,  or  five  years  ;  but  it  will  infallibly  come  to 
pass  within  the  next  twenty  years.  There  may  be,  and  there  will  be, 
checks  and  hesitations  in  the  future  as  there  have  been  in  the  past  ;  but 
the  tide  of  civilization  will  advance  steadily  northwards  in  South  Africa 
as  it  has  travelled  westwards  in  America.  All  this  enterprise,  which  I 
may  live  to  see,  on  the  plateaux  of  Central  South  Africa  will  have  been 
called  into  vigorous  life  by  the  effect  of  the  Matabeli  war.  Nor  can  I 
see  cause  to  grieve  at  the  change  which  is  about  to  come  over  the 
country.  As  an  unbroken  military  power,  the  Matabeli  were  an 
insolent,  cruel,  and  overbearing  people,  undeserving  of  the  sympathy  of 
the  most  quixotic  of  philanthropists.  Their  power  having  been  broken, 
the  countries  over  which  they  ruled,  directly  and  indirectly,  have  been 
opened  up  to  British  enterprise,  and  in  these  countries  there  will  be  a 
field  for  the  exercise  of  the  energy  and  intelligence  of  many  young 
Englishmen.  And  such  fields  are  required  ;  for  this  country  is  teeming 
with  young  men,  full  of  energy,  intelligence,  and  integrity,  whose  best 
qualities  are  dwarfed  and  stunted  in  the  struggle  for  existence  in  the 
overcrowded  towns  of  England. 

In  conclusion,  I  will  say  that  the  political  effect  of  the  conquest  of 
Matabeliland  will  tend  to  secure  the  eventual  supremacy  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  in  South  Africa,  for  the  Dutch  states  are  now  completely 
surrounded  by  British  territory  except  to  the  east  of  the  Transvaal,  on 
which  there  is  no  outlet  for  immigration.  In  the  Transvaal  itself,  every 
year  the  power  and  influence  of  the  European  element  (which  is  chiefly 
British)  is  increasing,  and  it  cannot  be  many  years  before  this  British 
element  will  have  a  fair  share  in  the  legislation  of  the  country  ;  whereas 
the  Dutch  settlers,  who  will  probably  trek  into  the  British  South  Africa 
Company's   territories   in    considerable   numbers    during   the  next   few 

Introductory  Review  of  the   War. 


years,  now  that  the  military  power  of  the  Matabeli  has  been  broken, 
will  gradually  lose  the  hatred  of  British  rule  which  their  forefathers 
carried  with  them  from  the  Cape  Colony  into  the  northern  Transvaal, 
and  their  children  will  live  as  happily  under  the  British  flag  as  do  the 
Dutch  of  the  Cape  Colony  and  Natal.  Had  Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes  not 
secured  Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland  for  the  British,  these  countries 
would  have  infallibly  fallen  to  the  Dutch,  and  British  enterprise  would 
have  been  hampered  in  those  territories,  as  it  has  been  in  the  Transvaal 
during  the  last  i^w  years.  Briefly,  the  effect  of  the  Matabeli  war, 
though  it  may  have  been  prejudicial  to  the  happiness  of  the  military 
caste  in  Matabeliland,  has  been  distinctly  beneficial  to  every  other 
native  race  in  Central  South  Africa  ;  whilst  what  is  of  far  more  import- 
ance, it  has  regained  for  Englishmen  the  prestige  that  was  lost  amongst 
both  whites  and  blacks  when  Sir  Evelyn  Wood  was  ordered  to  make 
peace  with  the  Boers  after  the  defeat  at  Majuba  Hill  ;  has  insured  the 
peace  and  security  of  Mashonaland,  and  reduced  to  a  certainty  the 
eventual  supremacy  of  the  British  race  as  the  dominant  people  in 
South  Africa. 



The  Greeks  and  Africa — Vasco  da  Gama  at  Cape  of  Good  Hope — The  expedition  in  1890 — 
A  Dutch  trek — Moselikatsi  natives  across  the  Drakensberg — Early  Matabeli  military 
training — Murder  of  Boers — Battle  at  Vechtkop — Kruger's  first  fight — Defeat  of  the 
Matabeli — Moselikatsi  driven  further  north — Lobengula  condemned  to  be  strangled — 
Saved  by  Umcumbate  — Policy  of  extermination  — Death  laws — Death  of  Moselikats  — 
Succeeded  by  Lobengula  in  1868. 

It  was  Herodotus  who  first  described  Africa  as  ''  the  land  of 
surprises."  The  famous  Greek,  of  course,  was  referring  to  the  monu- 
mental magnificence,  the  unique  geographical  characteristics,  and  the 
bizarre  customs  of  a  country  where,  as  a  much  later  writer  has  well 
said,  paradox  seems  rooted  in  the  soil.  But  though  lacking  the 
cultivated  and  historic  splendour  of  the  Africa  known  to  the  ancients  ; 
though  steeped  in  original  barbarism  and  the  cruder  forms  of  sin  instead 
of  boasting  a  completed  civilisation  which  literally  carries  back  to  the 
dawn  of  history,  the  southern  portion  of  Africa  has  not  altogether 
failed  to  maintain  the  established  reputation  of  the  Dark  Continent  for 
the  novel  and  surprising.  It  is,  of  course,  its  extraordinary  industrial 
career  which,  above  all  else,  marked  out  South  Africa  for  the  wonder 
of  mankind.  Nevertheless,  it  is  to  be  said,  that  though  comparatively 
commenced  but  yesterday,  Afrikander  history  includes  many  chapters 
rich  in  colouring  and  incident.  And  there,  too,  as  in  Old  Egypt,  it  is 
the  unexpected  that  has  most  frequently  happened.     ■ 

Since  the  days  when  Vasco  da  Gama  first  sailed  the  Portuguese 
galleons  round  the  stormy  Cape  poetically  named  "  of  Good  Hope," 
there  have  been  no  more  surprising  and  stirring  contributions  to  South 
African  history  than  those  of  which  Mr.  Rhodes  has  been  the  principal 
author.  The  occupation  of  Mashonaland  in  1890  by  a  hastily  organized 
column  of  five  hundred  men  was  freely  characterised  at  the  time  as  an 

Matabeliland  under  Moselikatsi.  1 5 

nstance  of  politico-commercial  audacity  which  ranked  with  the  exploits  of 
Clive  and  Hastings.  If  that  be  so,  what  shall  be  said  of  the  boldness 
which  prompted  the  same  small  number  of  men  to  attack  a  powerful 
and  well-organised  nation  of  warlike  savages,  believed  to  muster  some 
15,000  fighting  men,  armed  with  rifle  and  assegai,  amply  munitioned, 
on  their  own  ground,  and  on  the  eve  of  the  deadly  rainy  season  ? 
And  what  tribute  of  praise  can  be  too  high  to  those  who  carried  so 
dangerous  and  difficult  an  enterprise  to  a  splendidly  successful  issue, 
with  an  expenditure  of  life  and  money  which  has  stamped  it  as  unique 
among  our  "  little  wars  "  ? 

It  must  not  be  supposed  that  Mr.  Rhodes  was  alone  in  realising 
the  climatic  and  commercial  importance  of  the  South  Central-African 
plateaux.  Indeed,  but  for  the  secresy  and  rapidity  with  which  the 
preparations  for  effective  occupation  were  made,  it  is  now  generally 
recognised  that  Matabeliland  and  Mashonaland  would  have  been 
acquired  by  a  large  and  well-organised  trek  of  Dutch  colonists  from  the 
Cape  Free  State  and  Transvaal,  a  dissatisfied  portion  of  whom  did,  in 
fact,  endeavour  to  effect  a  forcible  entry  into  Mashonaland  in  the  following 
year.  Fifty  years,  however,  before  these  incidents  took  place,  another 
"  occupation  of  the  hinterland "  had  been  effected,  under  quite 
other  auspices.  Umziligazi,  or,  as  the  Dutch  call  him,  Moselikatsi,  and 
his  impis,  defeated  by  the  Transvaal  voortrekkers,  had  fled  across  the 
Limpopo,  and,  in  looking  around  for  a  new  home,  had  selected  the 
country  now  called  Matabeliland  as  the  healthiest,  the  most  fertile,  and 
the  best  watered  of  all  the  vast  stretches  of  prairie  land  and  forest  lying 
between  the  Zambesi  and  the  Limpopo. 

Umziligazi  and  his  followers,  the  Amandabeli  (as  the  Matabeli 
race  were  then  called),  originally  formed  a  portion  of  the  various  Ama- 
Khosa  tribes  consolidated  by  the  military  genius  of  Chaka  into  the  Zulu 
nation.  L'mziligazi,  who  must  have  possessed  considerable  abilities, 
was  one  of  Chaka's  most  trusted  generals,  and  achieved  a  reputation  as 
a  warrior  and  ruthless  exterminator  of  human  beings  which  extended 
far  beyond  the  confines  of  the  Zulu  kingdom.  Like  many  men  who 
have  "  arrived,"  however,  the  chief  of  the  Amandabeli  began  to  consider 
that  he  might  with  impunity  take  liberties  with  the  powers  that  were. 
It    was    in    18 17    that,  after    a    raid    or    foray,    successful    as    usual,    in 

1 6  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtda. 

which  great  numbers  of  men,  women,  and  children  were  mercilessly 
assegaied,  and  much  loot  in  the  shape  of  cattle  and  grain  obtained, 
Umziligazi  omitted  the  usual  formality  of  forwarding  the  booty  to  his 
liege.  Chaka  was  one  of  the  last  men  to  overlook  presumption  of  this 
sort,  and  immediately  despatched  a  strong  impi,  or  army,  to  annihilate 
the  contumelious  chief  and  his  followers.  Umziligazi,  however, 
received  warning  of  the  king's  intention,  and  at  once  fled  across 
the  Drakensberg,  followed  by  his  men,  who  were  animated  with 
the  strongest  devotion  to  his  person,  and  who  knew  that  to  expect 
mercy  from  Chaka  was  as  sensible  as  to  put  faith  in  the  humane 
instincts  of  the  lion  or  the  hyaena.  These  considerations  considerably 
expedited  their  flight,  and  the  Matabeli  were  soon  across  the  Vaal  River 
and  in  the  territories  now  belonging  to  the  South  African  Republic. 
Here  both  reasons  of  state  and  natural  tendencies  induced  Umziligazi 
to  carry  out  a  policy  of  extermination  against  the  less  warlike  tribes 
by  which  he  was  now  surrounded.  Still  fearful  of  the  vengeance  of  Chaka, 
he  resolved  to  place  between  that  monarch  and  himself  a  desert  which 
no  Zulu  army  could  cross.  Over  and  above  that,  the  impulse  to 
destroy  human  life  was  even  stronger  among  the  Zulus  than  it  usually 
is  among  savage  tribes.  It  must  not  be  supposed,  however,  that  the  race 
was  destitute  of  what  all  men  have  agreed  to  consider  as  ennobling 
traits.  Ferocious,  cruel,  and  treacherous,  they  undoubtedly  were  ;  but 
on  the  other  hand  they  possessed  the  prime  virtues  of  courage,  and  the 
capacity  of  work.  The  mental  faculties  of  the  Zulus  are  also  by  no 
means  contemptible.  To  considerable  powers  of  organisation  and 
habits  of  discipline,  they  at  various  times  displayed  great  capacity  for 
planning  and  carrying  out  a  settled  and  continuous  policy.  Among  the 
Zulus  of  Chaka's  time,  absolute  contempt  of  death  and  the  habit  of 
strict  and  unquestioning  obedience  to  the  chiefs  were  established  as 
common  to  the  whole  nation.  Among  the  women  chastity  was  enforced 
by  terrible  penalties,  the  infliction  of  which  were,  however,  seldom  or 
never  necessitated.  The  rigid  military  training  to  which  the  young 
Zulu  warriors  were  subjected,  had  the  natural  result  of  bringing  the 
national  physique  to  a  very  high  standard  ;  and  no  more  striking 
instance  of  their"military  qualities  need  be  cited  than  the  Zulu  War  of 
1880,  in   which    the   natives,  armed    with    assegai    and   shield,  inflicted 



Matabeliland  imder  Mosdikatsi.  i? 

heavy  losses  upon  English  and  colonial  troops,  splendidly  armed  and 
completely  equipped  as  these  were. 

Before  such  invaders  the  unwarlike  Makatese  and  other  natives 
dwelling  north  of  the  Vaal  fell  like  wheat  before  the  scythe, 
and  Umziligazi  soon  succeeded  in  his  object  of  placing  a  howling 
wilderness  between  himself  and  Chaka.  The  local  tribes  were  soon 
almost  exterminated,  and  only  the  comeliest  girls  and  some  of  the 
youths  were  spared  ;  the  former  as  wives  for  the  victors,  the  latter  as 
slaves  for  purposes  of  transport  and  agriculture.  Throughout  the 
country  military  kraals  on  the  Zulu  system  were  established,  and 
from  these  centres  foraging  or  raiding  impis  were  despatched  in  all 
directions.  Entire  tribes  of  the  Bechuana  nation  were  practically 
annihilated,  and  in  one  way  or  another  Umziligazi  and  his  followers 
found  their  new  surroundings  entirely  congenial  and  satisfactory. 

But  a  change  was  soon  to  come  over  the  spirit  of  their  happy 
dream,  and  they  were  about  to  meet  in  close  quarters  a  foe  against  whom 
even  their  disciplined  valour  would  be  of  no  avail.  In  1836,  the  Boers  of 
the  Cape  Colony,  animated  with  old  restless  longings  for  independence, 
the  same  impatience  of  British  misrule,  and  the  same  weariness  of  the 
trammels  of  modern  civilisation  which  had  always  characterised  them, 
trekked  into  the  Transvaal,  carrying  with  them  their  wives  and  children, 
their  cattle,  and  their  effects.  They  soon  came  into  collision  with  the 
Matabeli,  who  signalised  the  occasion  by  immediately  murdering  all 
but  two  members  of  an  isolated  hunting  party.  The  survivors 
escaped  and  rode  for  their  lives  to  the  nearest  party  of  the  voortrekkers, 
who  fortunately  were  only  distant  a  few  hours'  ride.  Mr.  Theal,  in  his 
admirable  "  History  of  South  Africa,"  proceeds  thus  :  "  They  obtained 
the  assistance  of  eleven  men,  and  were  returning  to  ascertain  the  fate  of 
the  others,  when  they  encountered  a  division  of  the  Matabeli  army,  and 
turned  back  to  give  notice  to  those  behind.  The  families  furthest  in 
advance  had  hardly  time  to  draw  their  waggons  in  a  circle  and  collect 
within  it,  when  the  Matabeli  were  upon  them.  From  ten  in  the  morning 
until  four  in  the  afternoon  the  assailants  vainly  endeavoured  to  force  a 
way  into  the  laager,  and  did  not  relinquish  the  attempt  until  fully  a  third 
of  their  number  were  stretched  on  the  ground.  Of  thirty-five  men  within 
the  laager,  only  one,  Adolf  Bronkhorst,  was  killed,  but  a  youth  named 


1 8  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Christian  Harmse  and  several  coloured  servants,  who  were  herding 
cattle  and  collecting  fuel  at  a  distance,  were  murdered.  Another  party 
of  the  Matabeli  had  in  the  meantime  gone  further  up  the  river,  and  had 
unexpectedly  fallen  upon  the  encampment  of  the  Liebenbergs.  They 
murdered  there  old  Barend  Liebenberg,  the  patriarch  of  the  family,  his 
sons,  Stephanus,  Barend,  and  Hendrik,  his  son-in-law,  Johannes  du  Toit, 
his  daughter,  du  Toit's  wife,  his  son  Hendrik's  wife,  a  schoolmaster 
named  Macdonald,  four  children,  and  twelve  coloured  servants;  and 
they  took  away  three  children  to  present  to  their  chief.  The  two 
divisions  of  Matabeli  warriors  then  united  and  returned  to  Mosega  for 
the  purpose  of  procuring  reinforcements,  taking  with  them  large  herds 
of  the  emigrants'  cattle." 

Following  this,  a  series  of  important  battles  took  place.  Most 
notable  was  the  fight  at  Vechtkop  (Battle  Hillj  in  the  country  now 
known  as  the  Orange  Free  State.  The  Matabeli  attacked  the  laager 
of  the  voortrekkers  with  the  greatest  determination.  President 
Kruger,  then  a  mere  stripling,  who  took  part  in  the  fighting  on  that 
memorable  day,  says  that  the  Matabeli  impis  charged  right  up  to 
the  muzzles  of  their  rifles  no  less  than  three  times,  in  the  face  of  a 
withering  hail  of  bullets.  In  many  respects  this,  the  first  campaign 
against  the  Matabeli,  resembled  that  which  has  just  taken  place,  nearly 
sixty  years  later.  The  natives,  after  fighting  most  bravely,  retired  with 
very  heavy  losses.  Of  the  small  force  defending  the  laagers,  only  a 
very  small  number — two — were  killed,  and  twelve  wounded,  while  the 
severity  of  the  attack  was  instanced  by  the  fact  that  1,113  assegais 
were  afterwards  picked  up  in  the  circle  of  the  Boer  camp.  Umziligazi  (the 
name  means,  appropriately  enough,  "  a  track  of  blood,")  then  retired  to 
the  Marico  district,  in  the  western  Transvaal. 

The  voortrekkers  now  decided  to  assume  the  offensive,  and  a  small 
force  of  107  mounted  Dutch  colonists,  45  mounted  Griquas,  and  60 
natives  on  foot,  at  once  pushed  forward.  The  Matabeli  were  surprised 
at  dawn  on  January  17,  1837,  ^-i^d  were  routed  with  considerable  loss. 
Later  on  in  the  same  year,  a  brief  campaign  of  nine  days  was  brought 
by  the  farmers  to  a  similar  successful  conclusion.  This  brought  the 
Matabeli  war  of  1836- 1837  to  an  end.  Umziligazi  completely  resigned 
all  hopes  of  holding  his  own  against  the  Boers,  but  his  troubles  were 

Matabeliland  tinder  Moselikatsi.  19 

not  yet  ended.  Shortly  after  the  campaign,  he  was  attacked  by  an  impi 
sent  by  Dingaan,  Chaka's  successor,  to  recover  the  royal  cattle.  The 
Matabeli  suffered  even  more  at  the  hands  of  their  kinsmen  than  they 
had  from  the  Boers.  Umziligazl,  broken  and  dispirited,  gathered 
together  the  remnants  of  his  men  and  cattle,  and  trekked  northwards 
across  the  Limpopo.  Fixing  his  headquarters  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Thaba  Induna,  where  he  left  the  bulk  of  his  tribe,  he  started  off  towards 
the  north-west  with  a  picked  body  of  men,  partly  with  the  object  of 
looking  for  traces  of  a  previous  Zulu  emigration  under  a  chief  named 
Umpezane,  and  partly  to  capture  cattle.  Umziligazi  appears  to  have 
been  absent  on  this  expedition  for  about  three  years,  and  his  indunas, 
thinking  that  the  king  and  his  impis  must  have  met  disaster  and  been 
killed,  elected  his  eldest  son  by  his  "  royal  "  wife  to  take  his  place. 
Hardly  was  the  ceremony  completed  when,  to  the  general  horror, 
Umziligazi  re-appeared.  Explanations  were  of  no  avail,  and  Umziligazi, 
after  listening  in  dreadful  silence,  ordered  the  indunas  who  had  con- 
ducted his  affairs  during  his  absence  to  be  put  to  death.  Next  came  the 
turn  of  the  king's  two  chief  wives,  who  had  acquiesced  in  the  election, 
and  lastly,  his  son  Kuruman,  a  lad  of  fifteen,  and  his  younger  brother 
Lobengula  were  condemned  to  be  strangled,  following  the  Zulu  custom 
that  royal  blood  should  not  be  spilt.  Contrary  rumours  notwithstanding, 
ithere  seems  no  doubt  but  that  this  sanguinary  edict  was  fulfilled  with 
regard  to  Kuruman.  Zulus  and  Matabeli  are  not  all,  however,  incar- 
nations of  cruelty,  for  Umcumbate  ventured,  at  the  risk  of  his  own  life, 
to  disobey  Umziligazi  and  save  the  younger  scion  of  the  royal  house, 
■whose  name,  not  inappropriately,  as  it  seemed  at  that  time  when  he 
was  born,  signified  "  Driven  by  the  Wind."  Later  on,  in  a  milder  mood, 
Umziligazi  acquiesced  in  this  arrangement,  and  formally  recognised 
Lobengula  as  his  heir.  The  story  is  very  picturesquely  told  by  Mr. 
Dennis  Doyle,  who  knew  Lobengula  well,  and  resided  for  two  years  at 
the  royal  kraal. 

Umziligazi  established  his  sovereignty  throughout  the  countries  now 
•somewhat  loosely  termed  Matabeliland  and  Mashonaland.  The  Maka- 
lakas,  Balotsi,  and  Banyai,  all  numerous  tribes,  were  quickly  subjugated. 
According  to  some  authorities,  most  of  the  tribes  already  inhabiting  these 
•countries  were  subjected  to  a  policy  of  extermination  ;  though  in  some 

c  2 

20  The  Dow7ifall  of  Lobcngula. 

cases,   Umziligazi     appears    to   have    been    satisfied    by    a    profession 
of  submission   and    the    payment    of    tribute    by    the    vassal    tribes. 
At    any    rate,    fixing    upon    the    magnificent    plateau    now    known    as 
Matabeliland    as    a  centre    for   his    military    kraals,    he    extended    his 
sphere  of  influence  between   the   two   great    rivers    mentioned,   to    the 
Portuguese  frontier  on  the  west,  and  to  the  borders  of  the  Gaza  country 
on  the  east.     The  tribe,  or  certain   portions,   no   doubt  deteriorated  in 
physique    and  in  other   respects    from   intermarriage  with   the   women 
captured  on  its  raids,  but  maintained,   on  the    whole,   its   Zulu   charac- 
teristics— the   contempt  of  danger   and   death,  the  love  of  battle,   the 
military  organisation,  and  the  ingrained  aversion  to  agricultural  labour,, 
which  distinguished  the  splendid  legions  of  Chaka.     In  course  of  time,. 
Umziligazi  waxed  fat  and   flourishing.     Matabeliland,  watered  by  per- 
petual   springs    and    streamlets,    timbered    like    a   vast    English    park, 
and  healthy  from  its  high  altitude  above  the  sea,  was  soon  covered  with 
enormous  herds  of  cattle  captured  from  the  subject  tribes.     The  "sour 
veld  "  gave  place  to  that  "  sweet  "  herbage  which  clothes  the  cultivated 
parts  of  South  Africa,  and  which  renders   the   country   lately  acquired 
by  "Mr.    Rhodes's   young    men  "/so    valuable    for    pastoral    purposes. 
Meantime,  the  old  system  of  raiding,  murder,  and  pillage  was  diligently 
continued    by    Umziligazi's  warriors,    either  as  training  for  the  young 
braves  who  had  not  yet  dipped  their  assegais  in  blood,  or  for  what  may 
be  called   strictly  business   purposes — namely,  the  acquisition  of  cattle 
and  other  loot  upon  which  the  Matabeli  supported  a  happy  existence. 
The  formula  applied  was  both  simple  and  invariable.     At  break  of  day, 
the  Matabeli  impi  would  rush  upon  the  liapless  kraal  selected  for  their 
operations  with  terrible  shouts.    All  who  came  within  range  of  the  formid- 
able stabbing  assegai  were  at  once  exterminated.     Old  men  and  young, 
matrons  and  maids,  children,  and  babes  at  the  mother's  breast — all  would 
be  sacrificed  to  the  horrid  Zulu  lust  for  bloodshed,  save  a  few  young  women, 
who  would  be  carried  as  the  spoils  of  victory,  in  the  fashion  of  the  Greeks 
with  which  we  have  been  familiarised  in  the  epics  of  Homer.     A  few 
young  men  and  boys,  too,  would  be  occasionally  taken  alive  as  slaves,  to 
act  as  porters  and  cattle  herds.     Instances  might  be  cited  ad  infinitum  ;. 
but  here  it  will  be  sufficient   to   say  that   this   picture  is  by  no   means 
overdrawn,  and  that  it  is  founded  on  the  published  experiences  of  the 

Matabeliland  under  Moselikatsi.  21 

imembers  of  the  European  missions  which  have  come  into  actual  contact 
with  the  MatabeH.  Among  these,  Mr.  Selous  mentions  that  veteran 
missionary  the  Rev.  Robert  Moffat,  and  the  Revs.  S.  H.  Edwards, 
€.  D.  Helm,  W.  A.  Elliott,  John  Mackenzie,  and  M.  Jalla,  of  the  Paris 
Missionary  Society.  The  European  travellers  through  Matabeliland, 
too,  have  had  the  same  story  to  tell.  Mr.  Selous,  chief  among  these, 
has  recited  his  experiences  before  many  of  the  learned  societies  of  this 
kingdom.  His  testimony  is  especially  valuable,  since  he  bears  in  South 
Africa  the  reputation  of  being  a  cool  and  careful  observer,  and  an 
unexaggerative  and,  of  course,  absolutely  reliable  witness. 

But,  indeed,  it  is  not  only  against  other  tribes  that  the  Matabeli 
■were  guilty  of  gross  cruelty  and  insatiable  bloodthirstiness,  which  has, 
for  the  matter  of  that,  characterised  all  other  South  African  tribes  before 
the  establishment  of  white  rule.  The  state  of  affairs  in  Matabeliland  was 
no  worse  than  that  which  obtained  in  Pondoland  at  the  beginning  of 
March,  1894,  prior  to  Major  Elliott's  mission  and  the  annexation  of  that 
fair  and  fertile  province.  There,  as  in  Matabeliland,  no  subject  of  the 
barbarian  despots  was  at  any  time  safe  from  mutilation,  or  death  under 
torture,  for  the  most  trivial  and  imaginary  offences.  Under  Umziligazi 
and  his  successor,  nothing  was  more  certain  to  attract  the  king's  wrath 
and  summary  vengeance,  than  the  report  that  an  induna  or  petty  chief 
was  growing  too  rich,  too  popular,  or  too  powerful.  Emissaries  would,  in 
the  usual  course,  at  once  be  sent  to  scatter  the  unhappy  chiefs  brains 
with  a  knobkerrie,  or  to  decree  him  to  the  more  honourable  method  of 
■execution  with  the  assegai.  To  do  them  justice,  the  doomed  men 
almost  invariably  suffered  death  with  firmness,  or  even  tranquility,  and 
without  attempt  to  evade  the  royal  displeasure  by  escape.  Ready  as 
they  were  to  inflict,  the  warriors  of  Matabeliland  were  no  less  ready  to 
meet  it  with  what,  among  more  humane  nations,  would  be  called  heroic 

In  1868,  Umziligazi's  careerof  rapine  and  bloodshed  was  brought  to 
a  natural  close.  Kuruman,  the  former  heir  apparent,  had  been 
*'  removed,"  and  Lobengula,  a  younger  son,  was  elected  to  reign  in  his 
stead,  after  a  brief  interregnum  during  which  the  nation  was  governed  by 
a  council  of  indunas. 



l.obengula  preserves  the  old  traditions — Every  inch  a  king — Cruelty  tempered  with  humanity — 
Champagne  and  luxury — Strength  of  Matabeli  army — Matabeliland  coveted  by  the  Boers — 
Rival  missions — Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd  wins  for  Rhodes — Burying  the  concession — Effective 
Occupation — Organising  the  pioneer  force — Selous  as  pioneer— Lobengula's  opposition — 
Pioneers  arrive  safely  at  Salisbury — Early  day  troubles — Boer  filibusters  retire  before 
"Maxim" — Dr.  Jameson  administrator. 

King  "  Driven  by  the  Wind  "  faithfully  followed  in  the  footsteps  of 
his  forefathers.  The  military  and  social  traditions  of  the  Zulu  race 
were  carefully  observed,  and  the  royal  authority  was  exercised  and 
maintained  throughout  the  vast  areas  subject  to  his  influence  in  the 
usual  sanguinary  manner.  But  there  was,  at  any  rate,  one  redeeming 
feature  in  Lobengula's  character.  With  a  single  exception  (that  of 
Captain  Patterson,  who,  according  to  Mr.  Rider  Haggard,  was  foully 
done  to  death  by  the  Matabeli  king's  orders)  he  treated  individual 
white  men  with  consideration,  kindness,  and  in  cases  not  a  few,  in  a 
manner  which  may  almost  be  called  chivalrous  and  humane.  Many 
Europeans  who  have  held  intercourse  with  him,  speak  of  Lobengula 
with  something  of  admiration  and  even  strong  personal  liking.  In 
figure  Lobengula  was  tall — almost  six  feet  two  inches  in  height — 
broad  and  muscular,  though  as  he  grew  old  he  inclined  to  that  obesity 
which  is  common  to  almost  every  native  chief  in  South  Africa.  His 
mien  and  manners  have  always  been  described  as  majestic.  Mr.  C.  D. 
Rudd,  who  knew  him  well,  and  who  owed  his  life  on  one  occasion  to 
Lobengula's  firmness,  says  that  the  royal  Matabeli  looked  "  every  inch 
a  king."  His  features  were  those  of  a  remarkable  man,  and  his 
expression  was,  according  to  the  last  authority  quoted,  somewhat  sphinx- 
like and  very  varying — now  appearing  to  indicate  extreme  good  nature, 
and  again  diabolical  ferocity  and  cruelty.  Several  alleged  photographic 
representations  of  Lobengula  have  appeared  in  the  press  from  time  to 

The  Dawn  of  Civilisation.  23 

time ;    but  in  point  of  fact,  Lobengula  never,  on  any  occasion,  permitted 
himself  to  be  sketched   or  photographed,  the  native  superstition    being 
that   the    process    involved  the  stealing  of  the  soul   of  the  person   so 
pictured.     There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  he  possessed  considerable 
force  of  character,  and  abilities  of  no  common  order.     Mr.  Selous  says 
of  him    that  he  possessed  a  native  shrewdness  which  w^ould  not  have 
shamed   a  European  statesman.     He  appears  to  have  been  possessed 
of  many  of   the  attributes  of   a  successful  ruler,  and    in  particular  to 
have  been  a  good  judge  of  his  fellow  men.     His    partiality  for    white 
men  (especially  for   individuals,  among  whom  Mr.  E.  A.  Maund  was  a 
great   favourite  of  the   old    king)  was  well  known,  and   it  will   always 
redound  to   his  credit,  that  on  the  outbreak  of  the  late  war  he  gave 
formal    notice    to    all    the    whites    resident    in   his    country    full    per- 
mission to  leave  in  safety.     Still  more  honourable   was    the  fact  that 
amid  the  fierce    excitement  and    sanguinary  passions  aroused   by  the 
incidents  of  the  campaign,  although  he  detained  the  two  white  traders 
— Usher  and  Fairbarn — at  Buluwayo,  he    protected  them   against  the 
rage  and  fanaticism  of  his   "  majaghas,"  threatening  to  assegai  with  his 
own  hand  anyone  who  should  harm  them.     It  is  not  too  much  to  say 
that    the    colonial    forces,    on    their   arrival    at    the    royal    kraal,    were 
astonished  to  find  these  two  alive  and  unhurt ;  and  probably  there  is 
not  another  chief  in    South  Africa — Khama  excepted — who  would  have 
acted  with  such  generosity  under  similar  circumstances. 

Among  other  royal  characteristics,  it  may  be  recorded  that 
Lobengula  was,  in  a  primitive  way,  decidedly  a  bon  viveur.  He  Avas 
particularly  fond  of  Kaffir  beer,  and  was  wont  to  wash  down  his 
enormous  meals  of  half-cooked  meat  with  copious  draughts  of  that 
beverage.  Even  the  disturbing  incidents  of  the  flight  from  Buluwayo 
did  not  cause  the  king  to  forget  his  luxurious  tastes,  the  writers  being 
assured  by  an  officer  of  Major  Forbes'  patrol  that  the  spoor  of  the  royal 
w^aggons  from  Inyati  could  almost  be  traced  by  numerous  bottles. 

Somewhat  vague  ideas  were  held,  at  the  date  of  the  Pioneer 
occupation,  upon  the  subject  of  the  numerical  strength  of  the  Matabeli 
nation.  The  best  authorities  seemed  inclined  to  fix  the  number 
of  fighting  men  at  about  15,000,  to  which  have  to  be  added  the  old 
men,    women,    and    children.      Some    of   the     regiments,   notably    the 

24  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Imbezu  and  Ingubo,  prided  themselves  upon  possessing  the  pur  sang 
of  the  old  Zulu  stock.  Most  of  them,  however,  contained  an  admix- 
ture of  the  local  tribal  element — in  the  shape  of  the  offspring  of 
captured  Mashona  and  Makalaka  women.  Occasionally,  too,  male 
children  from  the  raided  districts  would  be  adopted,  so  to  speak,  and 
brought  up  in  all  respects  like  the  pure-blooded  Matabeli.  These  half- 
breed  regiments  were  called  Amaholi. 

The  story  of   the    occupation  of    Mashonaland  forms   one  of  the 
most    interesting    and    picturesque    chapters  of   South  African  history, 
Lobengula's  country,  covering,  say,  some   100,000  square  miles,  had  for 
a  great  many  years  been  coveted  by  Boers,  especially  of  the  northern 
Transvaal,  by  whom  it  was  regarded  as  their  particular  "  hunting  veld," 
and  their  proper  ultimate  area  of  expansion.     They  had,  in  particular, 
cast  envious  eyes  upon  Matabeliland  proper,  a  high  plateau  lying  from 
4,000  to  6,000  feet   above  the    sea-level,  and    to  whose  climatic,  agri- 
cultural, and  pastoral  advantages  they  were  fully  alive.     Its  attractive- 
ness was    not    lessened,  naturally,   by    its    reputation  of  being    highly 
auriferous.      In    the    "  scramble    for    Africa,"    into    which    the    Great 
Powers    had    plunged    with    so    much    eagerness^    Matabeliland    had 
either    been  overlooked  entirely,  or  left   alone    as   the  natural    hinter- 
land of   the   British   dependencies.      Up  to  the   beginning  of    1888,  it 
was,  with  the  exception  of  the  huge  Mohammedan  sultanates  behind 
the  French  and  Turkish  possessions  in  the  Mediterranean  littoral,  the 
only  portion  of  Africa  which  had  not  been  taken  formally  under  the  pro- 
tection of  a  civilised  or  semi-civilised  government.     It  was  therefore  ripe 
for  occupation,  and  in   1887  or  1888,  the  organisation  of  a  "trek,"  to 
number  some   2,000  members,  v/as   mooted  among  the  Boers  of  the 
Zoutpansberg  district.     Fortunately,  in  the  early  part  of  1888,  a  treaty 
was  made  whereby  Lobengula  established  friendly  relations  with  Great 
Britain.     Prior  to  this,  however  (in  the  beginning  of  1888),  Mr.  Rhodes 
had,  in  conjunction  with   Mr.  Beit,  sent  a   Mr.   J.    Fry  to  Buluwayo   to 
obtain  a  concession  from  Lobengula,  the  said    concession  to  be  of  as 
wide  a  character  as  possible.     Mr.   Fry,  who  had  much  experience   of 
the  natives,  and  was  well  known  as  a  hunter,  reached  Buluwayo  in  due 
course,  but  severe  illness  (cancer)  prevented  him  from  carrying  out  the 
object   of  his    expedition,  and    in    about   June,    1888,  he    returned    to 

The  Dawn  of  Civilisation.  25 

Kimberley  and  died.     A  second  expedition   was  organised  in  London 
under   the  auspices  of  the    Exploring  Company  (specially  formed  for 
that    purpose),  which  despatched  a    deputation,  under    the    charge    of 
Mr.    E.    A.    Maund,    to    negotiate,   if     possible,    a    land    and     mining 
concession  from   Lobengula.     The  objects  of  Mr.  Maund's  expedition 
were  announced    to  the    Colonial    Office    in    May,   1888.      But    a   still 
more  successful  mission  was,  upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Fry,  despatched  by 
Mr.  C.  J.  Rhodes,  who  had  for  many  years  meditated    the  acquisition, 
in  British  interests,  of  the  vast  areas  lying  between  the    Zambesi  and 
the  Limpopo,  regarding  them   as   the  natural  hinterland   of  the  colony 
of  which  he  is  the  elected  head.     Mr.  Rhodes  induced  Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd 
(with  whom  he  had  been  closely  associated  in  the  Diamond  Fields  since 
1870)  and  Mr.  A.  Maguire,  M.P.,  to  undertake  a  mission  to  Lobengula; 
these    gentlemen     being    accompanied     by     Mr.     F.     R.     Thompson. 
They  obtained  from  the   king — somewhat  to  the   general    surprise — a 
concession  ceding  the  mineral  rights  to  the  whole  o{  his  territories.    This 
was  formally  signed  on  November  30th,  1889.      Hurrying  back  with  this 
priceless  document,  bearing  Lobengula's  mark  and  the  famous  elephant 
seal,  Mr.  Rudd  was  lost  in  the  veld.     After  burying  the  concession  and 
leaving  written  instructions  as  to  its  whereabouts,  he  lay  down,   as  he 
thought,  to  die,  overcome  by  hunger,  thirst,  and  fatigue.     He  was  how- 
ever,   discovered    by   some    of   Khama's    Bamangwatos,  and    by   them 
nursed   back  into  health.     Mr.  Maund  also  received  certain    encourage- 
ment from  the  king,  and  the  two  interests  were  subsequently  fused  into 
one  group,  the  proportions  bsing  defined  in  the  Central  Search  Company. 
The  latter   subsequently   became    the    United    Concessions    Company, 
which  was  in  turn  absorbed  by  the  Chartered  Company.    Meantime,  steps 
were  being  taken  to  obtain  a  charter  and  to  place  the  newly-acquired 
concessions    upon    an    adequate    financial     basis.       A    scheme    for    the 
development  of  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate  and  the  more  northern 
territories    was    submitted    to    Her    Majesty's    Government     on     30th 
April,  1889.     Later  on,  on    13th  July  of  the  same  3^ear,  a  petition  was 
presented  praying  for  a  charter.     This  resulted   in  the    granting  of  the 
latter  on  29th  October,  1889,  on  which  date  also    this  bold  enterprise 
was  incorporated    as   a  joint-stock  concern  with  a  capital  of  a  million 

26  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

So  far  all  had  gone  smoothly.     But  now  the  formidable  task    of 
efifective  occupation— to  use  the  Foreign  Office  term— had  to  be  faced. 
It  was  universally  believed  at  the  time  that    the  Matabeli    could    not 
be  trusted  to  fulfil  their  bargain,  and  recognised  authorities  expressed 
the  opinion  that  it  would  be   impossible   to   enter  into   possession  of 
Mashonaland  without  a   force   of  at   least    5,000   men.     This  opinion, 
however,   was    not    shared    by   Mr.    Frank   Johnson,   who   afterwards 
became    a   Major   in    the     British   South    Africa    Company's    military 
service.      He  knew  the  country  well,  and  had  acquired  a  reputation  for 
exceptional  daring  and  resource.       His  view  was,  that  a  force  of  500 
men   would  be  ample  for  the  purpose  ;  and  on  being  invited  to  do  so, 
tendered    to   carry   out   the   military   occupation    for    ^^90,000.      This 
extremely  novel   offer  was  accepted,   and  Major  Johnson  immediately 
set  about  the  formation  of  the  historic  Mashonaland   Pioneers,  a   corps 
d'elite  of  Englishmen  and  colonists,  all  expert  shots  and  horsemen,  of 
all   trades   and    professions,  and    numbering    192    men.     At    the    last 
minute   it  was    also    decided    that  two  troops   of  armed  police  should 
be  enrolled,  and   the  supreme  command  was  entrusted  to  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Pennefather,  of  the  6th  Dragoon  Guards.     The  comm.and  of 
the     Intelligence     Department    was     entrusted    to   Mr.    F.    C.  Selous, 
whose   knowledge    of    the    little-known    regions    to    be   traversed   was 
unique ;    and    that   of  the   transport    department  to   the   late   Mr.    E. 
Burnett,  who  was  killed  in  one  of  the  earlier  skirmishes  in  the  recent 
campaign.     The  force  was  accompanied  by  300  picked  colonial  natives, 
and  the  equipment  included  800  waggons,  1,600  head  of  trek-oxen,  two 
seven-pounder  guns,  three  machine  guns,  and  an  electric  search  light 
as   a   precaution    against    night    attacks.      Every   care    was    taken    to 
ensure  a  successful  and  permanent  occupation.      Fortunately  this  was 
effected  without  fighting,  but  it  afterwards  transpired  that  the  Matabeli 
had,  as  anticipated,  intended  to  dispute  the  advance  of  the  occupying 
force.      Their    plans,   however,   were   all    upset   by   the   extraordinary 
celerity  with  which  the  Pioneers  traversed  the  country  and   made  good 
their  position.      The  advance-guard   left   Kimberley   on    March    19th, 
1890,  and   the  whole  force  reached   Salisbury  on  the    I2th  September. 
This  speed  is  little   short  of  marvellous,  when  it  is  remembered  that  2 50 
miles  of  the  track,  from  the  Macloutsie  River  to  Salisbury,  a  distance 

The  Dawn  of  Civilisation.  27 

of  460  miles,  had  to  be  literally  chopped  through  the  dense  bush,  as 
the  Pioneers,  led  by  Mr.  Selous,  went  along. 

This  brilliant  march  was  followed  by  a  "  rush  "  of  improvident 
independent  trekkers,  who  effected  an  entry  into  the  country 
without  complying  with  the  Chartered  Company's  regulations  as 
to  stores  and  supplies.  The  company,  though  adequately  provisioned 
for  the  needs  of  its  own  men,  had  not,  of  course,  made  preparations  to 
provision  the  large  number  of  trekkers  who  came  in.  During  the 
rainy  season  which  followed  the  occupation,  therefore,  the  food  supplies 
ran  short,  and  the  general  distress  was  aggravated  by  fever  and  the 
want  of  proper  nursing,  shelter,  and  drugs.  Unhappily,  some  splendid 
young  Englishmen  and  Afrikanders  succumbed  under  the  very  terrible 
privations  endured,  but  which,  unfortunately,  are  almost  invariable  con- 
comitants of  pioneer  enterprise.  During  the  next  dry  season  all  this 
was  remedied,  and  since  then  the  high  veld  of  Zambesia  has  proved 
itself  to  be  as  healthy  as  any  other  part  of  South  Africa. 

The  second  initial  batch  of  difficulties  attending  the  northward 
expansion  were  thus  grappled  with  and  overcome.  And  now  a  new 
trouble  arose,  compared  with  which  Colonial  Office  complications, 
Matabeli  menaces,  and  the  privations  of  the  pioneers,  seemed  com- 
paratively unimportant.  For  this  time  the  danger  that  threatened  was 
that  of  civil  war  between  two  jealous  Afrikander  populations.  The 
great  Boer  trek,  to  which  reference  has  already  been  made,  was  at 
last  brought  to  a  head  under  the  auspices  of  Colonel  Ferreira,  C.M.G., 
and  a  Mr.  Adendorff,  and  it  was  freely  stated  at  the  time  that  it  had 
the  warm  though  unofficial  support  of  General  P.  J.  Joubert — "the 
farmer  who  beat  us  at  Amajuba."  Mr.  Rhodes'  influence  with  the 
Afrikander  Bond  and  Sir  Henry  Loch's  prompt  and  determined  action 
with  the  Transvaal  Government  prevented  the  trek  from  assuming  the 
large  proportions  which  originally  appeared  inevitable ;  but  in  spite  of 
official  proclamations  issued  by  the  High  Commissioner  and  President 
Kruger,  a  formidable  body  of  well-armed  Boers  reached  the  Limpopo 
drifts,  where  they  were  met  by  the  Chartered  Company's  forces,  sup- 
ported by  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  and  armed  with  machine 
guns.  Fortunately,  bloodshed  was  averted  at  the  last  moment.  The 
trekkers  or  "  filibusters,"   who  were  solemnly  warned  that  they  would 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

be  fired  upon  if  they  attempted  to  cross  the  drifts,  lost  heart  before 
taking  the  irrevocable  step.  One  man  alone  galloped  into  the  stream, 
but  seeing  that  a  Maxim  gun  was  being  trained  upon  him,  turned 
round  and  fled.  The  trek  then  broke  up  in  confusion.  Part  of  the 
farmers  entered  the  country  under  the  Chartered  Company's  regu- 
lations, and  the  rest  returned  to  their  farms. 

From  the  day  when  the  Pioneers  first  entered  Mashonaland  to  the 
present  time,  the  development  of  that  country  has  progressed  with  rapid 
strides.  Townships  have  been  laid  out,  a  number  of  important  goldfields 
have  been  developed,  the  Cape  telegraph  system  has  been  extended  to 
Salisbury,  and  communication  has  been  opened  up  with  the  Mozambique 
coast.  From  the  fine  harbour  of  Beira,  a  railway  line  has  been  constructed 
for  a  distance  of  seventy -five  miles  inland.  When  completed  it  will  span 
the  coast  belt  ravaged  by  the  deadly  tsetse  fly,  which  entirely  prohibits 
annual  transport.  In  face  of  enormous  difficulties,  the  administration  in 
the  capable  hands  of  Dr.  Jameson  had  established  law  and  order 
throughout  Mashonaland.  Justice  is  now  meted  out,  and  commerce 
fostered,  just  as  in  the  older  provinces  of  South  Africa. 

^A1I\E    Ma^HOnA    WOKK 
^r,.  o.;<.«.    .l/»o. at  II  a  ^ 



Cecil  Rhodes  and  General  Gordon' — South  Africa  or  Khartoum — The  Consolidation  of  the 
Diamond  mines — The  belief  in  Mr.  Rhodes'  resources-^The  Cape  to  Cairo  idea — Dr, 
Jameson's  career — The  direction  of  the  Chartered  Company — The  Duke  of  Abercorn — 
The  Duke  of  Fife— Lord  Gifford— Sir  H.  B.  Farquhar,  Bart.— Mr.  A.  Beit— Mr.  G. 
Cawston — Mr.  A.  H.  G.  Grey- — ^Ir.  R.  Maguire — Mr.  Herbert  Canning — Dr.  F. 
Rutherfoord  Harris--]\rr.  B.  F.  Hawkesley— Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd— Mr.  F.  C.  Selous-Mr. 
P.  B.  S.  Wrey. 

The  personalities  of  Cecil  Rhodes  and  his  associates  in  the  extension 
of  the  South  African  frontier  have  had  such  intimate  relation 
to  the  success  of  that  Elizabethan  enterprise,  that  it  would  be 
inadvisable,  or  even  impossible,  to  avoid  detailed  allusion  to  their 
individual  action  therein.  Of  Mr.  Rhodes  himself,  who  is  generally- 
acknowledged  to  be  one  of  the  most  remarkable  Englishmen  of  the  day, 
it  may  be  said  that  he  has  originated  systems  of  statesmanship  and 
finance  which  are  wholly  his  own,  and  like  no  others.  The  story  of  his 
career  forms  one  of  the  most  interesting  chapters  in  what  may  be  called 
the  romance  of  South  African  trade. 

Mr.  Cecil  John  Rhodes,  who  is  the  fourth  son  of  the  late 
Rev.  F.  W.  Rhodes,  vicar  of  Bishop  Stortford,  Herts,  was  born  at 
that  place  on  July  5th,  1853,  and  is  therefore  just  over  forty 
years  of  age.  He  was  educated  at  the  local  school,  acquitting  himself 
there  one  is  told  creditably.  Thence,  the  state  of  his  health  being  a 
matter  of  some  concern,  he  left  England  to  join  his  eldest  brother, 
Herbert,  who  was  planting  in  Natal.  On  the  discovery  of  the  River 
Diggings  in  Griqualand  West,  Mr.  Herbert  Rhodes  took  part  in  the 
"rush,"  and  was  shortly  afterwards  joined  by  his  young  brother.  Not 
long  after  this,  Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes  determined  to  try  for  a  University 
degree.  He  accordingly  managed,  while  carrying  on  work  on  the 
fields,  to  do  some  reading,  and  to  spend  enough  of  each  year  at  home — 
at  Oriel  College — to  qualify  for  his  degree.  One  occasionally  meets- — 
in  South  Africa — people  who  remember  Mr.  Rhodes  in  this  chrysalis- 
like stage  of  his  career.  The  general  estimate  of  him  at  this  time  appears 

•iQ  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula, 

to  have  been,  "  A  nice  young  fellow  enough,  and  a  hard-working — 
but  a  dreamer."  However,  he  worked  on,  and  dreamed  on  ;  and  here 
and  there,  at  any  rate,  were  found  people  who  were  sufificiently  dis- 
criminating to  detect  the  latent  existence  of  those  rare  powers  since 
so  fully  displayed.  Among  these,  at  a  considerably  later  period,  was 
"  Chinese "  Gordon,  who  was  accompanied  by  Mr.  Rhodes  on  the 
mission  to  Basutoland  which  resulted  in  the  annexation  of  that  country 
by  the  Cape  Colony.  The  two  men,  with  strong  fundamental 
similarities  and  divergences,  could  not  fail  to  be  attracted  by  each 
other,  though  they  were  not  the  kind  of  men  to  share  opinions  upon 
each  and  every  topic.  Now  and  then,  doubtless,  discussion  would  wax 
warm.  "  You  are  the  sort  of  man,"  the  General  impatiently  said  to  Mr. 
Rhodes  on  one  of  these  occasions,  "  who  will  never  approve  of  anything 
you  don't  arrange  yourself"  One  interesting  little  reminiscence  was 
related  by  Mr.  Rhodes  to  the  Chartered  Company's  shareholders  on 
liis  last  visit  to  England.  Alluding  to  the  terms  that  were  sometimes 
applied  to  his  acts  and  his  nature,  he  said  that  he  had,  for  instance, 
been  called  an  adventurer.  Well,  when  he  was  at  the  Bank  of  England 
the  other  day  he  noticed  that  the  charter  for  that  institution  had  been 
granted  to  *'  adventurers."  Similarly  he  was  occasionally  described  as 
a  speculator.  He  did  not  deny  that  charge.  He  remembered  asking 
General  Gordon  why  he  had  declined  the  chamber  full  of  gold  offered 
to  him  by  the  Emperor  of  China  for  his  splendid  services.  Gordon 
replied  by  a  counter  question,  "  Would  you  have  taken  it  ?  "  "  Certainly," 
replied  Mr.  Rhodes,  "  and  three  more  rooms  full  if  I  could  have  got 
them,"  for,  he  explained  to  his  audience,  "one  cannot  carry  out  one's 
ideas,  however  good  they  may  be,  without  wealth  at  one's  back.  That 
is  the  reason  why  I  have  always  tried  to  combine  the  commercial  with 
the  imaginative,  and  that  is  the  reason  why  I  have  not  failed  in  my 

The  hero  of  Khartoum  appears  to  have  had  a  liking  for  and 
a  high  opinion  of  Mr.  Rhodes,  and  before  he  started  on  his  last 
mission  to  the  Soudan,  wrote  to  Mr.  Rhodes  asking  the  young  politician 
— Mr.  Rhodes  was  then  in  the  Legislative  Assembly — to  join  him  as 
private  secretary.  One  cannot  help  speculating  upon  what  the  position 
would  be  to-day   had  Gordon   quelled   the  Soudanese  rising,  and  been 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  E7npire.  31 

left  to  throw  his  abilities  and  his  fame  into  the  Cape-to-Cairo  movement, 
and  the  civilisation  of  the  dark  interior.  However,  Gordon  has  passed, 
with  firm  steps,  the  grim  frontiers  of  an  unknown  "  hinterland,"  and  his 
"  young  friend "  must  find  another  coadjutor  in  the  difficult  and 
dangerous  problem  which  incidentally  involves  what  he  himself  has 
lightly  called  "squaring  the  Mahdi."   / 

Mr.  Rhodes  is  one  of  a  family,  of  whom  seven  are  sons.  The 
eldest,  Mr.  Herbert  Rhodes,  was  killed  while  elephant-hunting  in  the 
Shire  district.  The  rest  are  nearly  all  soldiers,  the  second  son 
being  Colonel  Frank  W.  Rhodes,  D.S.O.,  who  was  educated  at  Eton, 
and  until  recently  was  in  command  of  the  ist  (Royal)  Dragoons.  He 
was  late  Military  Secretary  to  the  Governor  of  Bombay,  and  took 
part  in  the  Soudan  campaign  under  Sir  Herbert  Stewart,  who 
described  him  as  "  the  best  aide-de-camp  a  general  was  ever  fortunate 
enough  to  have."  Colonel  Rhodes  was  chief  of  the  staff  to  Sir  Gerald 
Portal  on  his  Uganda  Mission,  and  has  just  returned  from  a  short 
visit  to  Matabeliland  and  Mashonaland,  where  he  will  shortly  take  Dr. 
Jameson's  place  as  administrator  during  the  latter's  approaching  visit  to 
Europe.  The  third  son  is  Captain  Ernest  Frederick  Rhodes,  R.E. ;  and 
the  fifth  is  Captain  Elmhirst  Rhodes,  D.S.O.,  of  the  Royal  Berkshire 
Regiment.  The  sixth  is  Mr.  Arthur  M.  Rhodes,  who  is  farming  near 
Buluwayo  ;  and  the  youngest  is  Captain  Bernard  M.  Rhodes,  R.A. 

It  is  barely  a  quarter  of  a  century  since  Mr.  Rhodes  landed  in 
the  Cape.  Those  who  only  know  South  Africa  as  she  is  to-day  would 
find  it  difficult  to  realise  the  absolute  commercial  stagnation  which 
ruled  supreme  before  the  discovery  of  diamonds  in  1867.  When  Mr. 
Rhodes  arrived,  he  entered  a  country  sunk  in  a  veritable  Slough  of 
Despond,  from  which,  however,  the  Kimberley  mines  were  soon  to 
extricate  her.  At  the  very  outset  of  his  Kimberley  career,  he 
made  the  acquaintance  of,  and  formed  a  lasting  friendship  with 
Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd,  an  old  Harrovian  and  a  Cambridge  man,  whose 
health  had  broken  down  in  training  at  the  University,  and  who  had 
determined  to  try  the  virtues  of  the  South  African  climate.  The  two 
friends  purchased  a  tiny  interest — a  quarter-claim  each  in  "  Baxter's 
Gully,"  The  partners  prospered  exceedingly,  their  first  success 
being  a  remunerative  pumping  contract  in   De  Beers  Mine,  and  their 

32  -       The  Downfall  of  Lobengula, 

half-claim  grew  and  grew  until,  in  course  of  time,  it  had  become  in 
1888  a  powerful  company  controlling  the  whole  of  De  Beers  Mine,  while 
Mr.  Rhodes  had  become  a  millionaire.  Simultaneously,  the  example  of 
consolidation  had  been  followed  in  the  Kimberley  INIine,  resulting  in  a 
strong  corporation  known  as  the  Kimberley  Central  Diamond  Mining 
Company.  In  1888,  these  two  great  concerns  fused  to  form  the  colossal 
venture  known  as  De  Beers  Consolidated  Mines,  Limited,  and  the 
diamond  trade  was  placed  upon  an  assured  footing  by  placing  the  world's 
supply  under  a  single  control.  It  was  the  reconciliation  of  the 
innumerable  rival  and  divergent  interests  which  originally  existed  in  the 
various  mines  at  Kimberley  which  made  for  Mr.  Rhodes  a  European 
reputation  as  a  financial  diplomatist  of  the  first  rank. 

It  is  only  fair  t  o  say  that  Mr.  Rhodes  emerges  from  the  somewhat 
sordid  milieu  of  Kimberley  finance  with  the  reputation  of  a  man  of 
incorruptibility,  whose  promise  is  a  bond  that  will  be  strictly  fulfilled  to 
friend  or  opponent.  As  a  co  mpany  promoter  and  a  director  he  has 
splendidly  rewarded  the  trust  reposed  in  him  by  his  shareholders. 
Throughout  South  Africa  Mr.  Rhodes  has  a  vast  Pretorian  Guard  of 
young  colonists,  who  look  upon  him  with  something  like  personal 
devotion,  and  among  the  rank  and  file  of  the  Dutch  and  English 
Afrikander  populations  the  confidence  in  him  is  well-nigh  unlimited. 
When  a  difficulty  arises,  the  prevailing  sentiment  seems  to  be,  "Oh, 
leave  it  to  Rhodes  ;  he'll  manage  it  somehow."  When  the  Matabeli  war 
broke  out,  and  the  columns  marched  for  the  front.  South  Africa  felt  a 
lively  dread  that  the  task  of  her  young  men  was  be}-ond  their  strength; 
but  they  took  comfort  in  the  belief  that  "as  Rhodes  was  going  up 
himself  to  Salisbury,  it  would  be  all  right."  This  all-pervading  article 
of  faith  is  quite  one  of  the  features  of  South  African  life,  and  has  been 
wittily  alluded  to  by  two  lady  writers  who  visited  Mashonaland  (Miss 
Blennerhassett  and  Miss  Sleeman).  In  an  interesting  book  upon  their 
adventures  the  authoresses  mentioned  that  the  "fly  belt"  was  not 
causing  very  much  anxiety,  since  it  was  generally  believed  that  Mr. 
Rhodes  would  "  somehow  "  find  means  of  "  squaring  the  tsetse  fly." 

It  is  this  belief  in  Mr.  Rhodes'  never-failing  resources  of  mind  and 
money  that  kept  the  Zambesian  colonies  alive  and  progressing  in 
face  of  the  stupendous  difficulties  encountered  from  '90  to  '94  ;    and 

The  Foimdei's  of  the  Hinterland  Empire.  33 

it  can  hardly  be  denied  that  the  thousand  and  one  things  left  to  Mr. 
Rhodes'  resourceful  management  have  been  ultimately  accomplished. 

In  due  course  Mr.  Rhodes  entered  the  Cape  Legislative  Assembly 
as  the  representative  of  a  Diamond  Fields  constituency,  and  in  1890, 
on  the  resignation  of  the  Sir  Gordon  Sprigg's  Ministry,  accepted  the 
premiership.  His  success  as  a  statesman  has  been  complete.  Perhaps  his 
really  most  important  political  achievement  has  been  the  unification  of 
the  interests  and  sentiments  of  the  Franco-Dutch  and  English  colonists 
at  the  Cape.  This  desirable  consummation  was  effected  by  enlisting  the 
all-powerful  support  of  the  Afrikander  Bond,  led  by  Mr.  Hofmeyr, 
whom  his  followers  variously  compare  to  Bismarck  and  Parnell.  The 
Rhodes  Cabinet  at  present  has  a  voting  power  of  two  to  one  upon  party 
questions,  and  upon  some  points,  notably  the  expansion  of  the  frontier, 
— for  the  Cape  Colonists  are  anti-Little-Englanders  to  a  man — carries 
practically  the  whole  House  with  him.  Mr.  Rhodes'  current  ambition 
— or  one  of  them — is  the  unification  of  Anglo-Dutch  South  Africa, 
including  the  Cape  Colony,  Natal,  the  two  Dutch  Republics,  and 
the  British  Crown  Colonies  and  Protectorates,  including  Cis-  and 
Trans-Zambesia.  There  are  those  who  believe  that,  when  that  is 
accomplished — and  of  its  own  inherent  political  gravitation  it  is 
inevitable — Mr.  Rhodes  contemplates  the  fusion  of  the  whole  of  the 
British  territorial  and  political  interests  in  the  Continent.  The  first 
step  towards  this  end,  they  say,  has  taken  the  form  of  a  telegraph 
line,  which  is  being  constructed  in  great  measure  at  Mr.  Rhodes'  own 
expense,  from  Capetown  to  Cairo,  and  which  has  already  crossed 
the  Zambesi. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  point  out  that  Mr.  Rhodes  is  well  known 
to  be  a  strong  Imperialist,  though  an  equally  strong  believer  in  the 
justice  and  advisability  of  self-government  for  the  larger  colonies.  The 
circumstances  which  would  tempt  him  to  advocate  political  independence 
for  South  Africa  cannot  be  conceived.  That,  however,  affords  no  reason 
why  Her  Majesty's  Government  in  this  country  should  needlessly  and 
unwisely  interfere  in  strictly  Colonial  affairs,  as  they  have  done  on  too 
frequent  occasions  in  times  gone  by.  In  spare  moments  of  his  political 
life,  Mr.  Rhodes  has  given  his  keen  attention  to  the  development 
of  the   Witwatersrand    goldfields.     By   the    formation    of    a   powerful 

34  '^h,e  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

joint-stock  company — the  Consolidated  Goldfields  of  South  Africa, 
Limited — he  has  acquired  for  himself  and  those  associated  with  him  in 
the  venture,  immensely  large  and  important  interests  in  the  celebrated 
Main  Reef  Series,  and  has  taken  a  prominent  part  in  the  opening  up 
of  the  deep-level  areas. 

Mr.  Rhodes  is  perhaps,  however,  best  known  to  the  general 
public  of  this  country  as  the  subject  of  Her  Majesty  who  has  added 
nearly  three-quarters  of  a  million  square  miles  of  valuable  territory 
to  the  Empire.  In  these  days — perhaps  it  has  been  so  in  all 
times — it  is  the  fashion  to  belittle  contemporary  reputations,  and 
to  regard  none  as  "great"  upon  whom  that  epithet  has  not  been 
bestowed  by  posterity.  Perhaps  the  tendency  is  a  creditable 
and  conservative  characteristic.  Still,  there  are  many — especially 
in  South  Africa — who  regard  Cecil  Rhodes'  genius  and  his  patriotic 
ambitions  with  undisguised  admiration,  and  who  will  be  much 
surprised  if  he  does  not  leave  "footprints  on  the  sands  of  time," 
and  another  famous  name  to  add  to  the  roll  of  those  who  have 
extended  the  imperial  horizon — a  roll  which  bears  the  names  of 
Raleigh,  Clive,  and  Hastings;  and  which,  but  for  a  wilfully  blind 
Home  Government,  might  have  numbered  that  of  Washington  amongst 
the  others. 

No  more  striking  illustration  of  Mr.  Rhodes'  accuracy  of  judgment 
in  gauging  the  capabilities  of  his  lieutenants  need  be  adduced^^than  the 
selection  of  Dr.  L.  S.  Jameson  to  fill  the  important  post  of  Administrator 
of  territories  covering  a  larger  area  than  France,  Germany,  Austria,  and 
Italy  combined.  No  ordinary  abilities  would  have  sufficed  to  deal  with 
the  innumerable  and  thorny  questions  periodically  presenting  themselves 
in  the  government  of  a  mixed  population  such  as  that  of  Rhodesia,  and 
no  ordinary  constitution  was  required  to  stand  the  wear  and  tear  of 
business  added  to  the  strain  of  a  rough  life  in  a  frontier  settlement. 
Not  only  had  the  Company's  affairs  to  be  conducted  with  due  regard  to 
its  commercial  character,  but  an  immense  native  state  in  immediate 
contiguity  had  to  be  watched  and  tactfully  handled  ;  a  rough,  determined 
white  population,  mainly  consisting  of  miners,  had  to  be  controlled  ;  the 
country's  unknown  resources  had  to  be  developed,  and  last,  but  not 
least,  the  relations  of  the  Company  with  the  Imperial  Government  had 

Dr.     L.     S.     JAMESON. 

(Admmisirator  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  Territories. 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire.  35 

to  be  at  all  times  carefully  considered.  A  medical  man,  in  full  practice, 
and  absolutely  without  any  sort  of  experience  of  public  or  private 
administrative  business,  Dr.  Jameson  was  about  the  last  man  who 
would  have  been  selected  by  the  Colonial  Office  to  solve  such  a 
number  of  delicate  and  difficult  problems.  Nevertheless  his  appoint- 
ment has  been  the  one  point  upon  which  Mr.  Rhodes'  wisdom  has  never 
been  questioned,  even  by  his  most  fanatical  opponents. 

Dr.  Leander  Starr  Jameson,  a  Scotchman,  born  in  Edinburgh  on  the 
9th  of  February,  1853,  is  the  youngest  son  of  the  late  R.  W.  Jameson, 
Writer  to  the  Signet,  a  well-known  politician  of  half  a  century  ago ;  his 
mother  being  a  daughter  of  Major-General  John  Pringle.  The  family 
subsequently  settling  in  London,  Dr.  Jameson,  after  distinguishing 
himself  at  school,  both  as  a  student  and  an  athlete,  studied  for 
medicine  at  University  College  Hospital.  There  his  career  was  a 
brilliant  one.  He  obtained  silver  medals  for  medicine,  surgery, 
anatomy,  and  pathology,  besides  a  surgical  scholarship,  and  graduated 
in  1875  at  London  University,  obtaining  the  gold  medal  for  medical 
jurisprudence.  Everything  promised  him  a  successful  and  lucrative 
practice  in  the  highest  walks  of  the  medical  profession  in  London  ; 
but  his  health  gave  way  under  the  strain  of  over-work,  and  after  a 
short  health  tour  in  America  he  accepted,  in  1878,  a  partnership  with 
Dr.  Prince,  in  Kimberley.  His  reputation  grew  rapidly,  and  he  was 
soon  recognised  as  the  chief  authority  in  South  Africa  in  every 
department  of  medicine.  For  instance,  the  Free  State  Parliament, 
by  special  resolution,  requested  his  attendance  on  the  late  President 
of  the  Orange  Free  State,  Sir  Henry  Brand,  at  Bloemfontein.  To  a 
thorough  knowledge  of  his  profession,  industry,  and  a  conscientious 
sense  of  the  responsibility  of  his  work,  Dr.  Jameson  added  an 
amount  of  tact  and  keen  sympathetic  insight  into  human  nature 
which  gave  to  his  society  a  charm  for  which  he  has  become  so  well 
known,  and  which  has  been  so  useful  in  his  official  career. 

Among  the  host  of  firm  friends  made  by  Dr.  Jameson  during  his 
residence  in  Kimberley,  Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes  stands  out  prominently  ;  and  at 
the  time  when  the  amalgamation  of  the  diamond  mines  was  in  process, 
and  the  extension  of  British  influence  northward  was  still  a  dream  of 
the  future,  their  life  was  one  of  intimate  association.     At  this  period 

D  2 


6  The   DoivJifa/I  of  Lobeng2ila. 

Mr.  Rhodes  was  only  beginning  to  be  known,  and  was  regarded  even 
by  his  friends  as  somewhat  over- sanguine,  and  Dr.  Jameson  was 
possibly  the  one  man  who  gauged  his  powers  and  his  plans  correctly. 
With  an  enthusiasm  which  equalled  Mr.  Rhodes',  and  with  a  generosity 
of  spirit  b}'  which  he  has  always  been  distinguished,  Dr.  Jameson  saw 
the  greatness  of  his  friend's  schemes,  and  the  possibility  of  their  realisa- 
tion. Henceforth,  his  one  desire  was  to  assist  Mr.  Rhodes  in  carrying 
them  out ;  and  with  what  loyalty,  tenacity,  and  intrepid  daring  he  has 
adhered  to  his  purpose,  the  record  of  his  connection  with  the  British 
South  Africa  Company  from  its  inception  will  testify. 

In  1888  it  became  necessary  for  Mr.  Rhodes  to  send  a  trustworthy 
agent  to  Buluwayo,  to  carry  out  the  various  and  delicate  negotiations 
connected  with  the  development  of  the  concession  granted  to  himself 
and  Mr.  Rudd.  Mr.  Rhodes,  after  much  careful  consideration,  selected 
Vi'L.  Jameson  ;  and  he,  with  a  complete  disregard  of  personal  and 
pecuniary  considerations,  immediately  sacrificed  the  most  lucrative  and 
extensive  medical  practice  in  South  Africa  to  undertake  this  difficult 
and  dangerous  task.  He  persuaded  Mr.  Doyle  and  Major  Maxwell,  both 
skilled  interpreters,  to  accompany  him  to  the  King's  kraal,  and  re- 
mained three  months  with  Lobengula,  whom  he  meanwhile  cured  of  an 
attack  of  gout.  Before  he  left  he  acquired  great  influence  with  Lobengula 
and  his  principal  councillors,  and  his  mission  was  completely  successful. 
The  Charter  was  formally  recognised,  and  full  permission  was  given 
for  the  advance  of  a  pioneer  force  into  Mashonaland.  Having  com- 
pleted his  mission.  Dr.  Jameson  returned  to  his  practice  in  Kimberley. 
Difficulties  arose  at  Buluwayo  after  his  departure,  however,  and  at  Mr. 
Rhodes'  request  he  again  returned  there,  and  once  more  succeeded  in 
persuading  the  King  to  agree  to  the  proposals  made  on  behalf  of  the 
Company.  Dr.  Jameson  remained  in  Buluwayo  in  communication  with 
Mr.  Rhodes,  and  the  Pioneer  Expedition  started  on  its  road  up  country. 
Ultimately  Dr.  Jameson  joined  the  columns,  and  accompanied  them  to 
Salisbury  as  the  representative  and  attorney  of  Mr.  Rhodes.  The  next 
task  was  originated  by  Dr.  Jameson  himself,  and  was  an  exceedingly 
arduous  one.  Recognising  the  necessity  of  a  shorter  and  less  expensive 
route  to  the  coast  than  the  long  overland  journey  from  the  south  which 
they  had   accomplished,   Dr.  Jameson,  accompanied   by   Major    Frank 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire.  ^1 

Johnson,  left  Salisbury,  and  traversed  the  country  to  the  east  down  to 
the  Pungwe,  striking  that  river  at  about  seventy  miles  from  its  mouth. 
The  two  adventurous  explorers  proceeded  down  the  river  in  a  portable 
boat,  brought  with  them  in  sections  by  native  carriers,  and  successfully 
reached  the  steamer  waiting  for  them  in  Pungwe  Bay,  after  which  Dr. 
Jameson  proceeded  to  Capetown  to  give  an  account  of  his  expedition 
to  Mr.  Rhodes.  The  ultimate  result  of  this  hazardous  journey  was,  of 
course,  the  establishment  of  the  Beira  Railway  Company. 

Shortly  afterwards,  believing  that  Dr.  Jameson  could  best  carry 
out  his  plans  with  regard  to  Mashonaland,  Mr,  Rhodes  requested  him 
to  return  there  as  his  representative,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  1890  Dr. 
Jameson  again  returned  to  Salisbury.  After  a  short  stay  there,  utilised 
in  furthering  the  interests  of  the  Chartered  Company,  and  In  stabili- 
tating  much  that  had  already  been  done,  he  determined,  on  the  occasion 
of  a  visit  to  Manica,  close  on  the  Portuguese  border,  to  proceed  to  the 
Gaza  country — ruled  over  by  the  Zulu  Chief,  Gungunhana — with  the 
object  of  securing  that  vast  territory  for  the  Chartered  Company.  The 
year  1890  91  was  memorable  in  the  interior  by  reason  of  its  ex- 
ceptionally heavy  rains,  the  entire  country  towards  the  coast  being 
under  water,  and  the  rivers  flooded,' for  which  and  other  reasons  the 
journey  he  proposed  to  make  was  not  lightly  to  be  undertaken.  Yet, 
taking  with  him  Messrs.  Doyle  and  Moody,  and  totally  unprovided 
with  comforts,  or  even  the  bare  necessaries  for  such  a  journey,  he 
pushed  across  the  veld  to  Gungunhana's  chief  kraal,  and  arrived  there 
in  spite  of  innumerable  difficulties— sleeping  by  day  or  night  as  and 
when  he  could,  drenched  to  the  skin  by  the  heavy  rains,  marching 
knee-deep  in  water,  crossing  broad  and  raging  rivers  with  no  better 
means  than  paddling  across  on  frail  pieces  of  bark — and  so  penetrated 
what  at  that  time  was  believed  to  be  one  of  the  most  fever-stricken 
districts  south  of  the  Equator. 

On  arriving  at  Gungunhana's  "  Great  Place,"  both  of  Dr,  Janieson's 
companions  being  prostrated  with  fever,  he  found  the  King  surrounded 
by  Portuguese  officials,  who  had  with  them  a  strong  following  of 
Portuguese  native  troops.  But  in  the  face  of  all  this,  the  expedition 
resulted  in  a  complete  success  in  so  far  as  concerned  the  negotiations 
with  the  King,  who  freely  invited  the  occupation  of   his   country  by 

38  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

the  British  South  Africa  Company.  As,  however,  this  concession  was 
made  the  subject  of  negotiations  between  the  two  Governments  then 
discussing  the  Anglo-Portuguese  treaty,  the  expedition  did  not  result 
in  an  accession  of  fresh  territory  to  the  Chartered  Company.  This 
fearful  march  to  the  Limpopo  left  Dr.  Jameson  on  his  return  to  Cape 
Town  in  a  very  debilitated  condition,  and  the  victim  of  repeated  and 
severe  attacks  of  malarial  fever.  About  this  time  Mr.  Colquhoun 
announced  his  desire  to  resign  office  as  Administrator  of  Mashonaland. 
Mr.  Rhodes  pressed  the  appointment  upon  Dr.  Jameson.  The  position 
in  Mashonaland  was  then  exceedingly  difficult.  The  Company  had 
been  incurring  enormous  expense  in  administering  the  country,  while  at 
the  same  time  the  Boers  of  the  Transvaal  were  organising  treks  to 
invade  and  take  possession  of  a  portion  of  the  territory,  with  a  view  to 
establish  a  new  Boer  Republic  ;  and  in  addition  to  all  this,  the  white 
population  was  in  a  condition  of  much  discontent.  But  Dr.  Jameson, 
ill  though  he  was,  at  once  consented  to  face  all  these  difficulties,  and, 
receiving  full  power  from  the  High  Commissioner  to  deal  with  the  Boer 
trek,  set  out  for  Mashonaland  as  Administrator.  He  immediately  took 
steps  to  meet  the  most  pressing  danger.  On  the  banks  of  the  Limpopo, 
supported  by  a  troop  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  he  found 
himself  faced  by  a  large  body  of  armed  Boers  preparing  to  cross  the  river. 
An  error  in  judgment  might  have  precipitated  a  war  between  the  English 
and  Dutch  elements,  but  fortunately  the  new  Administrator  was  equal 
to  the  occasion,  and  the  Boers  were  persuaded  to  give  up  their 
enterprise  and  return  to  their  homes. 

Still  suffering  from  fever,  Dr.  Jameson  went  on  to  Salisbury,  where 
he  conciliated  the  discontented  colonists,  very  materially  reduced  the 
costs  of  administration,  and  in  twelve  months  was  able  to  show  a 
financial  statement  in  which  the  revenue  and  expenditure  almost 
balanced.  The  splendid  tact  of  Dr.  Jameson  in  reconciling,  wherever 
they  conflicted,  the  interests  of  the  Company,  of  the  colonists,  and  of 
the  blacks,  became  a  matter  of  universal  comment  and  congratulation  ; 
all  united  in  almost  affectionate  approval  of  the  Administrator — all 
recognised  that  he  was  doing  his  best  in  the  general  interest. 

In  this  brief  sketch  Dr.  Jameson's  professional  ability,  the  kindly 
disposition   which   has  obtained  for  him   the  goodwill  of  everyone  in 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire.  39 

British  Zambesia;  his  unselfish  devotion  to  the  cause  which  he  has  taken 
up  with  such  splendid  spirit,  and  his  skill  in  the  management  of  men, 
have  been  chiefly  dwelt  on.  Further  pages  in  this  volume  will  point  to 
his  equally  rare  capacity  for  organisation  ;  his  tactful  adaptation  of 
means  to  the  end  required ;  his  power  of  infusing  into  those  under  him 
the  same  confidence  of  success  which  he  himself  possesses,  and  the 
foresight  which  enabled  him  to  declare  before  starting,  almost  to  a  day, 
the  time  when  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  conquering  forces 
would  arrive  at  Bulu^vayo,  the  Matabcli  army  having  been  crushed,  and 
the  King  either  a  prisoner  or  a  fugitive.  Future  history  will  assign 
Dr.  Jameson  a  prominent  place  among  those  who  have  been  called  the 
"  makers  of  the  Empire,"  and  his  name  is,  and  always  will  be,  associated 
with  recollections  grateful  to  the  colonists  of  British  South  Africa. 

While  arrangements  were  being  made  for  the  formation  of  a 
company  on  a  royal  charter,  to  develop  and  maintain  civilised  govern- 
ments throughout  the  new  territories  of  the  empire,  it  was  stipulated 
that  three  members  of  the  Board  of  Direction  should  be  nominated  by 
Her  Majesty's  Government.  In  due  course  the  Duke  of  Abercorn,  K.G., 
the  Duke  of  Fife,  K.T.,  and  Mr.  Albert  Grey  joined  the  Board, 
the  first  in  the  capacity  of  president.  The  other  members  of  the  Board, 
who  represent  the  commercial  element  of  the  administration  more 
fully  than  the  Dukes  of  Abercorn  and  Fife  and  Mr.  Albert  Grey 
(who  may  be  said  to  act  as  trustees  for  the  nation),  are  Lord 
Gifibrd,  V.C.,  Sir  Horace  Farquhar,  Bart.,  Mr.  Alfred  Beit,  Mr. 
George  Cawston,  besides,  of  course,  Mr.  Rhodes,  the  managing 
director,  who  is  represented  on  the  Board  by  Mr.  Rochfort 
Maguire,  M.P. 

The  president  of  the  company,  James  Hamilton,  second  Duke  of 
Abercorn,  and  one  of  the  best-known  members  of  the  Upper  House, 
takes  a  strong  personal  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  Chartered  Company 
and  devotes  a  large  portion  of  his  time  to  the  conduct  of  its  affairs. 
He  was  born  in  1838,  and  succeeded  to  the  title  in  1885,  his  father 
being  a  former  Viceroy  of  Ireland.  He  was  educated  at  Harrow  and 
Christ  Church,  Oxford.  His  Grace,  who  is  one  of  the  two  Irish  Dukes 
in  the  peerage,  is  very  popular  among  all  ranks  and  classes  on 
both   sides    of  St.    George's    Channel.       He    has   filled    several   offices, 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngiila. 

amongst  others,  that  of  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber  to  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
and  Groom  of  the  Stole.  From  i860  to  1880,  as  Marquess  of  Hamilton, 
he  represented  Donegal  in  the  Conservative  interest,  and  is  now 
Lord-Lieutenant  of  that  county,  and  Hon.  Colonel  of  the  5th  Battalion 
Royal  Inniskilling  Fusiliers.     He  holds  an  immense  number  of  titles, 

Photo  by  Russell  &"  Sons.2 

The  Duke  of  Abercorn,  K.G.,  P.C. 

being  C.B.  (1885),  P.C.  (1887),  and  K.G.  (1893),  and  married,  in 
1869,  Lady  Mary  Anna  Curzon,  daughter  of  Lord  Howe,  and  has  five 
children.  The  Chartered  Company  was  exceedingly  fortunate  in 
securing  his  services  as  a  director ;  and  by  the  large  amount  of  his 
time  and  attention  which  he  has  devoted  to  its  management,  the 
Duke  of  Abercorn  has  again  shown  how  deeply  at  heart  he  holds  the 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire. 


welfare  of  Greater  Britain,  and  the  importance  of  opening  up  new  fields 
for  the  expansion  of  the  race,  and  the  widening  of  England's  commercial 

The   same    may   be   said  of   the  vice-president,  who   has    greatly 
assisted    and    added  to   the   prestige    of    our  modern   John  Company 

Photo  by  IV.  d-^  D.  Downey.1 

The  Duke  of  Fife,  K.T.,  P.C. 

by  taking  a  seat — his  sole  directorship — upon  its  Board.  His  Grace, 
Alexander  William  George  Duff,  K.T.,  B.C.,  first  Duke  of  Fife, 
was  born  in  1849,  ^"^d  succeeded  to  his  titles  in  1879.  In  1889 
he  married  H.R.H.  the  Brincess  Louise  of  Wales,  and  has  a 
daughter,  the  Lady  Alexandra  Duff.  The  Duke  of  Fife  is  Lord 
Lieutenant    of     Elginshire,    Deputy     Lieutenant    of     Banffshire    and 

42  The  Downfall  of  Lobcngiila, 

Aberdeenshire,  Hon.  Colonel  of  the  Banffshire  Volunteers,  and 
Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Royal  Duchy  of  Lancaster.  He 
takes  the  opposite  side  in  politics  to  the  Duke  of  Abercorn,  having 
represented  Elgin  and  Nairn  for  five  years  in  the  Liberal 
Unionist  interest.  He  is  head  of  the  great  banking  house  of  Sir 
Samuel  Scott  and  Company.  It  may  be  said,  without  any  sort  of 
exaggeration,  that  the  British  South  Africa  Company  was  unusually 
favoured  in  his  having  accepted  a  seat  upon  its  board,  seeing  that 
it  is  his  sole  and  only  directorship.  Those  who  have  attended 
the  annual  meetings  of  the  Company  cannot  have  failed  to  be 
impressed  by  his  acquaintance  with,  and  mastery  of,  the  details  of 
its  business.  He  holds  statesmanlike  views  upon  the  leading  South 
African  questions  of  the  day,  and  it  is  not  unfortunate  for  British 
Zambesia  that  it  has  the  benefits  of  his  political  prestige,  influence  and 
common-sense  views  upon  the  problem  of  African  development  under 
British  auspices.  He  is  a  good  debater  and  a  fluent  speaker,  and  taking 
a  strong  personal  interest  in  the  aims  and  work  of  the  Company,  has 
taken  a  leading  part  in  directing  its  policy  and  shaping  its  destinies. 

Another  prominent  member  of  the  Board  is  the  Right  Hon.  Edric 
Frederic.  Lord  Gifford,  who  holds  the  coveted  and  honourable  distinction 
of  the  Victoria  Cross,  won  during  the  Ashanti  War.  He  was  formerly 
Major  in  the  Middlesex  (Duke  of  Cambridge's)  Regiment,  and  on  the 
staff  of  Viscount  Wolseley,  when  Governor  of  Natal.  Lord  Gifford 
took  part  in  the  Zulu  War  as  well  as  the  Ashanti  Campaign.  He  was 
Colonial  Secretary  of  Western  Australia  from  1879  to  1880;  a  member 
of  the  Legislative  Council  from  1 880  to  1883.  From  that  year  till  1 888  he 
acted  as  Colonial  Secretary  at  Gibraltar.  He  was  born  in  1849,  3-"<^  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  the  second  Baron  Gifford,  in  1872  ;  and  in  1880  married 
a  daughter  (Miss  Sophie  Catherine  Street)  of  General  J.  A.  Street,  C.B. 

The  other  directors  are  Sir  H.  B.  Farquhar,  Mr.  A.  H.  G.  Grey,  Mr. 
A.  Beit,  Mr.  George  Cawston,  and  Mr.  Rhodes,  of  whom  Mr.  Alfred  Beit, 
a  member  of  the  great  house  of  Wernher,  Beit  and  Co.,  of  London,  Johan- 
nesburg, and  Kimberley,  is  not  the  least  widely  known.  The  firm  is  the 
leading  house  in  the  Kimberley  diamond  trade,  and  is  also  by  far  the 
largest  mine  and  land  owner  in  the  Transvaal.  Mr.  Beit,  who  bears  the 
reputation  of  being  one  of  the  most  far-seeing  men  of  business  in  the 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire. 


commercial  world,  is  an  intimate  friend  of  Mr.  Rhodes,  having  taken  a 
very  active  interest  in  most  of  his  schemes,  and  he  is  also  one  of  the 
Life  Governors  of  De  Beers  Mines.  When  the  Zambesian  Hinterland 
idea  was  first  brought  forward,  Mr.  Beit's  firm  at  once  took  a  most 
prominent  part  in  the  movement,  and    he  accepted  a  seat    upon   the 

Lord  Gifford,  V.C. 

Boards  of  the  British  South  Africa,  United  Concessions,  and  Exploring 
Companies.  Mr.  Beit  is  also  a  member  of  the  Board  of  the  New  Jagers- 
fontein  Diamond  IMining  Company,  the  Robinson  Gold  Mining  Company, 
and  a  few  other  similar  concerns  of  the  first  rank.  Mr.  Rhodes  alone 
excepted,  there  is  no  one  who  is  so  largely  interested  in,  or  who  exercises 
a  more  invigorating  and  healthy  influence    upon,  the   commerce  and 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengiila. 

industries  of  South  Africa.  He  has  thrown  himself  vigorously  into  the 
development  of  the  country's  unique  resources,  and  has  actively  sup- 
ported all  schemes  having  that  object.  He  was  born  in  Hamburg  in 
1853,  and  went  out  to  South  Africa  when  quite  a  young  man.  From 
the  first  he  displayed  a  genius  for  business,  and   his  determination   of 

Mr.  Alfred  Beit. 

character  and  earnestness  of  purpose  soon  resulted  in  the  achievement 
of  a  great  position.  From  1875  to  1888  he  was  engaged  in  the  diamond 
mining  business  in  Kimberley,  and  in  the  latter  year  came  home  to 
share  the  management  of  the  London  house  with  an  immense  fortune, 
and — what  is  not  quite  so  common  a  thing— the  reputation  of  being 
honourable  to  the  verge  of  Quixotism  in  all  his  dealings. 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire. 


Sir  Horace  Brand  Farquhar,  Bart.,  is  one  of  the  partners  of  the 
Duke  of  Fife  in  the  great  banking  firm  of  which  the  latter  is  the  head. 
He  was  born  in  1S44,  is  J. P.  for  the  County  of  Middlesex,  and 
a  leading  member  of  the  London  County  Council.  His  father,  the  first 
Baronet,  was  a  Governor  of  the  East  India  Company. 

Photo  by  I!'.  &^  D.  Downey. \ 

Sir  Horace  Brand  Farquhar. 

Mr.  Albert  H.  G.  Grey,  who  was  born  in  185 1,  is  a  son  of  the 
late  General  the  Hon.  Charles  Grey,  M.P.,  and  is  nephew  and  heir- 
presumptive  to  Earl  Grey.  He  was  educated  at  Harrow  and  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  and  holds  the  degree  of  B.A.  In  1878  he  was 
elected  M.P.  for  South  Northumberland,  but  withdrew.  Some  two 
years  later  he  was  re-elected,  and  represented  that  constituency  until 


The  Downfall  of  Lobeiigula. 

1885,  when  he  became  Member  for  the  Tyneside  Division.  He  is  also 
J. P.  and  C.C.  in  the  County  of  Northumberland.  He  married  Miss 
Alice  Holford  in  1877,  ^"^  ^^^  four  children. 

Mr.    George    Cawston    is    the   senior   partner   in    the    well-known 
firm  of   George    Cawston  and    Co.,  and    is   a   leading  member  of   the 

Photo  by  J .  Worsnof,  Rothsay.\ 

Mr.  Albert  H.  G.  Grey. 

London  Stock  Exchange.  As  previously  stated,  he  took  early  and,  at 
first,  independent  action  in  the  Hinterland  question.  He  first  addressed 
the  Colonial  Office  on  the  subject  in  a  letter  dated  May,  1888,  stating 
that  it  was  his  intention  to  send  an  expedition  to  Matabeliland.  This 
was  the  foundation  of  the  Exploring  Company.  Mr.  E.  A.  Maund  took 
charge  of   the  expedition,    the    fortunes  of  which  have   already  been 

The  Founders  of  the  Hi  ■iter  hind  Empire. 


followed.  Ultimately  the  two  groups  fused,  and  the  Central  Search 
Company  was  formed  to  define  the  respective  interests.  From  this 
again  arose  the  United  Concessions  Company,  recently  absorbed  by 
the  British  South  Africa  Company.  Mr-  Cawston,  who  takes  a  keenly 
active    part    in    the    conduct    of    the    Com.pany's    affairs,   was    bom 

Photo  by  ran  dc   \i''cyde.  Regent  Strcet.l 

Mr.  George  Cawston. 

in  1851,  and  is  the  son  ot  the  late  Mr.  S.  W.  Cawston,  of  Balham, 
Surrey.  He  became  a  Member  of  the  Inner  Temple,  and  was 
called  to  the  Bar  in  1882.  He  takes  a  deep  interest  in  geographical 
questions,  is  a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  and 
recently  read  an  excellent  address  dealing  with  Matabeliland  affairs 
to  the  Fellows  of  the   Imperial   Institute.     He  married  a  daughter  of 

48  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

the  late  Mr.  Richard  Haworth,  of  The  Argoed,  near  Shrewsbury.  Mr. 
Cawston,  besides  being  a  director  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company, 
is  chairman  of  the  South-West  Africa  Company,  and  a  director  of  the 
Exploring  Company.  The  former  is,  next  to  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  the  most  important  territorial  concern  in  South  Africa,  and 
embraces  within  its  scope  of  operations  some  sixty  thousand  square  miles 
of  land,  while  the  Exploring  Company  holds  immense  and  varied 
interests  in  Zambesia.  Mr.  Cawston  is  thus  deeply  concerned  in  the 
development  of  the  less  known  portions  of  South  Africa. 

Of  the  three  who  proceeded  on  behalf  of  Mr.  Rhodes  to  Buluwayo 
to  obtain  the  great  concession  from  Lobengula,  Mr.  Rochfort  Maguire, 
the  present  member  for  West  Clare,  has  had  a  peculiarly  interesting 
and  varied  career.  He  was  a  first-class  man  of  Merton  College,  Oxford, 
and  passed  for  the  Indian  Civil  Service  ;  but  having  obtained  a  fellowship 
at  All  Souls',  he  entered  for  the  Bar.  Subsequently,  he  became  private 
secretary  to  Sir  George  Burn,  the  then  Governor  of  Hong  Kong.  He 
then  returned  to  Oxford,  where  he  received  an  invitation  from  his  friend 
and  college  contemporary,  Mr.  Cecil  ^Rhodes,  to  join  him  in  South 
Africa.  His  selection  for  the  dangerous  and  important  mission  with 
which  he  was  entrusted  was  decidedly  a  happy  one.  Mr.  Maguire  bears 
the  reputation  of  possessing  a  sang  froid  which  knows  no  variations  of 
temperature  under  the  extremest  conditions  of  danger  and  difficulty. 
It  is  said  that  he  became  a  great  favourite  with  Lobengula,  possibly 
winning  his  way  to  the  royal  favour  by  that  imperturbable  demeanour 
which  is  so  much  in  vogue  among  savage  tribes,  and  which  is  one  of 
Mr.  Maguire's  characteristics.  Mr.  Maguire  spent  a  lengthy  period  in 
Matabeliland,  and  carried  out  his  mission  effectively  and  completely. 
Not  only  did  he  secure  important  concessions  for  his  own  party,  but  he 
contrived  to  keep  all  competing  candidates  for  the  royal  favours  away 
from  Lobengula's  person.  Ultimately  he  won  his  way  almost  too  com- 
pletely into  the  King's  good  graces,  so  much  so  indeed,  that  he  found 
some  difficulty  in  getting  away  from  the  royal  kraal.  This  he  ultimately 
did,  however,  and  returned  to  England  with  a  comfortably  holding  of 
shares  in  the  Chartered  Company,  and  went  into  Parliament  as  a  sup- 
porter of  Mr.  Parnell.  He  is  a  quiet  speaker,  given  to  argument  and 
not  declamatory   abuse,    and    during   the    Laboucherian   attack  upon 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire. 


the  Chartered  Company,  defended  his  friends  in  one  or  two  moderate  and 
convincing  speeches.  He  represents  the  managing  director  on  the 
London  board  of  the  Chartered  Com.pany  as  his  alternate. 

The  secretarial  duties  connected  with  the  business  of  the  British  South 
Africa    Company   are   almost  as  important  as  those  of  the  directors. 

Photo  by  Dehenhain,  Ryde,  I.  /F.] 

Mr.  Herlert  Canning. 

and  are  so  closely  associated  with  the  latter  that  this,  perhaps,  is  the 
most  fitting  place  for  reference  to  them.  Chartered  companies  are 
not  merely  trading  associations.  In  them  are  vested  all  the  functions 
of  government,  from  the  levying  of  taxes,  the  infliction  of  capital 
punishment,  to  the  carrying  on  of  war.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to 
say  that  so  much  falls  upon  the  secretary,  that  it  is  imperative  that  he 


50  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengula. 

should  possess  high  abilities,  unflagging  industry,  never-failing  tact, 
and  great  business  experience.  Up  to  the  present,  the  Chartered 
Company  has  been  well  served  in  this  direction.  The  first  secretary 
was  Mr,  C.  H.  Weatherley,  who  was  for  several  years  chief  of  the  staff 
of  Messrs.  Cooper  Brothers  and  Co.,  the  well-known  firm  of  account- 
ants. Mr.  Weatherley,  whose  capacity  and  geniality  soon  made  him  a 
prominent  and  popular  figure  in  African  circles,  retired  to  accept  a 
partnership  in  his  old  firm.  He  was  succeeded  as  secretary  by  his 
friend,  Mr.  Herbert  Canning,  who  had  filled  similar  positions.  Following 
such  a  predecessor,  much  was  expected  from  the  new  secretary,  who 
took  office  about  a  year-and-a-half  ago.  Those  expectations  have  not 
been  disappointed.  Mr.  Canning,  whilst  being  earnest  and  energetic,  is 
patient,  thorough,  and  diplomatic;  he  has  discharged  his  functions, 
at  times  exceedingly  onerous — notably  during  the  war — with  con- 
spicuous success  and  remarkable  tact,  and  above  all,  he  has  contrived 
to  comfortably  cope  with  the  immense  volume  and  various  kinds  of 
work  which  have  thrust  themselves  upon  him  since  he  accepted  the 
important  position  offered  to  him  by  the  Chartered  Company.  It  is 
no  mean  tribute  to  Mr.  Canning's  power  of  utilising  time  profitably 
to  say  that  while  posted  up  both  in  the  broad  lines  and  in  the  important 
details  of  the  Company's  administrative  and  commercial  business,  he 
even  contrives  to  digest  the  immense  mass  of  English  and  Colonial 
newspaper  literature  relating  thereto ;  the  business  in  London  of  the 
African  Transcontinental  Telegraph  Company  and  of  the  Bechuanaland 
Railway  Company  is  also  conducted  by  him. 

The  secretary  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company  in  South 
Africa,  Dr.  F.  Rutherfoord  Harris,  M.L.A.,  is,  like  the  Administrato  r,  a 
medical  man.  He  went  to  the  Cape  originally  in  search  of  health,  and 
soon  feeling  the  benefit  of  the  climate,  established  a  good  practice  as  a 
doctor  at  Kimberley,  where  he  became  intimate  with  Mr.  Rhodes.  When 
in  1889  Mr.  Rhodes  was  looking  about  for  a  suitable  staff  to  carry  into 
effect  his  scheme  for  the  settlement  of  the  Zambesi  regions,  he  offered  to 
Dr.  Harris  the  position  which  he  now  so  ably  fills.  At  the  beginning 
of  this  year  (1894)  Dr.  Harris  was  elected  to  the  Cape  Legislative 
Assembly  as  one  of  the  four  representatives  of  Kimberley.  Dr.  Harris 
is    a   man    of    great    energ)',   possesses    administrative    and     business 

The  Foiuiders  of  the  llinterlayid  Empire. 


talents  of  a  high  order,  and  has  amply  justified  his  selection  to  carry 
out  the  onerous  and  responsible  duties  of  his  office.  Some  idea  of  their 
extent  may  be  gathered  when  it  is  stated  that  the  ordinary  mail  letter 
of  the  Cape  Town  Office  deals  with  an  average  of  twenty-five  subjects, 
ranging  from  administrative  matters  of  the  first  importance  to  purely 
formal  details. 

Dr.    ¥.    RUTHERFOOKD    HARRIS,    M.L.A. 

No  reference  to  the  administration  of  the  Chartered  Company 
would  be  complete  without  allusion  to  the  active  share  taken  in  the  con- 
duct of  its  affairs  by  Mr.  Bourchier  F.  Hawksley,  of  the  firm  of  HoUams, 
Son,  Coward,  and  Hawksley,  who  are  the  Company's  solicitors.  The 
Company  is  practically  an  amalgamation  of  an  immense  number 
of  separate   interests,    and    in    many   cases  the  titles  have  been  of  a 

E  2 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 

complicated  nature,  involving  an  amount  of  knowledge,  research,  and 
inquiry  which  has  rendered  the  post  of  solicitor  to  the  Company 
unusually  responsible  and  laborious.  This  may  be  seen  by  tracing 
Mr.  Hawksley's  connection  with  it  throughout  its  successive  stages  of 
development,  at  each  of  which  agreements  of  no  ordinary  character  had 


to  be  drawn  up.  Mr.  Hawksley  was  born  in  185 1,  articled  at  Bristol 
in  1866,  admitted  in  1872,  and  has  ever  since  been  connected  with  his 
present  firm,  in  which  he  became  a  partner  in  1889.  He  was  solicitor 
to  the  old  De  Beers  Company,  and  to  the  De  Beers  Consolidated  Mines. 
He  was  also  solicitor  to  the  Exploring  Company,  and  it  was  no  doubt 
in   some  measure  owing  to  his  connection  with  the  rival  groups  that 


The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Empire.  53 

arrangements  were  concluded,  by  the  formation  of  the  Central  Search 
Association,  for  uniting  the  former  company's  interests  with  those  of  the 
Rudd-Rhodes'  concession.  Mr.  Hawksley  drew  up  the  Royal  Charter 
which  was  applied  for  by  the  Central  Search  Association,  and  also  the 
Deed  of  Settlement,and  acted  throughout  these  difficult  negotiations.  The 
acquisition  of  all  the  competing  interests  which  Lord  Salisbury  required 
should  be  merged  also  entailed  arduous  labour  upon  Mr.  Hawksley.  In 
1889  the  Association  was  taken  over  by  the  United  Concessions  Com- 
pany, involving  more  complicated  agreements,  followed  by  others 
under  which  the  Charter  was  extended  to  embrace  the  British  area 
across  the  Zambesi.  Then  followed  the  creation  of  the  British 
South  Africa  Company.  Quite  recently  difficulties  arose  with  the 
"Ochs  group,"  and  on  the  occasion  of  the  meetings  called  to 
sanction  the  amalgamation  of  the  Chartered  Company  and  the 
United  Concessions  Company  it  was  found  advisable  to  explain  the 
whole  position  from  its  legal  aspect.  This  Mr.  Hawksley  under- 
took to  do,  and  in  a  masterly  speech,  of  which  the  delivery  occu- 
pied some  seventy  minutes,  lucidly  set  the  whole  facts  before  the 
shareholders,  and  relieved  them  of  all  anxieties  as  to  the  issue. 
Subsequent  legal  proceedings,  in  which  Mr.  Hawksley  acted  for  the 
company,  amply  justified  his  remarks  on  that  occasion.  Mr.  Hawksley 
acts  for  the  numerous  offshoots  of  the  Chartered  Company — such  as  the 
Transcontinental  Telegraph  Company,  the  Beira  Railway  Company, 
and  the  company  which  is  constructing  the  trunk  line  through  Vryburg 
and  Mafeking,  as  well  as  numerous  mining  concerns, 

Mr.  C.  D.  Rudd,  the  leader  of  the  concessionaire  trio,  is  an  old 
Harrovian  and  a  Cambridge  man,  whom  a  breakdown  of  health  in 
training  sent  out  to  South  Africa  to  recuperate.  This  was  in  1865. 
from  when  to  1868  he  occupied  his  time  in  shooting  in  Zululand  and 
other  parts  of  the  country.  In  1870,  he  took  part  in  the  first  great  "  rush  " 
to  the  diamond  fields,  where  he  met  Mr.  Rhodes.  The  two  young  men 
went  into  partnership,  from  which  rose,  as  is  elsewhere  explained,  the 
gigantic  scheme  culminating  in  the  De  Beers  Mines  (Limited).  When 
the  Witwatersrand  goldfields  were  discovered,  Mr.  Rudd  went  up  to  the 
Transvaal  to  represent  the  Rudd  and  Rhodes  Syndicate,  out  of  which 
ultimately  arose  the  Consolidated  Goldfields  of  South  Africa,  Limited. 

54  ^/^^  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Of  this  powerful  and  successful  company  Mr.  Rudd  became  co- 
managing  director  with  Mr.  Rhodes,  and  it  is  largely  due  to  his 
prescience  that  that  concern  has  achieved  such  conspicuous  success,  and 
acquired  such  gigantic  interests  at  so  low  a  cost.  Mr.  Rudd  is  not  a 
politician,  although  he  entered  the  Cape  Parliament  in  1884.  That, 
however,  was  only  with  specific  objects — namely,  the  passing  of  the 
Compound  System,  the  Illicit  Diam.ond  Trade,  and  the  Liquor  Question 
— all  matters  connected  with  the  diamond  industry,  with  which  Mr.  Rudd 
was  intimately  associated  at  the  time.  The  desired  objects  were 
attained  in  1889,  and  at  the  next  election  Mr.  Rudd  did  not  re-offer 
himself  to  the  constituency. 

Among  those  who  are  largely  responsible  for  the  occupation  of 
Zambesia  must  also  be  mentioned  Mr.  Frederick  Courtenay  Selous.  As 
a  hunter  in  South  Africa,  he  stands  first  and  foremost  among  those 
v^hose  names  have  become  household  words  amongst  all  lovers  of 
sport,  and  also  as  a  keen  observer  of  the  ways  of  savage  races  and 
wild  animals.  Even  at  the  age  of  twelve,  when  at  Rugby,  he  had 
a  better  collection  of  birds'  eggs  than  any  other  boy  ;  and  the  keen- 
ness for  obtaining  any  coveted  specimen  was  not  damped  by  swimming 
rivers  at  midnight,  when  his  rivals  were  snug  and  warm  in  bed.  At 
the  age  of  nineteen  he  w^ent  to  South  Africa,  fired  by  the  accounts 
— then  much  more  meagre  than  now — of  a  hunter's  life  under  the 
southern  sun,  the  favourite  of  those  books  being  Gordon  Cumming's 
"  Five  Years'  Hunting  Adventures  in  South  Africa,"  which  probably 
fixed  his  mind  more  than  any  other.  Upon  a  small  capital  of  about 
;^300  given  to  him  by  his  father,  he  started  upon  the  "  Hunters' 
Wanderings,"  so  graphically  described  in  his  first  book.  For  years 
Mr.  Selous,  in  his  quest  for  rare  and  valuable  animals,  wandered 
many  times  over  and  thoroughly  explored  the  Mashonaland  plateau  ; 
and  when  the  scheme  for  forming  the  Chartered  Company  was  in  its 
infancy — although  there  were  many  stories  about  the  glorious  country 
lying  between  the  Limpopo  and  Zambesi  Rivers — it  was  to  Mr.  Selous 
that  Mr.  Rhodes  looked  for  accurate  information  which  enabled  him, 
with  his  great  political  and  financial  resources,  to  develop  a  scheme  for 
the  effective  occupation  of  Mashonaland.  The  work  which  fell  upon  Mr. 
Selous'  shoulders  was  by  no  means  light,  for  his  duty  as  the  "Pioneer" 

Mr.     F.     C.     SELOUS,     F.Z.S. 

{Pioneer,  Hunter,  and  Chief  of  the  Intelligence  Department  of  the  .Southern  Colu/nn.) 

The  Founders  of  tJie  Hinterland  Empire.  55 

was  not  only  to  head  the  force,  and  to  cut  the  road  for  the  numerous 
waggons,  but  to  scout  for  miles  round  the  line  of  march,  as  although 
Lobengula  had  signed  the  concession,  it  was  well  known  that  he  had 
been  urged  very  strongly  by  his  young  warriors  not  to  allow 
the  white  man  to  settle  in  Mashonaland,  which  at  that  time  was  the 
chief  raiding  ground  of  the  Matabeli.  Throughout  the  whole  of 
the  trials  and  hardships  of  the  expedition,  the  unanimous  opinion  of 
those  who  formed  the  advance  party  was  that  they  could  not  have 
had  a  more  capable  leader,  nor  one  who  had  so  much  thought  for 
their  comfort ;  and  it  was  the  enthusiasm  which  he  infused  into  the 
work  that  enabled  the  Pioneers  to  reach  Salisbury  in  so  short  a  time. 

Mr.  Selous  remained  in  Mashonaland  until  the  latter  part  of  1892, 
during  which  time  his  aid  in  exploring  the  country  was  invaluable,  and 
returned  to  England  on  17th  December  for  a  well-earned  rest,  leaving 
behind  the  townships  of  Salisbury  and  Victoria  busy  and  hopeful  of  the 
future.  Gold  was  being  found  in  payable  quantities,  various  companies 
were  formed,  money  and  mining  materials  were  brought  into  the  country 
— in  fact,  everything  looked  promising.  Lobengula  certainly  v/as  not  to 
be  depended  upon  ;  but  he  was  receiving  subsidy  of  ;^ioo  per  month,  and 
there  appeared  no  reason  to  expect  anything  of  an  outbreak  from  him, 
when  news  came  of  the  eventful  Sunday  (July  9th)  when  the  Matabeli 
under  the  charge  of  two  old  indunas,  Manyou  and  Magan,  and  the 
young  induna  Ingna,  appeared  at  the  township  of  Victoria,  indis- 
criminately murdering  the  Mashona  servants,  but  contemptuously  sparing 
the  white  men,  saying,  "  We  have  been  ordered  not  to  kill  you — yet, — 
but  your  day  is  coming." 

Mr.  Selous  was  at  that  time  in  England,  but  with  that  prompt- 
ness and  decision  which  is  one  of  his  characteristics,  at  once  decided 
that  his  duty  was  to  return  and  contribute  his  share  to  the  downfall 
of  Lobengula.  The  Victoria  and  Salisbury  Columns  were  already  on 
the  march ;  but  he  lost  no  time  in  getting  to  the  front,  and  at  special 
request  joined  Colonel  Goold-Adams,  commanding  a  force  of  225 
men  of  the  Bechuanaland  Police,  and  225  volunteers  recruited  in  the 
Transvaal  under  the  command  of  Commandant  Raaf.  During  this 
march,  Mr,  Selous'  knowledge  of  the  country  and  the  natives 
was    of    the    greatest    possible    value    to    Colonel    Goold-Adams — in 

56  The  Doiuufall  of  Lobengula. 

facl",  he  has  been  called — and  very  rightly  so — "  the  ears  and 
eyes  of  the  force."  At  the  battle  near  the  Sangezi  River,  when 
they  were  attacked  while  on  the  march  by  the  Matabeli  under 
Gambo,  Mr.  Selous,  who  was  with  the  rear-guard,  showed  he  was 
as  expert  with  his  rifle  as  a  military  weapon  as  when  using  it  for 
sporting  purposes.  He  was  unfortunately  wounded  by  a  bullet  during 
this  engagement,  but  he  probably  owes  his  life  to  this  circumstance, 
as  Dr.  Jameson  would  not  allow  him  to  accompany  Major  Forbes  in  his 
pursuit  of  Lobengula;  for  had  he  gone,  with  his  knowledge  of  the 
country  and  love  of  adventure,  he  would  almost  certainly  have  gone 
forward  with  Major  Wilson's  party.  There  is  a  melancholy  interest  in 
speculating  whether,  had  this  been  so,  the  chance  of  capturing  the  King 
would  have  tempted  him  beyond  the  bounds  of  discretion,  or  whether 
his  experience  and  counsel  would  have  saved  any  or  all  of  that  band  of 
brave  men.  To  all  lovers  of  sport  and  adventure  Mr.  Selous'  books 
are  well-known,  but  his  last,  "  Travels  and  Adventures  in  South  East 
Africa,"  in  which  he  has  given  a  most  graphic  account  of  the  occu- 
pation of  Mashonaland  and  in  which  he  anticipated  the  events  of 
the  last  few  months,  showed  clearly  that  the  young  Matabeli  warriors 
must  sooner  or  later  insist  upon  a  trial  of  strength  with  the  white 

Since  his  return  to  England,  he  has  given  a  very  interesting  lecture 
before  the  members  of  the  Royal  Colonial  Institute,  upon  the  "  Cause 
and  Effect  of  the  Matabeli  War,"  in  which  he  very  stoutly  defends  his 
fellow  comrades  from  the  calumnious  attacks  of  the  Little  England 
Party  headed  by  Mr.  Labouchere,  His  defence  was  not  composed  of 
empty  words,  but  of  absolute  facts,  all  of  which  he  has  verified  ; 
Mr.  Selous  is  a  man  who  will  take  infinite  trouble  to  master  the 
truth  of  a  story,  and  thereby  had  made  for  himself  a  reputation 
amongst  both  white  men  and  natives  as  one  whose  word  can 
be  absolutely  relied  upon.  Mr.  Selous,  should  he  ever  return  to 
Matabeliland,  will  see  a  vast  change  round  his  old  haunts — changes 
which  are,  no  doubt,  improvements  upon  the  old  scenes  of  savage  revelry 
at  Buluwayo,  but  which  as  a  hunter  he  will  often,  perhaps,  be  tempted  to 
regret.  Mr.  Selous  has  recently  married  Miss  Gladys  Maddy,  daughter 
of  the  Rev.  Canon  Maddy,  Rector  of  Down  Hatherley,  Gloucestershire. 

The  Founders  of  the  Hinterland  Enipi7'e.  57 

One  of  the  best  known  of  those  who  have  thrown  in  their  lot 
with  the  Rhodesia  movement  is  Mr.  Philip  Bourchier  Sherard  Wrey, 
Assoc.  M.Inst. C.E.,  who  is  second  son  of  Sir  Henry  Bourchier  Toke 
Wrey,  Bart,  (tenth  of  the  line),  of  Tawstock  Court,  Barnstaple, 
Devon,  and  a  descendant  of  the  Sir  Philip  Bourchier  Wrey,  whose 
name  occurs  so  frequently  in  the  records  of  the  attempted  invasion 
by  the  Great  Armada.  Mr.  Wrey,  who  has  kindly  contributed  two 
chapters  to  this  book,  was  born  in  1858,  and  was  articled  to  Mr. 
James  Henderson,  C.E.,  from  1876  to  1879.  In  the  latter  year  he 
left  for  South  Africa,  and  until  1881  was  engaged  professionally 
at  Kimberley..  From  that  year  until  1885  he  was  employed  as  a 
government  surveyor  in  the  Cape  Colony,  and,  among  other  things, 
undertook  the  delineation  of  the  Walfish  Bay  territory.  In  1886  he 
went  up  to  the  Transvaal  Goldfields,  where  he  acquired  a  considerable 
practice  as  a  mining  engineer.  When  the  occupation  of  Mashona- 
land  was  effected,  Mr.  Wrey  accepted  the  offer  of  the  post  of  consulting 
engineer  to  the  Mashonaland  Agency  Company,  a  concern  closely  allied 
to  the  Chartered  Company  and  the  Consolidated  Goldfields.  In  that 
capacity  he  has  taken  a  very  prominent  part  in  the  mining  affairs  of 
Rhodesia  ;  and,  as  he  himself  recounts  on  other  pages,  was  actively 
engaged  in  the  development  of  his  company's  properties  when  the 
war  broke  out.  He  travelled  down  with  the  Administrator  from 
Salisbury  to  Victoria,  and  was  with  him  throughout  the  "  indaba  "  with 
the  Matabeli  indunas.  Mr.  Wrey  has  recently  returned  to  Mashonaland, 
to  which  country  he  holds  that  the  motto  of  his  family,  "  Le  bon  temps 
viendra,"  is  peculiarly  applicable. 


By  P.  B.  S.  Wrev,  A.M.I.C.E. 

Matabeli  impis  cross  the  border — Mashonas'  fear  of  the  Matabeli— Dr.  Jameson  renionstrates 
with  Lobengula — Telegraph  wires  cut  at  Gomalla's  kraal— Lobengula  claims  the  right 
to  raid  the  Mashonas — An  impi  at  Victoria,  Sunday,  July  19th — Dr.  Jameson  arrives 
at  Mctoria — Loath  to  take  active  measures — The  indaba— Lobengula  breaks  his  compact 
— Young  Matabeli  warriors  beyond  control — The  impi  ordered  to  leave  in  an  hour, 
or  be  driven  out— Threats  of  the  colonists  to  leave  the  country. 

Mr.  Selous,  in  his  lecture  at  the  Royal  Colonial  Institute,  March 
13th,  has  ably  described  the  policy  pursued  by  Lobengula,  of  harassing 
the  white  man,  and  seeing  how  much  annoyance  he  really  would  stand. 
The  commencement  of  this  was  undoubtedly  the  killing  of  the  chief 
Lomaghondi,  in  the  latter  part  of  189L  That  chief  was  under  the 
protection  of  the  Chartered  Company,  and  Dr.  Jameson  remonstrated 
very  strongly.  Lobengula  professed  extreme  regret,  stating  that  it  was  a 
mistake.  The  following  year,  however,  Matebeli  impis  were  sent  across 
the  recognised  border  in  defiance  of  the  agreement  with  and  promises 
made  to  the  Company,  and  commenced  raiding  in  the  Victoria 

It  was  then,  for  the  first  time,  we  fully  realised  how  damaging  to 
work  and  industry  was  the  unsettled  state  of  affairs  caused  by  these  raids. 
A  large  impi  passed  through  the  camp  of  the  Mashonaland  Agency, 
situate  about  fourteen  miles  from  Victoria,  at  the  time  we  were  em- 
ploying about  150  natives;  these  were  absolutely  paralysed  with  fear 
and  announced  their  intention  of  leaving  directly.  It  was  only  with 
great  trouble  and  persuasion  that  they  were  induced  to  remain,  and  our 
position  was  a  most  false  one  ;  for,  as  the  natives  very  plainly  said,  "  When 
you  white  men  came  into  Mashonaland,  you  promised  that  if  we  worked 
for  you,  you  would  prevent  the  Matabeli  from  raiding  us.     Here  we  are 

The  Collision  at   Victoria.  59 

working  for  you,  and  here  are  the  Matabeli  killing  our  wives  and 
children,  and  raiding  our  homes."  Dr.  Jameson,  still  desirous  of  main- 
taining peaceful  relations,  contented  himself  with  again  remonstrating. 
Lobengula's  answer  was  to  the  effect  that  he  had  merely  sent  his  men 
to  collect  some  arrear  taxes  and  tributes  owing  before  the  granting  of  the 
concession.  Dr.  Jameson  pacified  the  people  as  best  he  could,  and  all 
this  time  was  most  particular  not  to  break  his  promises  to  Lobengula, 
and  most  stringent  instructions  were  given  to  prevent  any  prospector 
from  crossing  the  border  to  look  for  the  gold  reefs  known  to  exist  within 
a  few  miles  of  the  boundary,  x 

In  April,  1893,  occurred  the  incident  of  the  cutting  of  the 
telegraph  wire  at  Gomalla's  kraal,  followed  by  the  imposition  of  a 
fine,  and  the  payment  of  same  in  cattle,  which  were  afterwards 
stated  to  belong  to  Lobengula.  There  can  be  no  doubt  the  cause  of  the 
cutting  of  the  wire  was  the  dissatisfaction  of  the  chiefs  at  the  present 
state  of  affairs.  Natives  do  not  understand  diplomatic  remonstrances, 
and  their  natural  argument  was :  If  the  Chartered  Company  do  not 
punish  the  ]\Iatabeli  for  raiding  us  last  year,  they  must  be  afraid  of  them, 
and  it  is  only  a  question  of  time  when  the  white  men  will  be  killed,  and 
we  shall  again  be  raided  and  murdered  worse  than  before.  On  this  line 
of  argument,  instead  of  having  any  feelings  of  awe  and  respect  for  the 
white  man,  they  despised  him,  and  showed  their  feelings  by  committing 
an  offence  they  knew  to  be  a  very  grave  and  serious  one. 

Matters  reached  a  climax  in  July.  Having  met  with  no  resist- 
ance from  the  Chartered  Company  on  the  raid  of  1892,  Lobengula 
sent  a  far  larger  and  picked  body  of  men,  with  instructions  to  raid  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Victoria ;  at  the  same  time  writing  to  Dr.  Jameson, 
that  "he  made  no  excuses  for  so  doing,"  but,  in  defiance  of  all 
treaties  and  promises,  "claimed  his  right  to  raid  when,  where,  and 
whom  he  chose."  His  instructions  to  the  indunas  were  that  no  white 
men  were  to  be  killed,  but  that  they  were  to  particularly  direct  their 
operations  to  those  Mashona  tribes  who  had  been,  and  were,  working  for 
the  white  men.  There  can  be  no  doubt  but  that,  from  the  death  of 
Lomaghondi  to  this  time,  the  system  of  harassing  and  annoying  the 
white  man  had  been  gradually  increased  and  magnified  in  proportion  to 
the  pacific  remonstrances  made  by  the  Chartered  Company,  and  I  am 

6o  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtda. 

absolutely  confident  that  in  1893,  had  not  the  company  taken  the  action 
they  have  done,  the  orders  to  the  indunas  would  have  been,  not  to 
harass  and  annoy  the  white  men,  but  to  kill  every  one  of  them  in  the 

The  actual  climax  was  reached  on  Sunday,  July  9th,  and  the  follow- 
ing days  of  that  week,  when  the  impi,  carrying  out  their  instructions, 
commenced  killing  every  Mashona  they  could  find  near  Victoria.  In 
many  cases  these  atrocities  were  committed  in  the  presence  of  the  mas- 
ters of  some  of  the  men,  and  the  only  answer  given  to  them  when  they 
tried  to  save  the  lives  of  their  boys  was,  "  Stand  on  one  side,  your  time 
has  not  come  yet."  The  effect  was,  of  course,  to  paralyse  all  work  and 
enterprise,  and  it  is  not  easy  to  describe  the  feelings  of  exasperation  of 
the  colonists.  Meetings  were  held  at  which  the  very  strongest  language 
was  used,  at  what  was  termed  the  weakness  of  the  Chartered  Company 
in  trying  to  deal  in  a  conciliatory  manner  with  Lobengula,  and  at  which 
the  company  was  called  upon  to  take  some  decisive  measure. 

Meanwhile  Dr.  Jameson  was  hurrying  down  from  Salisbury  ;  and  as 
I  travelled  with  him  during  the  last  section  of  the  journey,  I  can  most 
emphatically  state  that,  even  after  having  heard  the  fullest  details  of  how 
serious  the  aspect  of  affairs  was,  he  was  most  loath  to  take  offensive 
measures,  could  he  have  seen  any  other  way  out  of  the  difficulty. 
It  may  be  thought  by  some  that  the  events  above  mentioned  were  made 
the  excuse  for  the  taking  of  Matabeliland  for  the  sole  object  of  acquiring 
fresh  ground.  Such  is  not  the  case.  All  Dr.  Jameson  decided  on  was, 
that  it  was  imperative  that  the  impi  then  surrounding  Victoria  should  at 
all  costs  be  driven  away  and  made  to  cross  the  border,  and  that,  when 
that  was  accomplished,  Lobengula  must  be  dealt  with  according  as  he 
explained  his  action  in  deliberately  breaking  his  agreements. 

On  arrival  at  Victoria,  Dr.  Jameson  summoned  the  head  indunas, 
in  number  about  twenty  ;  and  as  I  was  present  at  the  indaba,  I  shall  be 
glad  to  correct  an  error  that  many  have  fallen  into,  namely,  that  the  impi 
was  given  one  hour  to  cross  the  border,  a  distance  of  thirty  miles. 

The  conversation  was  a  very  brief  one.  Dr.  Jameson,  after  telling 
the  head  induna  that  Lobengula  had  distinctly  broken  his  compact  in 
sending  this  impi  over  the  border,  asked  him  if  it  was  a  fact  that  he 
could    no    longer  control  his  young  men.     The  answer  was   "  Yes." — 

The  Collision  at   Victoria. 


"Very  well  then,"  he  said,  "You  go  back  with  those  whom  you  can 
control,  and  leave  me  to  deal  with  your  young  men.  Go,"  he  continued. 
"  back  to  your  men,  and  tell  them  that  they  must  instantly  leave  for 
the  border."  Then  he  told  them  how  long  he  would  wait. 
Pointing  to  the  sun,  he  said,  "  Wa  bona  ilanga "  (Do  you  see 
the  sun?);  then,  pointing  lower  in  the  horizon,  he  said,  "When  the 
sun  is  there,  if  you  have  not  cleared  (ta^a  ivena  at  ga  suka),  you'll  be 
driven  out.  I  shall  send  out  my  men,  and  those  of  you  who  have  not 
left  I  shall  drive  over  the  border."  The  indaba  then  ended.  I  am 
sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  language  to  understand  the  speech  as 
interpreted  by  Mr.  Napier,  and  I  am  certain  the  Matabeli  indunas 
understood  it  as  I  have  written  it.  That  this  is  so,  indeed,  was  proved 
by  the  fact  that  the  majority  of  the  Matabeli  started  there  and  then, 
and  crossed  the  border  that  night  or  early  next  morning,  whereas  the 
minority,  consisting  of  some  300  to  400,  waited  for  the  patrol,  and 
were  actually  raiding  a  small  kraal  when  Captain  Lendy  and  his  men 
arrived.  These  were  the  only 
men  on  whom  he  fired.  Next 
day  a  patrol  was  sent 
out,  and  found  evi- 
dences of  the  rapid 
departure  of  the  -- 
main  body  o 
the  impi.  All 
the  men  in  th 
patrol  were 
anxious  then 
and  there  to 
follow  them 
and  revenge 
these  out- 
rages ;  but 
Captain  Lend} 
stated  most  em- 
phatically that 
his  orders   from  Dr.  Jameson  Holding  the  Indaba  at  Victoria. 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengula. 

Dr.  Jameson  were  most  positive  ;  namely,  that  he  should  satisfy  himself 
that  the  impi  had  crossed  the  border,  and  that  he  should  on  no  account 
take  offensive  measures  if  they  had  crossed  until  after  Lobengula  had 
been  communicated  with. 

Feeling  in  Victoria  was  running  very  high  at  this  time,  for  every- 
one felt  if  no  further  action  was  to  be  taken,  Lobengula  would  again 
;make  excuses  and  promises,  and  the  following  year,  if  not  sooner, 
things  would  be  much  worse.  Capitalists  openly  spoke  of  withdrawing 
capital.  Farmers  and  traders  threatened  to  trek  out  of  the  country, 
and  "a  very  strongly  wprded  address  was  presented  to  Dr.  Jameson, 
with  a  request  that  it  might  be  forwarded  to  the  High  Com- 
missioner, to  the  effect  that,  unless  the  Com.pany  settled  this 
question,  once  and  for  all,  in  the  only  way  it  could  be  done,  namely, 
by  breaking  up  the  Matabeli  power,  they  were  determined  to  do  one 
of  two  things :  leave  the  country,  or — undertake  the  settlement  of 
the  question  themselves. 

These  facts  should  prove  very  clearly  that,  instead  of  the  Chartered 
Company  having  forced  the  war  on  the  Matabeli,  they  used  every  means 
to  avoid  any  collision  with  them,  and  that  the  latter  by  breaking  every 
agreement  and  promise,  and  by  the  most  brutal  atrocities,  clearly  brought 
a  just  punishment  on  their  own  heads.  Further,  that  the  colonists  of 
Mashonaland  were  simply  actuated  by  a  feeling  and  desire  to  obtain 
some  sort  of  security  for  the  property  and  possessions  for  which  they 
had  worked  so  hard  and  so  patiently. 

Photo  hy  Salmon,  /\eadi}ig.'\ 


{Commanding  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  Forces  in  Maiaheliland.) 



By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes.  ' 

Declaration  of  War — Major  Forbes  to  take  command — Dr.  Jameson  arranges  for  starting  to 
Buluwayo — The  Matabeli  fighting  strength— Military  stores  at  Salisbury— Lack  of  horses — 
Organising  the  Salisbury  Horse — Selecting  the  officers — The  conditions  for  volunteering 
— The  Victoria  Column — Buying  the  horses — Leaving  Salisbury — Practising  military 
manceuvres — The  Tuli  Column  delayed — The  Matabeli  reported  massing  at  Shangani 
River — Dr,  Jameson  reviews  the  Salisbury  Horse  at  Charter — Ammunition — Forming 
laager — Manning  the  waggons. 

The  events  at  Victoria  in  July,  1893,  which  rendered  the  recent  MatabeH 
war  a  necessity,  have  been  fully  described  ;  and  it  will  be  enough  for  me 
to  say  that  on  the  19th  of  July,  the  day  after  the  Matabeli  had  been 
driven  out  from  Victoria,  Dr.  Jameson,  the  Administrator  of  Mashona- 
land,  decided  to  make  such  arrangements,  that,  should  it  prove  necessary 
he  would  be  able  to  break  once  and  for  all  the  power  of  the  Matabeli, 
and  his  plans  announced  that  day  were  carried  out  with  but  little 
addition  or  alteration. 

At  that  time  I  was,  and  had  been  since  the  occupation  of 
Mashonaland  three  years  before,  Magistrate  at  Salisbury,  and  was 
also  in  command  of  the  Salisbury  Volunteer  Corps.  I  knew,  and 
was  known  to,  almost  everyone  in  the  district,  and  being  an  Imperial 
Officer,  and  having  served  for  five  or  six  years  among  the  Zulus,  was  in  a 
better  position  than  most  to  judge  of  our  chances  of  success  in  a 
conflict  with  the  Matabeli. 

On  the  morning  of  the  19th  July,  as  I  have  said,  the  programme  of 
the  Expedition  was  drawn  up.  Mr.  Duncan,  a  retired  naval  officer  (the 
senior  official  of  the  Company  in  the  absence  of  Dr.  Jameson),  and 
myself,  were  sent  for  that  morning  to  the  telegraph  office  to  talk  to 
the  Doctor,  who  was  at  Victoria.     When  we  arrived  there  the  Doctor 

64  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

began.  The  clerk  was  writing  down  what  the  Doctor  said,  and  Mr. 
Duncan  was  reading  it  to  himself  as  written.  He  suddenly  turned  to 
me  and  said,  "  You  have  to  go  to  Buluwayo."  This  made  me  take 
more  interest  than  I  had  been  doing  in  what  was  being  said,  and  he  and 
I  read  the  message  together.  The  Doctor  said  that  the  events  of  the 
previous  day  had  shown  him  clearly  that  if  we  wished  to  remain  in 
Mashonaland,  and  not  to  sacrifice  all  that  we  had  gained  in  the  previous 
three  years,  we  must  settle  the  Matabeli  question  once  and  for  all.  He 
went  on  to  say  that  he  had  thought  it  all  out,  and  his  plan  was  that 
250  men  should  advance  from  Salisbury,  Victoria,  and  Tuli  respectively, 
the  former  under  myself,  those  from  Victoria  under  Captain  Lendy,  an 
Imperial  Artillery  Captain,  at  that  time  Acting  Resident  Magistrate  at 
Victoria,  and  those  from  Tuli  under  Captain  Raaf,  Resident  Magistrate 
of  Tuli,  while  I  was  to  assume  command  of  all  the  Company's  forces 
when  joined.  (Captain  Raaf  had  had  a  considerable  amount  of 
experience  in  native  warfare  in  South  Africa,  and  was  said  to  be  a  very 
good  man.)  The  Doctor  further  said  that  his  idea  was  that  the  whole 
force  should  be  mounted,  should  start  simultaneously  from  the  three 
places,  and  march  on  Buluv/ayo.  We  were  to  take  no  waggons,  but  to 
carry  three  or  four  days'  food  on  the  horses,  after  which  we  would  live 
on  native  produce;  100  rounds  ammunition  per  man,  and,  he  added,  he 
counted  on  our  reaching  Buluwayo,  having  done  all  that  was  required, 
before  Christmas.  He  then  asked  if  I  was  willing  to  go.  I,  of  course, 
agreed  at  once,  and  the  expedition  was  then  and  there  determined  on. 
The  Doctor  told  me  to  let  him  know  that  evening  what  I  should  require 
in  the  way  of  horses,  arms,  equipment,  clothing,  etc.,  to  complete  the 
Salisbury  Column,  and  then  went  off  to  consult  with  Mr.  Rhodes,  who 
was  at  Cape  Town. 

In  accepting  the  responsibility  of  invading  Matabeliland  with 
750  men,  I  was  doing  Avhat  many  thought  was  a  very  rash  thing,  more 
especially  as  one  of  the  greatest  military  authorities  on  South  African 
native  warfare  had  only  three  years  before  stated  that  he  would  require 
7,000  men  to  take  the  country ;  but  I  always  looked  upon  the 
Matabeli  as  being  over-rated,  and  thought  that  with  the  material  we 
had,  both  as  regards  men  and  arms,  we  ought  to  be  successful  ;  in 
addition    to    which    I    knew    that  Dr.  Jameson  had  had  considerable 

Oi'gamsiug  the  Forces.  65 

experience  in  Matabeliland,  and  that  if  he  was  satisfied  it  was  safe,  I 
was.  Although  the  Doctor  had  sketched  out  his  plan  and  authorised 
me  to  make  arrangements  accordingly,  the  whole  affair  had  to  remain  in 
abeyance  for  some  time.  There  had  not  been  sufficient  time  for  the 
Imperial  authorities  to  go  thoroughly  into  the  question,  and  it  was 
doubtful  whether  His  Excellency  Sir  Henry  Loch,  Governor  of  the  Cape, 
would  see  how  vital  the  question  was  and  allow  the  Doctor  to  take 
action  ;  but  the  time  was  so  short  before  the  rains  came  on  that  the 
Doctor  thought  it  advisable  to  make  all  arrangements,  so  that  in  the 
event  of  permission  being  given  later  on,  we  could  move  at  once.  I 
immediately  saw  Major  Browne,  at  that  time  Staff  Officer  of  Volunteers 
in  Mashonaland,  and  previously  Adjutant  of  the  Diamond  Fields  Horse 
in  Kimberley,  and  who  had  had  considerable  experience  in  native 
fighting  both  in  New  Zealand  and  South  Africa,  and  asked  him  if  he 
would  go  in  with  me  as  Staff  Officer.  I  told  him  the  programme,  and 
he  at  once  agreed.  We  then  set  to  work  to  take  stock  of  the  military 
stores  in  Salisbury,  and  that  evening  I  was  able  to  wire  to  Dr.  Jameson 
that  I  required  nothing  but  250  horses  to  complete  the  Salisbury  Force. 
I  asked  for  the  full  number  of  horses,  as  at  the  time  there  were  very  few 
in  Salisbury,  and  I  knew  that  we  should  lose  some  of  those  purchased 
on  the  way,  and  others  would  probably  not  be  fit  for  much  when  they 
arrived.  I  also  said  that,  if  procurable,  fifty  swords  would  be  useful,  as 
there  were  a  considerable  number  of  ex-cavalry  men  in  Mashonaland. 
I  thought  that  one  troop  could  be  armed  with  them,  and  I  knew  from 
experience  in  Zululand  what  a  horror  the  natives  had  of  mounted  men 
who  could  gallop  them  down. 

"  Truth,"  and  some  other  papers  that  took  a  pleasure  in  vilifying 
the  Company,  had  talked  of  Mashonaland  as  a  place  where  the  people 
were  starved,  where  there  was  no  military  organisation  and  no  means  of 
defence  ;  and  yet  in  Salisbury  alone  I  was  able  to  raise,  fully  arm,  and 
equip  a  force  of  250  men,  providing  them,  too,  wath  machine  guns,  and 
all  this  from  the  stores  that  the  Company  had  had  on  the  spot  for  the 
last  three  years  ;  and  they  were  able  to  do  the  same  both  at  Victoria 
and  Tuli. 

Although  I  had  agreed  at  once  to  Dr.  Jameson's  plans,  I  knew  as 
soon  as  I  came  to  think  it  over  that  there  was  one  alteration  that  must 


66  The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

be  made,  and  that  was  on  the  question  of  transport.  We  should  require 
more  ammunition  than  he  had  allowed  for,  viz.,  lOO  rounds  per  man ; 
and  it  would  also  be  necessary  to  carry  food  for  the  horses.  They  had 
to  be  bought  in  the  Transvaal  or  Free  State,  driven  at  least  600  miles 
fast,  at  a  time  of  year  when  there  was  little  if  any  grazing,  and  then 
would  have  to  do  a  long  and  tedious  march  immediately  on  arrival.'  I 
did  not  think  that  there  would  be  much  trouble  about  feeding  the 
troops,  as  we  could  arrange  our  advance  so  as  to  pass  kraals  most  of  the 
way,  and  could  get  sufficient  grain  there  for  food,  while  we  could  drive 
oxen  for  meat.  The  other  two  points  were,  however,  so  important  that 
I  at  once  calculated  out  the  least  number  of  waggons  that  would  carry 
what  I  required,  and  found  that  I  could  manage  with  twelve.  As  soon 
as  Dr.  Jameson  returned  to  Salisbury,  about  a  week  after  the  first 
arrangement  had  been  made,  I  spoke  to  him  and  he  agreed  at  once- 
In  addition  to  the  advantage  of  carrying  reserve  ammunition  and  grain, 
twelve  waggons  would  form  a  small  but  compact  laager,  in  which  all  the 
horses  could  be  put,  and  would  save  our  having  to  construct  a  strong 
scherm  (bush  fence)  every  night. 

Immediately  after  my  talk  with  Dr.  Jameson,  on  the  19th  July,  I 
set  to  work  to  organise  the  corps  which  I  called  the  Salisbury  Horse. 
My  first  intention  was  to  have  four  mounted  troops  of  fifty  men  each, 
making  up  the  remaining  fifty  men  by  gun  detachments.  I  proposed 
to  take  two  Maxim  guns  on  galloping  carriages,  one  one-pounder  shell 
Maxim  and  one  Gardner  gun.  This  would  leave  in  Salisbury  for 
defensive  purposes  one  seven-pounder  gun,  one  Maxim,  two  Nordenfeldt, 
and  one  one-pounder  Hotchkiss,  the  three  latter  having  been  taken  from 
the  Portuguese  in  Manica  in  189 1.  I  found,  however,  that  there  would 
be  some  difficulty  in  raising  four  troops  mounted,  and  eventually 
changed  it  to  three  mounted  of  fifty  men  each,  two  of  which  had,  in 
addition,  a  galloping  Maxim  with  an  escort  of  ten  men,  one  dis- 
mounted of  fifty,  and  the  different  gun  detachments.  As  the  one- 
pounder  Maxim  was  a  very  clumsy  gun  I  took  the  seven-pounder 
instead,  and  also  one  of  the  Nordenfeldts.  The  first  question  was  the 
officers  to  command  the  three  Troops,  and  in  this  there  was  rather  an 
"  embarras  de  richesses."  All  the  officers  commanding  troops  in  the 
Mashonaland  Horse,  i.e.,  the  Salisbury  Volunteer  Corps,  thought  that 

Organising  the  Forces.  67 

they  should  be  the  first  selected,  and  there  was  consequently  some 
little  dissatisfaction  about  my  selection  from  among  them  all.  The 
three  that  I  selected  first  for  the  three  Troops  were  Messrs.  M.  Heany, 
H.  F.  Hoste,  and  A.  Eyre.  The  former  had  served  in  America,  and 
had  had  considerable  experience  of  native  warfare  ;  he  had  also  been 
one  of  the  firm  of  Johnson,  Heany,  and  Borrow,  who  had  brought  up  the 
Pioneer  Force  in  1890,  and  had  been  Captain  of  the  senior  Troop  in 
that  Force.  In  addition  to  having  large  interests  in  the  country  he  was 
a  large  employer  of  labour,  and  one  of  the  most  popular  men  in  the 
country.  He  at  once  accepted  and  placed  himself  at  my  disposal,  and 
from  beginning  to  end  assisted  me  in  every  possible  way.  Mr.  Hoste 
had  also  been  a  Captain  in  the  Pioneer  Corps,  and  before  that  had 
commanded  one  of  the  U.S.S.  Company's  ships.  He  had  had  a  good 
deal  of  experience  with  natives,  and  was  well  known  and  liked  in  the 
country.  He  agreed  at  first,  but  appears  to  have  been  under  a  mis- 
apprehension as  to  the  number  of  waggons  I  intended  taking,  and  at 
the  last  moment  objected  to  come  unless  I  took  considerably  more  than 
twelve.  Mr.  Eyre  had  been  in  the  Pioneer  Corps,  but  I  knew  nothing 
of  his  soldiering  abilities,  and  my  reason  for  selecting  him  was,  that 
he  had  shortly  before  been  elected  by  the  Salisbury  Burghers — i.e., 
all  adults  who  were  not  volunteers — as  Commandant  ;  and  as  the 
Burghers  comprised  about  one-third  of  the  population  of  Salisbury 
and  the  district,  I  thought  to  secure  some  of  them  through  his 
appointment.  He  agreed  to  come,  but  at  last  followed  Captain 
Hoste's   example. 

I  have  not  mentioned  the  conditions  upon  which  men  were 
asked  to  volunteer,  but  the  principal  ones  were  as  follows  : — (i)  Pro- 
tection on  all  claims  in  Mashonaland  until  six  months  after  the  war 
was  finished.  (2)  A  farm  of  3,000  morgen  (6,000  acres),  free  of 
occupation.  (3)  Twenty  gold  claims.  (4)  Share  of  all  cattle  taken, 
half  of  which  was  to  go  to  the  Company,  the  other  half  to  be 
equally  divided  among  all  members  of  the  Expedition,  share  and 
share  alike. 

On  Messrs.  Hoste  and  Eyre's  withdrawal  I  gave  the  two  Troops 
B  and  C  to  Messrs.  Borrow  and  Spreckley,  both  of  whom  had  been 
officers  in  the  Pioneer  Corps,  and  were  well  known  and  very  popular  in 

F    2 

68  The  Downfall  of  Lobengttla. 

the  country,  and  I  do  not  think  that  any  selection  could  have  given 
more  satisfaction.  Captain  Borrow  was  at  the  time  Local  Managing 
Director  of  Frank  Johnson  and  Co.,  and  Captain  Spreckley  Acting 
Mining  Commissioner  in  Manica. 

For  the  command  of  all  the  Artillery  I  selected  Captain  Moberley, 
an  ex-Imperial  Artillery  Officer,  who  was  thoroughly  conversant  with 
the  working  of  all  machine  guns,  and  I  also  placed  the  dismounted  men 
under  his  command.  These  were  to  have  been  fifty,  but  I  could  only 
eventually  get  about  twenty-five.  For  the  two  galloping  Maxims  I 
selected  Messrs.  Tyndale-Biscoe  and  Llewellyn,  both  ex-Naval 
Officers,  the  former  of  whom  had  distinguished  himself  in  Egypt, 
receiving  a  D.S.O.  for  service  there,  and  had  been  in  charge  of  one 
of  the  Maxims  of  the  Pioneer  Corps  ;  the  latter  had  had  considerable 
experience  of  machine  guns  on  the  coast.  Mr.  Tennant,  who  had 
previously  served  in  South  Africa  as  an  artillery  officer,  had  charge 
of  the  seven-pounder  gun.  Mr.  F.  E.  Lockner,  who  had  three  years 
before  successfully  negotiated  the  Barotse  treaty,  but  who  was  not 
in  very  robust  health  at  this  time,  undertook  the  duties  of  Com- 
missariat Officer  or  Quartermaster,  but  afterwards  handed  them  over 
to  Mr.  J.  H.  Kennedy,  the  Company's  Accountant  in  Mashonaland, 
who  was  able  at  the  last  minute  to  get  away,  and  Mr.  Lockner  then 
joined  Captain  Heany's  Troop  as  junior  lieutenant.  The  officers  were 
as  follow  : — 

Personal  Staff. — Mr.  C.  M.  Acutt,  Interpreter  and  Guide  ;  Mr.  P.  L. 
Chappe,  Veterinary  Surgeon  and  Trumpeter;  Mr.  J.  H.  Kennedy,  Quarter- 
master ;'  Mr.  T.  E.  Tanner,  Orderly  Officer  and  Galloper. 

A  Troop.— Captain  Heany,  with  Messrs.  Bodle  and  Lockner  as  Lieutenants, 
and  Lieutenant  Biscoe  in  charge  of  Maxim  attached. 

B  Troop.— Captain  Borrow,  with  Messrs.  Snodgrass  and  Reid  as 
Lieutenants,  and  Lieutenant  Llewellyn  with  Maxim  attached. 

C  Troop.— Captain  Spreckley,  with  Messrs.  Laing  and  Christison  as 

Artillery  and  D  Troop.— Captain  Moberley,  with  Mr.  Tennant  in 
charge  of  seven-pounder  gun  as   Lieutenant. 

Remount  Officers.— Captain  Finch  and  Mr.  J.  Garden. 

Ordnance  Store  Officer. — Captain  J.  A.  L.  Campbell,  late  R.A. 

Medical  Officers.— Dr.  H.  Edgelow  and  Dr.  J.  Stewart. 

Organising  the  Forces.  69 

Mr.  J.  W.  W.  Nesbitt  volunteed  to  raise  a  force  of  Colonial  natives 
and  Coolies,  several  of  the  latter  of  whom  had  expressed  their  wish 
to  go  in,  and  as  I  was  doubtful  whether  I  could  get  my  full  number 
of  250  white  men,  I  authorised  him  to  raise  them  to  the  number 
of  sixty.  This  he  did,  and  they  were  of  the  greatest  assistance  to  us. 
He  had  the  rank  of  captain,  and  applied  for  Mr.  Papenfus  as  lieutenant, 
which  appointment  I  made. 

There  were  several  gentlemen  in  Salisbury  who  did  not  wish  to 
join  troops,  but  were  willing  to  go  into  Matabeliland,  and  to  make  them- 
selves generally  useful,  so  I  formed  them  into  a  Scouting  Section  for 
special  duty  ;  this  consisted  of  Captain  O.  Gwynyth  Williams,  Messrs- 
Ifah  Williams,  Gerald  Paget,  and  J.  Murray  Gourlay. 

The  only  difficulty  in  providing  equipment  was  over  the  saddlery. 
Although  the  Company  had  a  large  number  of  saddles  in  store,  most  of 
them  were  in  bad  repair,  and  it  was  very  hard  to  obtain  sufficient 
material  to  repair  them.  However,  by  using  all  I  could  get  in  the  shape 
of  serge,  flannel,  etc.,  and  by  collecting  different  articles  of  saddlery  all 
over  Salisbury,  I  was  able  to  complete  sufficient. 

The  Company  had  a  large  stock  of  M.H.  rifles  in  store,  and 
each  volunteer  was  in  possession  of  one,  and  I  was  able  to  arm  the 
whole  force  with  them  ;  I  allowed  anyone  who  had  a  private  rifle  or 
carbine  that  carried  M.H.  ammunition  to  take  it.  The  Coolies  were 
armed  with  combination  guns,  one  barrel  carrying  M.H.  ammunition, 
the  other  twelve-bore  cartridges  loaded  with  loupers. 

The  supply  of  sword-bayonets  was  not  sufficient  to  complete 
all  round,  but  all  the  dismounted,  and  about  seventy-five  per  cent. 
of  the  mounted  men  were  armed  with  them,  and  150  revolvers 
were  also  given  out,  which,  with  private  ones,  gave  almost 
everybody  one.  One  hundred  rounds  of  M.H.  ammunition  was  issued 
to  each  man,  and  twenty  rounds  revolver  ammunition  to  all  who 
had  revolvers. 

There  was  not  sufficient  clothing  to  issue  a  complete  set  to  every- 
one, and  the  majority  preferred  wearing  their  own  clothes.  Each  man 
had  a  khaki  tunic,  pair  of  gaiters,  bandolier,  and  haversack  issued  to 
him,  and  those  that  required  them  Bedford  cord  breeches  and  hat,  and 
each  man  had  a  waterproof  sheet,  and  either  a  cavalry  cloak  or  cape. 

yo  The  Doivnfall  of  Lnbengula. 

and  was  allowed  to  take  two  blankets  ;  and  private  kit  not  to  exceed, 
with  the  blanket,  twenty  pounds  in  weight. 

While  I  was  making  my  preparations  in  Salisbury,  Dr.  Jameson  was 
doing  the  same  in  Victoria.  He  had  told  me  soon  after  the  first 
arrangements  were  made  that  Captain  Lendy  had  declined  to  take  in 
the  Victoria  Column,  and  he  had  therefore  entrusted  it  to  Captain 
(afterwards  Major)  Allan  Wilson,  than  whom  no  better  man  could 
possibly  have  been  found.  Captain  Wilson  had  seen  a  considerable 
amount  of  service  in  the  native  wars  in  the  Colony,  and  was  at  this  time 
in  command  of  the  Victoria  Volunteers.  He  was  exceedingly  popular, 
and  had  an  extraordinary  power  over  his  men. 

The  raising  of  the  number  of  men  required  was  not  effected  without 
some  slight  difficulties.  Many  of  them  wished  to  know  more  particulars 
of  the  plan  of  campaign  than  could  be  given  them,  and  several  wished 
for  different  terms  ;  and  in  addition  to  these  difficulties  there  were  several 
men  who  did  their  best  to  persuade  others  not  to  come.  However,  none 
of  these  difficulties  did  very  much  harm,  and  by  the  time  I  required 
them  I  had  my  full  number  of  men. 

As  soon  as  Dr.  Jameson  had  decided  on  his  plans,  he  sent  down  at 
once  to  buy  horses.  He  ordered  altogether  about  i,000,  a  good  number 
of  which  were  to  be  purchased  by  Captain  Raaf,  and  some  by  Messrs. 
Zeederburg  and  Kirton,  and  towards  the  end  of  August  they  began  to 
arrive  up  country.  It  was  decided  that  the  Salisbury  Column  should 
meet  the  horses  at  Charter  instead  of  waiting  at  Salisbury  for  them,  as 
this  would  save  the  horses  sixty  miles,  and  it  would  be  a  more  con- 
venient place  to  start  from,  as  we  should  avoid  all  the  thick  bush  and 
broken  ground  which  we  should  have  had  to  go  through  if  we  had  gone 
by  the  direct  road  from  Salisbury  to  Matabeliland  ;  and  on  the  28th  of 
August,  I  sent  off"  my  first  party  under  command  of  Mr.  Alan  G.  Finch, 
late  of  the  ist  Life  Guards,  to  whom  I  gave  the  rank  of  Captain,  and 
who  was  to  receive  the  horses  at  Charter  and  get  a  camp  ready  for  us. 
With  him  were  Mr.  Carden,  as  assistant  remount  officer,  and  four  others, 
including  two  farriers.  I  sent  three  waggons  with  them,  carrying  all  the 
saddlery  and  some  ammunition,  besides  entrenching  tools,  etc.  The 
date  that  had  been  given  me  by  Dr.  Jameson  as  the  earliest  that  he 
could  have  all  the  horses  up  and  we  could  make  a  forward  move  was  the 

Organising  the  Forces.  71 

15th  of  September,  and  I  therefore  arranged  to  march  from  Salisbury 
on  the  5th  September,  and  orders  were  issued  to  march  at  2  p.m.  on 
that  date  (Tuesday).  On  the  Sunday  we  had  a  full  church  parade, 
which  nearly  everyone  attended,  and  Archdeacon  Upcher  gave  us  a 
short  farewell  address.  I  may  say  that  the  clergy  of  all  denominations 
had  supported  the  movement  from  the  first,  realising  its  necessity,  and 
how  impossible  the  tenure  of  Mashonaland  was  while  the  Matabeli 
power  was  unbroken. 

At  1.30  p.m.  on  Tuesday,  5th  September,  the  whole  of  the 
Salisbury  Column,  with  the  exception  of  those  who  had  already  gone  on 
to  Charter  and  a  few  who  could  not  get  av/ay  for  a  day  or  two,  but  were 
to  follow  by  the  next  post-cart,  paraded,  and  at  2  p.m.  were  ready  to 
move  off.  Unfortunately,  although  the  waggons  had  all  been  loaded 
some  time  before,  the  oxen  had  not  come  in,  and  we  were  delayed 
nearly  an  hour  by  them  ;  however,  at  3  p.m.  we  moved  off.  Mr.  H. 
Bezeidenhout  had  been  given  a  contract  to  supply  twelve  waggons,  each 
complete  with  driver  and  leader  and  sixteen  oxen,  at  £\a^  a  day  for  the 
twelve,  and  at  the  last  moment  I  engaged  two  others  from  Messrs. 
Tuck  and  Papenfus  at  the  same  rate  ;  and  in  addition,  both  Captains 
Heany  and  Borrow  volunteered  to  take  in  their  own  waggons  to  carry 
extra  stores  for  their  troops.  These  v/aggons  and  oxen  were  guaranteed 
against  loss,  and  the  drivers  and  leaders  paid  by  the  Company.  As  the 
number  of  waggons  to  be  taken  had  increased,  I  found  that  I  could  take 
a  month's  rations  for  the  whole  force,  and  I  arranged  before  leaving 
Salisbury  that  in  the  event  of  my  being  delayed  longer  than  I  had 
expected  at  Charter,  further  supplies  should  follow,  so  as  to  enable  me 
to  leave  Charter  with  a  month  clear.  I  was  very  much  gratified  at 
seeing  the  way  in  which  the  force  marched  out  of  Salisbury.  Although 
we  were  leaving  for  an  indefinite  time  v/ith  a  dangerous  venture  in  front 
of  us,  and  the  good-byes  that  had  to  be  said  were  many,  and  as  anyone 
who  knows  life  in  South  Africa  knows  each  good-bye  generally  entails  a 
parting  drink,  there  were  only  five  out  of  the  total  strength  who  were 
reported  absent. -;t  All  Salisbury  turned  out  to  see  us  off,  and  cheered  us 
heartily,  while  several  photographers,  amateur  and  professional,  "  shot  " 
us  from  different  points. 

As  we  were  to  meet  our  horses  at  Charter,  nearly  the  whole  force 

72  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila. 

was  on  foot,  only  the  few  that  had  private  horses  being  mounted,  (All 
private  horses  taken  in  by  their  owners  were  valued  and  guaranteed  by 
the  Company.)  We  did  a  hot  and  dusty  march  to  the  six-mile  spruit, 
and  then  as  we  had  taken  a  short  cut  had  to  wait  till  dark  for  our 
waggons.  I  had  arranged  with  one  of  the  Salisbury  butchers  to  take 
out  a  day's  meat,  to  be  ready  for  us  there,  and  he  was  also  to  carry  a 
day's  bread  ;  he  failed  to  arrive  till  nearly  midnight,  and  everyone  came 
off  rather  short  that  night.  We  went  on  to  the  Hanyane  River  at  daylight 
and  crossed  without  difficulty,  although  we  had  to  double-span  most  of 
the  waggons ;  marched  about  six  miles  that  evening.  The  following 
day,  Thursday,  we  did  about  twelve  miles,  and  on  Friday  about  the 
same,  laagering  across  the  Umfuli  on  that  night.  I  began  to  practise 
laagering  as  soon  as  we  left  the  Hanyane,  as  it  takes  some  time  for  both 
the  drivers  and  the  oxen  to  get  accustomed  to  it.  The  following  day, 
Saturday,  we  did  five  miles  in  the  morning,  but  in  the  afternoon  got  into 
very  heavy  sand,  and  to  my  great  disgust  a  considerable  number  of  the 
oxen  knocked  up.  We  managed,  however,  to  do  about  five  miles, 
but  had  to  double-span  most  of  the  waggons  for  the  last  mile,  and  did 
not  get  them  all  to  the  camp  till  after  dark.  As  we  were  now  within 
about  eight  miles  of  Charter,  I  rode  on  there  at  daylight,  leaving  Captain 
Heany  in  charge,  with  instructions  to  move  on  as  soon  as  the  oxen  had 
sufficiently  rested  ;  and  sent  back  the  three  spans  which  had  previously 
come  down  to  Charter.  The  Column  got  in  just  before  dark,  and 
laagered  on  the  north  bank  of  the  stream. 

I  found  when  I  got  to  Charter  that  Captain  Finch  had  selected  a 
very  good  site  for  a  camp,  on  the  south  bank  of  the  stream,  and  had 
cleared  sufficient  space  of  bush,  marked  out  horse  lines,  etc.  I  also 
found  that  he  had  only  received  fifty-nine  horses,  which  had  arrived  on 
the  7th  September.  They  were  a  very  good  stamp  of  horse,  averaging 
from  14  hands  to  [4*1,  and  strongly  built,  but  in  poor  condition,  and  a 
good  many  suffering  from  horribly  sore  backs.  These  were  in  most  cases 
caused  by  the  gross  carelessness  of  the  men  who  had  been  sent  up  in 
charge  of  them  from  Victoria,  who  were  most  of  them  men  who  did  not 
know  a  horse  from  a  cow,  and  who  had  picked  out  what  they  were  told 
were  the  easiest  to  ride,  and  had  ridden  them  quick  right  through,  quite 
regardless  of  the  fact  that  the  saddles,  which  were  badly  stuffed,  had 

Organising  the  Forces. 


rubbed  their  backs,  and  in  several  cases  the  iron  arch  had  cut  right  into 
their  withers,  making  wounds  some  of  which  took  a  month  to  heal,  and 
one  of  which  was  not  healed,  nor  had  the  horse  even  had  a  saddle  on 
him  up   to  the  time  that  we  arrived  in   Buluwayo  two  months  later. 

Mr.  Chappe,  my  trumpeter,  who  had 
had  to  do  with  horses  all  his  life,  had 
kindly   offered   to  act  as  veterinary 
surgeon,  and    had    gone  down  to 
Charter    with    Captain    Finch. 
He  was  doing  all  he  could, 
and  barring  the  worst  of  the 
"  backs,"  soon  got  the  horses 
fit  for  work. 

On  Monday  morning 
the  Force  moved  across  the 
stream  and  I  formed  camp. 
The  waggons,  sixteen  in 
number,  were  laagered  in 
the  centre,  and  the  Troops 
put  up  rough  shelters  out- 
side— A  Troop  on  the  right, 
C  in  the  front,  and  B  on  the 

left,  while  the  dismounted  Troop  and  the  Artillery  remained  in  the 
laager,  the  horse  lines  being  in  rear.  As  there  were  now  enough 
horses  to  mount  one  Troop  I  started  mounted  drill  each  morning, 
one  Troop  at  a  time ;  Troops  being  forty-eight  file,  drilling  in  single 
rank  and  forming  a  squadron,  and  in  a  short  time  all  of  them  had  had 
some  practice  in  skirmishing,  outpost  duty,  etc.  I  also  started  rifle 
and  revolver  practice,  and  each  Troop  went  through  a  short  course 
of  the  former.  I  had  sent  all  the  oxen  to  some  good  grass,  five  or 
six  miles  away,  as  soon  as  we  arrived,  hoping  that  by  the  time  we 
moved  forv/ard  they  would  be  fit  to  travel.  I  would  have  got  others 
to  replace  them  had  I  been  able  to,  but  there  were  none  procurable  at 
the  time. 

Although  the  15  th   September  was  originally  put  down  as  the  day 
on  which  we  were  to  leave   Charter,  it  was  evident  as   soon  as  we  got 

VIr.  Chaite,  Bugler  to  the  Salisbury  Horse, 
Calling  in  the  Horses. 

74  The  Dozvnfall  of  Lobcng^ila. 

there  that  we  should  not  get  away  till  some  time  after  that  date. 
Owing  to  the  difficulty  of  purchasing  good  horses  quickly,  and  tlie 
distance  they  had  to  travel,  it  was  not  till  the  14th  September  that  our 
large  lot  of  horses  arrived  at  Victoria.  One  hundred  and  seventy-one 
had  left  Tuli,  of  which  only  136  eventually  arrived  at  Victoria,  and 
this  number  was  further  reduced  to  109  before  arrival  at  Charter, 
the  remainder  having  had  to  be  left  along  the  road,  sick  or 
knocked  up. 

As  soon  as  I  heard  that  this  lot  was  at  Victoria  I  sent  Captain 
Finch  with  a  small  party  to  meet  them.  He  was  to  send  them  on  with 
my  men  from  wherever  he  met  them,  going  on  himself  to  Victoria  to 
bring  on  the  next  lot.  The  109  horses  arrived  at  Charter  on  22nd 
September,  and  were  an  extraordinarily  good  lot.  They  were  in  very 
fair  condition,  and  a  very  good  stamp,  with  scarcely  a  bad  one  amongst 
them.  The  arrival  of  these  horses  cheered  everyone  up  ;  time  had  been 
hanging  very  heavy  on  our  hands  and  we  were  all  keen  for  a  move.  I 
was  now  enabled  to  mount  the  three  Troops  entirely,  and  fitting  and 
altering  saddlery,  etc.,  kept  everyone  busy  for  a  few  days.  By  this  time 
Dr.  Jameson  and  Major  Wilson  had  got  the  Victoria  Column  pretty  well 
ready  on  much  the  same  lines  as  mine,  and  they  were  only  waiting  for 
their  horses  and  150  men,  whom  Dr.  Jameson  was  having  sent  up  from 

Dr.  Jameson  went  to  see  the  Tuli  Column  before  they  made  a 
move.  On  arriving  he  found  that  Captain  Raaf  had  not  yet  returned 
from  buying  horses,  and  he  had  to  wait  some  days  for  him,  and  it 
was  not  till  the  23rd  September  that  Captain  Raaf  returned,  and 
Dr.  Jameson  found  that  he  had  failed  him  in  a  large  number  of 
horses.  I  still  required  about  eighty  or  ninety  to  complete,  and  Dr. 
Jameson  could  not  find  me  any  more.  I  wired  to  Mr.  Duncan,  at 
Salisbury,  and  he  at  once  commandeered  all  the  horses  there,  and 
much  to  my  surprise  and  gratification,  managed  to  send  me  forty. 
These  were  nearly  all  good  salted  horses — private  ones,  which  the 
owners  had  not  cared  to  sell  when  I  started.  In  commandeering  them 
the  Company  and  the  owner  fixed  a  price,  and  if  they  could  not  agree, 
put  it  to  arbitration.  Captain  Finch  managed  to  get  eighteen  more 
from  Victoria,  all  of  which  belonged  to  my  two  previous   lots,  but  had 

Organising  the  Forces.  75 

either  been  left  on  the  road,  or  had  had  to  go  back  with  the  men  who 
had  brought  up  the  first  lot,  and  with  these  I  had  to  be  content. 

I  had  been  in  daily  communication  with  Dr.  Jameson  by  wire, 
and  the  two  points  that  I  always  impressed  upon  him  as  being,  in  my 
opinion,  most  important,  were:  (ij  That  each  column  should  be 
absolutely  complete  in  itself,  and  not  in  any  way  dependent  on  either  of 
the  others  for  anything ;  and  (2)  That  ample  provision  should  be  made 
for  supplies  to  follow  us  in  ;  I  had  had  an  experience  in  1890-91  of  this, 
and  was  anxious  to  avoid  a  recurrence  of  it.  Dr.  Jameson  quite  agreed 
to  the  necessity  of  both  of  these,  and  made  the  necessary  arrangements. 
The  Salisbury  and  Victoria  Columns  were  arranged  on  the  same  lines, 
only  that  Salisbury  had  about  250  whites,  and  Victoria  400,  but  the 
Tuli  Column  was  to  go  in  without  waggons,  carrying  ammunition  on 
pack-horses,  and  living  on  the  natives.  This  was  Captain  Raaf's  wish, 
but  before  the  time  came  to  move  he  had  changed  his  mind  and  taken 

My  idea  was  for  the  three  Columns  to  act  entirely  separately, 
and  to  go  straight  for  Buluwayo  from  their  three  starting  points, 
clearing  the  country  on  both  sides  of  them  as  they  advanced  so  as  to 
leave  no  danger  in  the  rear.  I  thought  that  the  effect  of  the  three 
Columns  coming  from  three  different  directions  would  serve  to 
demoralise  and  break  up  the  Matabeli,  and  should  they  fall  back  and 
concentrate  on  Buluwayo  we  could  join  forces  in  that  neighbourhood. 
I  was  quite  satisfied  that  a  Column  such  as  mine  was  quite  safe  against 
attack,  as  with  the  rifle  and  machine-gun  fire  that  I  had,  I  knew  no 
natives  could  get  up  to  the  laager,  and  my  only  fear  about  the  success 
of  the  Expedition  was  that  the  Matabeli  might  fall  back  before  us  and 
take  up  a  strong  position  somewhere  in  the  bush,  out  of  which,  with  the 
limited  time  at  our  disposal  before  the  rains,  we  might  not  be  able  to 
turn  them.  I  always  hoped,  however,  that  being  so  confident  of  their 
own  strength,  they  would  attack  us  on  the  road,  and  so  give  us  an 
opportunity  of  breaking  them  up  before  we  got  to  Buluwayo,  and  this 
hope  was  realised.  I  have  said  that  I  wished  the  Columns  to  go  in 
separately,  but  the  Victoria  Column  were  very  anxious  to  join  us, 
and  Dr.  Jameson  considered  it  advisable.  It  was  therefore  arranged 
that  we  should  start  about  the  same  dates  from  Charter  and  Victoria, 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula, 

and   join  at   the   "  Iron   Mine  "    Hill.      This  was  a  small  bill  on  the 
edge  of  the  high  veldt,  about  eighty-five  miles  from  Charter,  according 
to  the  map,  and  one  hundred    from  Victoria.     We  received  very  few 
reports  as   to  the   movements  of   the  Matabeli   during  this   time,  and 
nothing    very   definite.      Lobengula    was    reported    to  be  massing    his 
forces  on  the  Shangani  River  about  where  the  combined  columns  would 
cross  it,  and  small  parties  were  reported   to   be  along  the   border.     The 
Umniati  and    Shasha    Rivers,  which    formed    the  border  of 
Matabeliland  proper,  were  about  thirty-five  and  thirty  miles 
from  Charter  and    Victoria  respectively,  but    it  was  known 
that  there  were  no  Matabeli  kraals   for  a   considerable  dis- 
tance further,  although   the  country  was  largely  populated 
with  Maholi  (Matabeli  slaves),  whose  attitude  towards 
us  was  doubtful. 

I   had  asked   Dr.  Jameson    to  come  and    see   the 
force  at  Charter,  as  I  knew  that  all  the  men  would  like 
to  see  him,    and  that  he  would  be  able   to   tell  them 
various  details,    which  up  to  then  had    had    to 
be   kept  quiet.      Although  it  was   very  incon- 
venient to  him,   he  agreed  to   come,  and 
havmg  seen  the  Tuli  Force  ready  to  start, 
drove   right  through   in   the  post-cart 
)i     and      arrived      at     Charter      on     the 
morning    of    the     30th      September, 
accompanied    by    Sir  J.  Willoughby. 
The  latter  had  come  out  from 
rland    when    he   heard    of 
the      disturbances,      and 
was    accompanying     Dr. 
Jameson     as    his     friend 
pure     and    simple,    so    I 
understood,  but  in  reality 
as    his    military    adviser. 
This  I  did  not  know  until 

WAITING   FOR   THE  ORDER  TO       ^^g^^g^^^  ^^^r   thc     wholc     businCSS 

Advance,— A  Mess  at  Charter-^bI^^^^^^^^^^"  ^^^^     o\QX,     and      I     can 

Organising  the  Forces.  jy 

safely  say  that  he  never  advised  me  in  any  way.  I  had  a  parade  of 
the  whole  force  for  the  Doctor,  marching  past  at  a  walk,  then  the 
Mounted  Troops  cantering  past  (and  considering  that  they  had  never 
done  it  before,  they  did  it  extraordinarily  well),  and  an  advance 
in  line,  after  which  the  Mounted  Troops  did  some  skirmishing 
practice.  The  Doctor  expressed  himself  much  pleased  with  the 
efficiency  of  the  Force,  and  promised  to  meet  the  men  at  a  smoking 
concert  to  be  held  that  evening.  After  the  parade  the  Doctor  and  I 
discussed  several  details  that  had  yet  to  be  settled,  and  he  then  walked 
round  the  camp  to  see  the  men.  At  the  smoking  concert  he  spoke  to 
them  and  thanked  them  for  the  way  in  which  they  had  come  forward 
to  help  Mashonaland,  and  assured  them  of  his  complete  confidence  in 
our  success.  He  also  informed  them,  and  this  cheered  up  any  who 
were  inclined  to  hesitate,  that  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  with  a 
large  force  of  Khama's  natives  would  advance  via  Tati  at  the  same 
time  as  we  began  our  advance  ;  and  he  also  told  them  that  although  we 
could  not  begin  the  actual  advance  into  Matabeliland  for  a  few  days 
more,  as  some  of  the  preparations  for  the  other  Columns  were  not  quite 
complete,  yet  we  could  leave  Charter  and  move  slowly  forward  pending 
orders  to  advance. 

Dr.  Jameson  and  Sir  J.  Willoughby  left  the  same  evening  to  return 
to  Victoria,  and  Mr.  Duncan,  who  had  come  from  Salisbury  to  meet  the 
Doctor,  returned  the  following  morning. 

While  we  were  at  Charter,  Bishop  Knight-Bruce,  Bishop  of 
Mashonaland,  had  ridden  across  from  Umtali  to  see  us,  and  expressed 
a  wish  to  accompany  the  Column.  He  saw  Dr.  Jameson  and  arranged 
to  go  with  us,  but  had  first  to  return  to  Umtali  upon  business  ;  however, 
he  said  that  he  would  catch  us  up.  It  was  Saturday  when  the  Doctor 
left,  and  on  Monday,  2nd  October,  the  Salisbury  Column  marched. 

Our  strength  on  leaving  Charter  was  as  follows  : — Whites,  258  ; 
Natives,  115  ;  Horses,  242. 

The  order  of  march  which  I  arranged  then,  and  which  was  followed 
until  we  joined  the  Victoria  Column,  was  as  follows  : — One  mounted 
Troop  furnished  the  advance  guard  and  right  flanking  party  ;  half  a 
troop,  i.e.,  twenty-four  file,  forming  each.  The  constitution  of  each 
troop   was  one  Captain,  two  Lieutenants,  one   Troop-sergeant-major, 

78  The  Downfall  of  Lobcngnla. 

two  Sergeants,  four  Corporals,  one  trumpeter,  and  forty-two  rank  and 
file  ;  each  troop  formed  a  squadron  of  two  troops  of  twenty-four  file 
divided  into  six  sections,  each  one  of  which  was  a  unit  in  itself,  and  as 
far  as  possible  the  section  system  was  carried  out  all  through.  The 
advance  guard  consisted  of  an  advance  party  of  three  sections  (twelve 
file)  in  extended  order,  and  a  support  of  three  sections  with  a  galloping 
Maxim  drawn  by  four  mules.  The  right  flanking  party  consisted  of 
three  sections  in  single  file  on  the  outside,  and  a  support  of  three 
sections  inside.  Another  mounted  troop  with  a  Maxim  furnished  the 
left  flanking  party  and  rear  guard,  which  were  disposed  in  the  same 
way  as  the  advance  guard  and  right  flanking  party.  The  third  mounted 
Troop  remained  in  reserve  with  the  Column. 

The  waggons,  sixteen  in  number,  marched  in  a  double  column 
about  fifty  yards  apart,  a  private  Scotch  cart  belonging  to  Mr.  Acutt 
heading  the  right  column  and  opening  the  spoor,  the  seven-pounder  gun 
with  ten  oxen  leading  the  left,  while  the  Gardner  gun  with  six  oxen 
followed  in  the  rear  of  the  right  column.  The  Nordenfeldt  gun,  which 
had  no  limber,  was  carried  on  the  artillery  waggon  which  followed  the 
seven-pounder  gun  at  the  head  of  the  left  column.  The  waggons  in  the 
two  columns  were  as  follow  : — 

Right  Column.— Staff ;  A  Troop;  A  Troop  ;  Hospital;  C  Troop;  Com- 
missariat ;  Commissariat ;  D  Troop. 

Left  Column.— Artillery ;  B  Troop;  B  Troop;  Commissariat;  Com- 
missariat ;  Commissariat ;  Commissariat ;  Forge. 

Each  waggon  carried  a  certain  amount  of  M.H.  ammunition,  and 
two  boxes  (2,000  rounds)  were  always  kept  open  at  the  front  of  each 

The  ration  scale  was  as  follows  :— Meat  (fresh)  li  lbs., (tinned)  i  lb.; 
Meal,  U  lbs.  ;  Tea,  \  oz.  ;  Coffee,  i  oz. ;  Sugar,  3  ozs.  ;  Vegetables 
(preserved)  i  oz. 

On  leaving  Charter  we  had  about  forty  days'  full  rations  for  the  men, 
including  meat  which  we  drove,  and  three  days'  mealies  for  the  horses, 
and  I  counted  on  getting  another  three  days'  mealies  at  Mr.  Dawson's 
cattle  post  about  twenty  miles  on  the  road.  We  had  at  starting  242 
horses,  all  told,  and  276  oxen. 

The  ammunition  that  we  carried  was   176.000  rounds   of  M.H.,  of 

Organising  the  Forces. 


which  about  15,000  were  carried  by  the  men,  each  mounted  man  carry- 
ing 100  rounds,  fifty  in  his  bandoHer  and  fifty  in  his  wallets  ;  16,000 
Gardner,  150  rounds  seven-pounder  gun,  and  4,000  special  Maxim  ammu- 
nition. The  Nordenfeldt  gun  fired  M.H.  We  had  also  about  5,000  rounds 
revolver  ammunition.  I  also  had  with  me  two  dozen  socket  signals, 
which  we  found  most  useful,  seven  dozen  one-pound  signal  rockets,  and 
two  dozen  magnesian  lights.  The  latter,  which  had  been  given  me  by 
Mr.  Markham  shortly  before  leaving  Salisbury,  had  been  specially  made 
for  him  for  shooting  lions,  and,  although  I  never  had  an  opportunity  of 
trying  them  at  an  attack,  I  am  sure  that  they  would  have  been  most 
useful.  They  burn  very  brightly  for  about  a  minute,  and  throw  a  brilliant 
light  for  about  200  yards  all  round.  I  am  sure  that  this  brilliant  light 
would  have  had  a  great  effect  on  the  Matabeli,  and  four  men  were  told 
off  daily  to  hold  them,  one  in  the  centre  of  each  face  of  the  laager.  I 
also  had  sufficient  entrenching  tools. 

On  leaving  Charter  I  commenced  forming  laager  regularly,  and 
this  form  was  adopted  by  me 
during  the  whole  of  the  Expedition, 
and  was  found  to  be  very  conve- 
nient. It  could  be  formed  when  on 
the  march  in  from  two  to  three 
minutes,  and  when  bushed  was  very 
strong.  It  provided  room  for  all 
the  men  and  horses  inside  ;  the 
oxen  were  all  picketed  in  front  of 
the  right,  left,  and  rear  faces.  Each 
driver  was  provided  with  two  three- 
feet  steel  posts,  and  immediately  his 
waggon  was  driven  into  its  place, 
he  unhooked  the  whole  span  of 
oxen,  and  took  them  clear  of  the 
waggons,  and  as  soon  as  the  side 
was  complete,  fastened  both  ends 
of    his    trek-tow    down,    and    then 

tied  the  oxen  up  to  it.     The  oxen  t,,^^^^^  showing  formation 

when  crowded  close  into  the  waggon,  Salisbury  Laager. 

8o  The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

took  up  very  little  room,  and  formed  a  most  efficient  obstacle.  If 
time  allowed,  a  thick  thorn  bush  fence  was  always  put  outside  them, 
and  all  the  waggons  not  covered  by  oxen  were  protected  by  thorn  bush 
pulled  under  them.  It  was  found  that  in  bush  country  the  whole  laager 
could  be  completed  and  bushed  up  in  about  ten  to  fifteen  minutes. 

The  duties  when  on  march  were  distributed  as  follows  : — A  captain 
and  subaltern  of  the  day  were  told  off  daily.  One  mounted  troop  came 
on  duty  at  guard-mounting  (6  p.m.)  daily.  This  troop  found  the  out- 
lying white  pickets  for  that  night,  and  the  pickets  the  following  day. 
The  night  pickets  consisted  of  three  double  white  and  three  single 
native  pickets,  posted  at  regular  intervals,  not  more  than  200  yards 
away  from  and  round  the  laager.  The  white  pickets  consisted  of  one  non- 
commissioned officer  and  six  men,  and  the  native  pickets  of  one  non- 
commissioned officer  and  three  men.  Each  white  picket  furnished  two 
patrolling  sentries,  and  each  native  one  stationary  sentry,  and  the  white 
sentries  patrolled  continually  to  the  native  on  each  side  of  them,  so  that 
there  was  a  continuous  moving  circle  of  sentries  round  the  laager, 
These  were  relieved  at  daylight,  when  the  day  pickets  were  posted. 
The  day  pickets  consisted  of  one  section  each  (the  No.  i  of  each  section 
being  in  charge),  and  were  posted  immediately  on  halting  by  the 
captain  of  the  day.  Their  number  varied  according  to  the  nature  of 
the  country  ;  but,  as  a  rule,  two  or  three  were  sufficient  to  command 
all  the  surrounding  country,  and  to  enclose  a  large  enough  space  for 
all  the  animals  to  graze  inside  them.  This  troop  also  furnished  the 
advance  guard.  Another  mounted  troop  formed  the  inlying  picket  for 
the  night,  and  slept  at  the  end  of  the  laager.  This  troop  was  always 
available  for  any  special  duty  during  the  night,  and  in  case  of  an  alarm 
had  to  immediately  saddle  up  its  horses.  It  formed  the  reserve  troop 
durine  the  march  the  following  day,  and  when  the  Column  was  spanned 
out  in^the  middle  of  the  day,  always  kept  a  certain  number  of  horses  in, 
and  grazed  the  remainder  within  easy  distance  of  the  laager.  The 
third  mounted  troop  formed  the  rear-guard  and  flanking  party  on 
the  following  day.  The  dismounted  troop  and  the  artillery  always 
furnished  the  main  guard,  consisting  of  one  non-commissioned  officer 
and  three  men  at  first,  and  later,  of  two  non-commissioned  officers  and 
twelve  men. 

Organising  the  Forces.  8i 

As  long  as  the  smaller  guard  was  sufficient,  it  was  posted  at  the 
left  rear  corner  of  the  waggon,  and  furnished  one  sentry.  The  only 
entrance  into  the  laager  when  it  was  completed  was  in  this  corner,  and 
was  made  by  the  Maxim  being  drawn  back  into  the  laager.  It  was  the 
duty  of  the  non-commissioned  officers  of  the  guard  to  have  the  Maxim 
pushed  into  its  place  at  "  last  post,"  thereby  completely  closing  the 
laager.  When  I  found  it  advisable  to  have  a  larger  guard,  a  non- 
commissioned officer  and  six  men  were  posted  at  each  Maxim,  and  a 
sentry  was  furnished  for  each  side  of  the  laager.  Each  sentry's  beat 
was  along  the  outside  of  his  face,  communicating  at  the  corners  with 
the  sentries  of  the  other  faces. 

As  soon  as  the  horses  were  fastened  up  and  fed  each  evening 
the  general  parade  sounded,  and  everyone  in  the  laager  was  told 
off  to  place  his  men  in  case  of  an  alarm.  Each  waggon  was  manned 
with  eight  men,  and  any  that  were  to  spare  were  told  off  to  the 
front  face.  A  Troop  always  occupied  the  right,  and  B  Troop  the 
left  face,  except  when  either  of  them  was  inlying  picket,  and  its 
place  was  then  taken  by  C  Troop.  Each  man  slept  as  near  his  post  as 
possible.  All  natives,  except  a  few  good  grooms  who  slept  in  the 
laager,  and  whose  duty  it  was  in  case  of  alarm  to  remain  among  the 
horses  and  keep  them  quiet,  were  divided  equally,  and  slept  outside 
each  end  of  the  laager,  with  orders  to  come  inside  to  man  the  front  and 
rear  faces  in  case  of  an  attack. 

In  addition  to  the  natives  who  had  joined  the  Native  Contingent 
before  leaving,  there  were  a  considerable  number  of  private  native 
servants  whom  I  had  allowed  to  accompany  their  masters,  provided 
they  were  passed  as  efficient  by  the  officers  commanding  troops  ; 
and  on  consideration  of  the  Company  feeding  them,  they  were 
available  for  any  duty,  and  took  their  turn  on  the  roster  for  night 
pickets.  All  these,  as  well  as  all  the  waggon-drivers  and  leaders,  were 
armed.  I  found  that  the  natives  were  thoroughly  reliable  for  picket 
duty  at  night,  and  only  one  native  during  the  campaign  was  found 
asleep  on  his  post.  As  a  rule  I  think  that  the  whole  of  the  native 
picket  remained  awake  all  night  from  fear,  but  no  false  alarm  was  ever 
occasioned  by  them.  Their  hearing  and  eyesight  are  both  so  superior 
to  a  white  man's,  especially  at  night,  that  I  consider  them   very  useful 


82  The  Doimifall  of  Lobengula. 

in  this  capacity  so  long  as  they  feel  that  they  are  in  touch  with  and 
supported  by  white  men. 

The  horses  were  fastened  up  to  picketing  lines  pegged  down  at 
each  end,  and  their  saddles  placed  close  behind  them.  I  with  my 
staff  always  slept  under  or  near  the  "  Staff"  waggon,  and  I  had  a 
socket  for  socket  signals  permanently  fastened  on  the  front  of  the 
waggons,  and  also  had  some  one-pound  rockets  in  readiness  each  night, 
besides  the  four  men  already  mentioned  who  were  posted,  one  in  the 
centre  of  each  face  with  magnesian  lights. 

Although  we  had  been  delayed  at  Charter  for  three  weeks,  and  the 
delay  had  been  very  irksome  and  trying  to  everyone,  the  discipline  of 
the  force  had  been  extremely  good.  There  had  only  been  two 
aggravated  cases  for  orderly  room — Belburn  and  Carroll— and  they 
had  both  been  discharged  at  once ;  and  during  the  whole  campaign  I 
think  that  there  was  only  one  other  white  man  brought  before  me. 
The  force  was  enlisted  under  the  Cape  Mounted  Rifles  Act,  and 
officers  commanding  troops  had  power  to  punish  for  any  trivial  offence. 
Two  men  took  their  discharge  from  Charter- — Trooper  L.  T.  E. 
Llewellyn  and  Corporal  W.  Keppel  Stier.  The  former  was  suddenly 
recalled  home  by  very  pressing  business,  and  left  via  Beira,  he  told 
me  what  the  business  was,  and  I  advised  him  to  go.  Keppel  Stier  went 
to  Victoria,  where  he  was  given  a  commission  as  a  subaltern  by  Major 



J?orx  Charter 

To   Ml 


'.Oct.,  1893. 
^ct.,  1893. 


6    E.  Burnett's  Grave. 

9  E,  Burnett  shot,  a:ird  Oct.,  1893. 

19   Trooper  Thompson's  Grave,  killed  in  action  at  M.  Bembesi. 
^S  Graves  0/ Troopers  Gary  and  Siebert,  shot  at  M,  Bembesi. 
17   Calcro/t's  Grave,  shot  at  M.  Bembesi. 

10  Capt,  Williams  lost  at  Jingen,  atth  Oct.,  1893. 

16   Cattle  captured  by  patrol  under  Alajor  Forbes,  iSt/i  Oct.,  1S93. 
Sia'^B  Country  covered  -with  bush. 

The  Downfall  of  Lobengula.  plan  i. 

Sketch  Map,  showing  Route  taken  by  the  Salisbury  and  Victoria  Field  Columns,  from  their  Starting  Points  to  BULUWAYO. 

Total  distance  from  Fort  Charter  to  Biihiwayo,  220  miles  by  Trocheameter.     Bearings  taken  by  Prismatic  Compass. 

^am  f>e^L 


Buluwayo,  izM  Nccz'.,  1893. 

To  Major  SIR  JOHN  WILLOUGHBY,  Bart. 

Preparedly   D.  TYRIE  LAING, 

Lieut,  C.  Troop, 

Salisbury  Horse, 

..--5/,sa  vie     R 

Sabc       ti'ccteT^    S/ved 


J'HO    ^ONOO-. 

m  Fort  Cltarte^  to  Buluzvayo. 
I  Iron  Mine  Hill  to  Buluwayo. 

^  Foute  o/thl  Saliii'Ury  Column/, 

♦■++.t  ++  Himie  0/  t/u  Victoria  Column  fro 

■— -^ — *  Rivers  and  running  Streams. 

"~---"    Probable  course  oj  Ri-ners. 

r^   Battle  0/  Shangani.  ^stli  Od.,  1893. 

rt  <A>    Jiatlle  o/M.  Bembesi,  \st  Nov.,  1893. 

<f  ^   Capt.  IVhite's  scouts  skirmish  killed  7  Matabeli,  -itnd  Oct. ,  i8g3. 
O     ff.  Sucameni  Regt.  Kraal  destroyed  by  fatrol  under  Major  Wilson,  2ul  Oct., 

C    Kraal  destroyed  by  C.  Troop,  Salisbury  Horse,  Capt.  Sprecklcy,  s^rd  Oct.,  181 

e    Kraal  destroyed  by  B.   Troop,  Salisbury  Horse,  Capt.  Borro7it,  24//;  Oct.,  1S93. 

10  Jingen  Kraal  destroyed  by  A .  Troop,  Salisbury  Horse,  Caft.  Heaney,  ^ith  Oct.,  1893. 

11>>  Jingen  skirmish  with  Matabeli— C  Troop,  supported  by  B.  Tj  oop,  killed  07ier  40  Matabeli,  eTth  Oct. ,  1 89 

12   Eu.xta  Kraal  shelled  by  Victoria  t-pounder  and  destroyed  by  A.  Troop.  Salisbury  Horse,  28M  Oct.,  1893. 

13k  C.  Troop  skirmish  with  strong/orce  0/ Matabeli  in  hills  ")  ,„<  Oct.,  1S93. 

13^  Victoria  Horse  skirmish  with  strong  force  0/ Matabeli  in  hills)  Sir  John  Willoughty  present. 

\^  C.  Troop,  Salisbury  Horse,  Capt.  IVhite's  scouts  skirmish  with  Matal'eli,  yd  i^ov..  1893. 

X    Capt.  Campbell' s  Grax'e, 

2   Capt.  Campbell  shot,  x^th  Oct.,  1893. 

6  /-  ■  Burnett's  Grave, 

9  E,  Burnett  shot,  3ird  Oct,,  l%9i. 

19  Trooper  Thompson' s  Grave,  kllUd  in  action  at  M.  Bembesi. 

^Q  Craves  0/ Troopers  Gary  and  Siebtrt,  shot  at  M,  Bembesi. 

17  Calcro/t's  Grave,  shot  at  M,  Bembesi. 

10  Capt.  Williams  lost  at  Jingen,  atth  Oct.,  1893. 

16  Cattle  captured  by  patrol  under  Major  Forbes,  sitk  Oct.,  1S93. 

"^Jt  Country  coz'ered  with  bush. 



By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

The  Salisbury  Column  advance  from  Charter — Crossing  the  Umniati  river — In  Matabeliland 
—  A  scouting  party — Halt  at  Iron  Mine  Hill — Capturing  cattle — First  sight  of  the 
Matabeli — Captain  Campbell  shot — The  Victoria  Column  join  us— formation  of  their 
laager — Their  strength  and  officers — Difficulties  with  the  Victoria  Artillery  overcome — 
Arrangements  for  the  combined  march— The  realities  of  war— Native  guides. 

The  Salisbury  Column  left  Charter  on  Monday,  October  2nd,  and 
were  to  move  quietly  forward  until  I  got  orders  to  commence  the  main 
advance.  Although  our  waggons  were  not  heavily  laden — the  heaviest 
load  being  less  than  5,000  pounds — the  sand  was  very  deep  and  our 
progress  slow ;  the  first  water  was  six  miles  away,  and  we  had  to  reach 
it  that  night ;  this  we  managed  to  do  by  dark,  but  did  not  get  some 
of  the  waggons  in  till  nearly  midnight. 

On  leaving  Charter,  we  followed  the  alternative  road  from  Salisbury 
to  Buluwayo  for  about  twenty  miles  ;  this  leads  almost  due  west  over 
a  high  sandy  plateau,  bare  of  bush,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  small 
patches  here  and  there.  About  twenty-five  miles  from  Charter,  and  on  this 
road,  there  are  the  Intabas  Insimbi  Hills — a  large  square  of  bushy  kopjes, 
about  400  feet  high,  covering  eight  to  ten  miles  square  of  country.  In 
these  there  are  several  small  Mashona  kraals,  and  before  leaving  Charter  I 
had  sent  Captain  Williams'  scouting  party  to  see  if  they  could  get  any 
information  about  the  movements  of  the  Matabeli.  They  were  unable 
to  get  any  at  the  kraals,  and  pushed  on  about  ten  miles  further  to  the 
drift  on  the  Umniati  River,  but  without  seeing  any  signs  of  an  enemy. 

t  The  following  morning  (the  3rd)  we  marched  again  at  daybreak, 
but  had  to  leave  two  waggons  that  had  not  arrived  till  late  at  night,  to 
follow  us  after  the  oxen  had  rested,  and  got  to  a  disused  cattle  post  of 
Mr.  Dawson.     Mr.  Dawson  has  a  farm  marked  out  there,  but  there  was 

G   2 

84  The  Downjall  of  Lobengula. 

no    one   in    occupation.     As    there    was    good    water   and    fairly   good 
grazing,  I  determined  to  wait  there  for  a  day. 

The  next  morning,  4th,  I  rode  back  to  Charter  with  Captain  Finch 
and  Dr.  Edgelow,  to  have  a  final  talk  on  the  wire  with  Major  Wilson  and 
Mr.  Duncan.  Major  Wilson  told  me  that  the  last  of  his  people  were 
leaving  that  day,  and  we  agreed  to  meet  at  the  Iron  Mine  Hill  on  the 
14th.  I  got  a  message  from  Dr.  Jameson,  saying  that  he  hoped  to  be 
able  to  send  rne  final  instructions  to  move  on  the  following  day;  we  then 
rode  back  to  camp,  getting  there  just  at  lunch-time.  While  at  lunch  I  had 
suddenly  to  turn  the  whole  camp  out,  to  put  out  a  grass  fire.  The  grass 
had  been  accidentally  lighted  about  a  mile  up  wind,  and  burnt  down  on 
us  at  such  a  pace  that  it  was  with  difficulty  we  extinguished  it.  We 
remained  at  this  camp  during  the  next  day,  and  on  the  morning  of  the 
6th  marched  again  ;  we  did  five  miles  in  the  morning  march,  all  through 
deep  sand,  and  went  on  again  at  3  p.m.,  doing  six-and-a-half  miles  to 
Mr.  Dawson's  other  cattle  post.  The  road  was  very  heavy  and  the 
oxen  all  tired  before  we  arrived,  which  was  just  at  dark;  the  leading 
waggon  drove  into  a  mud  hole  and  stuck  there,  and  we  had  about  two 
hours'  hard  work  to  get  it  out.  From  this  point  we  were  to  leave  the 
road  and  strike  out  our  own  line  ;  I  had  originally  intended  following 
the  road  until  after  we  had  crossed  the  Umniati,  but  as  this  would  have 
entailed  going  in  amongst  the  kopjes  and  through  some  thick  bush,  I 
thought  it  best  to  keep  to  the  open  country  as  much  as  possible.  As 
there  was  a  stream  to  be  crossed  about  two  miles  on.  over  which  a  drift 
had  to  be  made,  I  sent  Major  Browne  on  in  the  morning  with  a  fatigue 
party,  and  rested  the  oxen  until  the  afternoon,  and  then  moved  across 
the  drift.  I  did  not  wish  to  get  too  far  from  Charter,  as  the  message 
from  the  Doctor  which  I  was  expecting  every  minute  had  to  be  brought, 
and  so  determined  to  wait  where  we  were  until  it  arrived.  It  came  about 
9  a.m.  the  following  morning,  and  was  to  the  effect  that  we  could  push  on. 
The  Doctor  also  said  that  Colonel  Goold-Adams  was  leaving  with  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  and  would  have  the  Tuli  Column  under  him 
until  they  reached  Buluwayo.  I  spanned-in  at  once,  and  did  a  short 
trek  of  two  miles,  still  through  deep  sand  and  over  high,  open  ridges, 
and  went  on  five  miles  in  the  afternoon.  The  distances  were  taken  by 
a  tracheometer,  which  I  had  borrowed  from  the  Hon.  Maurice   Gifford, 

Leaving  Mashoualand  for  the  Front.  85 

and  which  generally  worked  all  right,  although  it  sometimes  got  caked 
with  dust  and  refused  to  register.  That  evening  we  had  some  slight 
rain,  sufficiently  heavy  to  show  everyone  how  desirable  it  was  to  get  our 
work  done  before  the  regular  rains  began.  There  were  no  tents  procur- 
able in  Salisbury,  and  I  had  provided  the  force  as  far  as  possible  with 
canvas  to  make  shelters,  it  was  double  width  (6  feet)  canvas,  and  when 
cut  off  in  lengths  of  7^  feet,  with  buttons  and  ropes  sewn  on,  made  a  very 
good  protection.  One  piece  stretched  between  two  trees  with  its  back 
to  the  weather  made  a  good  shelter  for  four  men,  and  two  pieces 
fastened  together  made  a  very  good  patrol  tent.  Captain  Heany  had 
also  provided  a  large  amount  of  limbo  (white  calico)  for  his  Troop^ 
and  with  these  and  the  buck  sails,  of  which  each  waggon  had  one,  the 
whole  force  could  keep  fairly  dry. 

The  following  morning  we  reached  the  Umniati  River.  This  was  a 
boundary  river  between  Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland,  and  we  might 
expect  opposition  at  any  point  after  crossing  it. 

The  Umniati  is  a  wide  sandy  river,  with  at  that  time  of  the  year 
very  little  water  in  it.  We  had  to  cut  the  bank  away  a  little  to  get  down  to 
it,  but  had  no  difficulty  in  crossing,  and  laagered  about  half-a-mile  from 
it.  The  Native  Contingent  were  divided  into  two  parties,  and  always 
went  in  advance  of  the  two  columns  of  waggons,  cutting  the  bush  and 
making  drifts  where  necessary. 

As  we  were  now  actually  in  Matabeliland,  I  issued  a  special  order 
warning  every  one  to  be  on  the  alert  ;  and  after  this  I  allowed  no  game 
shooting  along  the  road.  Game  had  been  very  plentiful  across  the  flats 
from  Charter,  and  most  of  the  messes  had  been  able  to  supplement  their 
rations  with  buck  meat  or  birds.  We  moved  on  the  same  afternoon  three- 
and-a-half  miles,  and  had  to  make  a  drift  over  a  small  tributary  of  the 
Umniati,  on  the  west  bank  of  which  we  laagered.  The  first  few  miles 
after  crossing  the  Umniati  took  us  through  large  granite  kopjes  with 
patches  of  bush.  The  ground,  although  dry  at  that  time  of  the  year,  is 
very  soft  in  the  wet  season. 

The  following  morning,  loth  October,  I  sent  out  two  parties  of 
scouts — one  under  Captain  Williams  was  to  follow  the  Umniati  down  its 
west  bank  to  the  waggon  road,  along  that  about  twenty  miles  towards 
Buluwayo,and  then  strike  due  south  to  cut  our  spoor.     They  were  to  be 

86  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengula. 

absent  about  three  days.  I  had  always  had  in  mind  the  possibility  that 
as  we  were  keeping  so  far  to  the  south,  the  Matabeli  might  make  a 
counter-attack  on  Salisbury,  keeping  to  the  waggon  road.  I  knew  that 
they  could  not  keep  much  to  the  north  of  it,  on  account  of  the  "  fly," 
through  which  they  could  not  drive  their  slaughter  oxen,  upon  which,  as 
being  their  sole  food  supply,  an  impi  is  entirely  dependent.  The  other 
scouting  party,  one  furnished  by  A  Troop,  I  sent  forward,  giving  them 
what  we  were  told  by  one  of  our  natives  who  had  previously  hunted  in 
the  country  was  our  general  direction,  i.e.,  slightly  to  the  N.  of  S.E.,  and 
instructing  them  to  push  on  if  possible  to  the  Iron  Mine  Hill,  and  return 
as  fast  as  possible  to  guide  us.  This  morning  we  marched  six  miles  and 
laagered  across  a  considerable  sized  stream,  over  which  we  had 
to  make  drifts,  and  went  on  in  the  afternoon,  doing  four  miles.  We 
were  in  open  country  most  of  the  day,  crossing  high  pebbly  ridges  with 
small  streams  between  them.  During  the  afternoon  march  we  crossed 
a  high  ridge,  from  which  we  got  a  very  good  view,  and  our  natives 
pointed  out  the  whereabouts  of  the  Iron  Mine  Hill. 

The  next  day,  i  ith,  we  marched  as  usual  as  soon  as  possible  after 
daylight,  and  after  going  two  miles  came  to  the  Sebaque  River.  This 
was  a  wide  sandy  river  with  steep  banks  which  we  had  to  cut  away,  we 
crossed  it  without  difficulty  and  were  delayed  a  few  minutes  only.  I 
had  provided  before  starting  two  pieces  of  rope,  about  thirty  feet  long, 
with  a  hook  at  the  end  of  each,  and  these  were  hooked  into  the  end  of 
the  trek-tow  of  each  waggon  in  turn  when  they  got  into  heavy  ground, 
and  twenty  or  thirty  men  soon  pulled  them  out.  While  we  were  making 
the  drift  we  saw  a  troop  of  sable  antelope  about  i,ooo  yards  to  our  left, 
and  I  gave  Mr.  Murray  Gourlay  permission  to  try  and  shoot  one,  which  he 
succeeded  in  doing,  securing  a  young  bull.  Shooting  had  been  prohibited 
after  crossing  the  border  to  avoid  a  false  alarm  being  given.  We  went 
about  two  miles  beyond  the  Sebaque,  and  laagered  on  a  small  stream. 
Just  after  laagering  Mr.  Acutt  found  a  large  bull  roan  antelope  that  had 
been  recently  killed  by  a  lion.  One  hind-quarter  and  intestines  only  had 
been  eaten,  so  we  took  the  rest  of  the  meat.  We  were  now  in  bushy 
country,  mostly  Segusi  and  Machabel,  without  much  undergrowth,  and 
this  continued  almost  up  to  the  Iron  Mine  Hill.  Large  open  "  laagtes  " 
(glades)  ran  down  between  the  bush  and   along  the  streams  ;  in  these 

Leaving  Mashonalaud  for  the  Front.  87- 

there  was  fair  grazing.  We  did  five  miles  in  the  afternoon  and  came  to 
a  large  river,  of  which  the  natives  did  not  know  the  name,  but  we  found 
out  afterwards  that  it  was  the  Umvumi. 

The  following  morning,  12th,  we  found  a  good  drift  where  no  work 
was  required,  and  as  there  was  good  grass  we  laagered  on  the  west  bank, 
going  on  in  the  afternoon  five  miles.  That  evening  the  A  Troop  Scout 
ing  party  returned  about  9  p.m.,  bringing  two  natives  as  guides  whom 
they  got  from  a  kraal  near  the  Iron  Mine  Hill,  They  reported  that 
they  had  not  actually  been  to  the  Hill  but  had  seen  it  from  the  kraal 
from  which  they  had  got  the  "  boys,"  and  that  it  was  not  more  than 
twelve  miles  awa}^  The  natives  reported  that  there  were  no  Matabeli 
about,  that  they  had  heard  nothing  of  my  column,  but  that  they  heard 
three  days  before  that  there  were  white  men  at  Chilimanzi's,  about  sixty 
miles  to  the  south,  coming  from  Victoria  and  going  into  Matabeliland. 
The  scouts  also  reported  that  except  at  the  kraal  where  they  had  got  the 
guides  they  had  seen  no  trace  of  any  natives. 

The  following  morning,  13th,  we  moved  on  at  daylight,  and  after 
going  about  three  miles,  came  to  the  best  patch  of  grass  that  we  had 
found  anywhere  on  the  road.  As  we  had  no  grain  for  the  horses,  I 
thought  it  advisable  to  laager  there,  although  we  had  come  such  a  short 
distance.  The  guides  gave  us  to  understand  that  it  was  only  about  six 
miles  to  the  Iron  Mine  Hill,  so  we  started  at  3  p.m.,  hoping  to  get  there 
by  dark.  I  rode  on  with  them,  leaving  the  waggons  to  follow,  but  when 
we  had  gone  six-and-half  miles  they  told  me  that  the  hill  was  as  far 
again  as  we  had  come,  consequently  I  gave  up  all  hopes  of  getting 
there  that  night,  and  laagered  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Bembeswane. 

We  started  at  daylight  the  next  day,  14th,  and  had  scarcely  gone  a 
mile  when  we  saw  a  small  kopje  in  front  of  us,  covered  Vv''ith  workings. 
We  concluded  that  this  was  the  Iron  Mine  Hill,  or  Sigala,  as  the  natives 
call  it,  and  found  on  asking  the  guides  that  it  was.  We  were  glad  to 
find  that  we  were  first  at  the  place  of  meeting,  and  that  we  were  up  to 
time.  We  laagered  close  under  the  kopje,  which  is  right  at  the  head 
waters  of  the  Tokwe,  and  on  the  watershed  between  the  Zambesi  and 
the  Limpopo,  and  which,  although  a  small  and  insignificant  landmark 
from  the  north,  stands  out  well  from  the  south,  where  the  country  falls 
rapidly  away.     A  picket  was  posted  on  the  top  of  the  kopje,  and  they 


The  Dozvnfall  of  Lobengula. 

found  a  pen- 
cilled    note 
stuck  on    a 
tree     there, 
which     had 
been  left  by 
some  of  the 
Scouts     the 
day    before.     From    this    we 
made  out  that  the  Victoria   Force 
was    twenty    to    twenty-five    miles 
away  and  could    not   be    there    for 
two  days.     There  was  a  very  extensive  view  in 
the  direction   of  Victoria,  and    after  breakfast  I 
took  a  heliograph  to  the  top  of  the  kopje  to  try  and 
call  up  the  Victoria  Column,  but  without  success.     I  also 
took  up  the  guides  and  examined  them  about  the  country. 
To   the  south-east,   the  direction  in  which  the  Victoria 
Column  would  come,  the  country  was  fairly  level  for  some 
distance,  and  the  hills  about  Chilimanzi's,  and  behind  them 
those  about  Victoria,  stood  up  in  the  far  distance;     To 
the  south,  about  ten  miles  away  and   extending  for  a  long  distance  to 
the  south-west  were  the  Matoppo  hills,  in  which  the  guide  informed  me 
Indaima,  a  Mashona  Chief,  had  his  kraals.     The  hills  here  ended  to  the 
east,  in  a    high    "spitzkop"  which   they    called    Indaima's  mountain. 
They  also  informed  me  that  Indaima's  people  had  charge  of  a  large 
number  of   Matabeli  cattle  which  they  had  to  herd,  and    pointed  out 
a  long  bushy  ridge,  about  six  miles  to  the  west,  behind  which  they  said 
were  the  Insukameni   cattle  posts,  at  which  were  some  of  the  cattle 
taken  from  Victoria  in  July,  and  as  I  should  have  to  wait  at  least  a  day 
for  the  Victoria  Column,  I  thought  that  I  could  not  do  better  than  try 
to  recover  some  of  them. 

Shortly  after  we  had  arrived  in  the  morning  some  Mashonas  had 
come  into  camp  to  "  konza"  (pay  their  respects).  They  expressed  them- 
selves  delighted  to  see  us,  and  hoped   that  we  should  be  successful  in 

Indaima's  Kraal. 

Leaving  Mashonaland  for  the  Fj'ont.  89 

exterminating  their  ruthless  enemies.  I  sent  some  of  them  back  to  the 
kraals  to  tell  the  natives  to  bring  in  grain  and  food  to  trade,  and  I  also  told 
them  to  make  enquiries,  and  let  me  know  that  evening  if  the  cattle  were 
still  at  their  posts.  During  the  morning  the  American  Scouts  attached 
to  the  Victoria  Column  arrived  ;  they  told  us  that  the  Column  should 
be  there  the  following  night.  As  the  water  was  some  distance  from 
the  Iron  Mine  Hill,  and  the  grass  was  poor,  I  decided  to  shift  the  laager  to 
a  better  site,  I  found  one  about  two  miles  away,  and  we  were  spanning- 
in  to  move  when  the  picket  sent  down  word  that  they  had  seen  the 
light  of  a  heliograph.  I  went  up  at  once  and  called  up  ;  I  got  their 
light,  and  found  that  it  was  an  advance  party  of  the  Victoria  Column 
about  ten  miles  away.  I  was  just  asking  where  Dr.  Jameson  was,  when 
I  saw  him  and  Sir  John  Willoughby  ride  up  to  our  laager  ;  I  went 
down  at  once,  and  we  then  moved  the  laager  to  the  new  site.  The 
Doctor  told  me  that  the  other  Column  was  coming  on  all  right,  and  had 
had  no  opposition. 

That  evening  some  of  the  natives  I  had  sent  out  in  the  morning 
returned,  and  said  that  the  cattle  were  still  at  their  posts,  but  that 
a  small  party  of  Matabeli  had  been  at  their  kraal  that  day,  that  they 
were  going  on  to  Indaima's  to  collect  cattle  there,  and  returning  the 
following  day,  picking  up  the  cattle  from  the  different  kraals  and 
posts  as  they  passed,  and  driving  them  into  the  country.  As  I  did  not 
like  to  miss  the  opportunity  of  recovering  the  cattle,  I  started  off  at 
3  a.m.  with  sixty  men,  twenty  each  from  A,  B,  and  C  Troops. 
Captain  Heany  accompanied  me,  and  Captain  Borrow  was  left  in 
command  of  the  laager  ;  Dr.  Jameson  and  Sir  John  Willoughby 
accompanied  the  patrol,  I  had  hoped  to  have  got  to  the  cattle  posts 
by  daylight,  or  anyhow  before  the  cattle  were  let  out  of  the  kraals 
but  the  distance  was  greater  than  the  natives  had  given  me  to  under- 
stand, and  we  had  gone  ten  miles  before  we  saw  any  cattle.  A  large 
herd  of  what  we  thought  to  be  cattle  were  seen  as  we  were  going 
out,  and  Captain  Heany  took  the  A  Troop  men  to  try  and  cut  them 
off;  they  turned  out,  however,  to  be  sable  antelope.  After  going 
about  ten  miles,  and  when  I  had  nearly  made  up  my  mind  to  turn 
back — as  I  did  not  wish  to  knock  up  the  horses — we  saw  some  cattle 
coming  out  of  the  bush  a  few  hundred  yards  in  front  of  us.     I  sent 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcnoiila. 

a  small  party  round  each  side  to  surround  them  and  drive  them  back, 
and  they  drove  out  about  250.  They  were  all  fine  cattle,  but  very  wild; 
only  one  native  was  seen  with  them,  and  he  ran  away.  I  told  Captain 
Heany  to  drive  them  back  to  the  camp,  and  to  take  all  the  men  except 
ten  of  B  Troop  with  him,  as  I  wished  the  others  to  come  with  me  to  visit 
a  Mashona  kraal  on  the  way  back.  Directly  after  Captain  Heany  had 
started,  which  he  had  to  do  at  a  good  pace,  as  the  cattle  would  not  drive 
slowly,  Lieutenant  Bodle  appeared  with  the  calves  (about  sixt}')  belonging 
to  the  troop  of  cattle  we  had  taken  ;  he  had  found  them  still  in  the  kraal, 
close  behind  where  the  cattle  had  been  found.  He  had  several  men  with 
him,  and  I  told  him  to  drive  them  out  after  the  others,  but  in  case  of  an 
attack  to  leave  them  and  ride  for  camp.  Dr.  Jameson  and  Sir  J. 
Willoughby  rode  straight  back  to  camp. 

I  then  went  off  with  my  Staff  and  the  ten  men  to  see  the  Mashona 

Induna.    I  had  a  guide  with  me  and  he  led  us  to  a  kraal  on  the  side  of 

-   .  and  deep  down  a  very  steep  rocky  valley. 

He  had  told   me    that    there  were  a 

few    of   the    cattle    theie,    and     I 

\  intended     to    take     them.        The 

>palh  ^\as    \eiy   rough    and    steep 

Major  V.  W.  1*orbes 
l^IFKME^\l^G  xhe  Mataeeli 

I.NUUINA  Ai  IisDAi.>i.'\'s  MOTjrsTAlN. 

Leavmg  Mashonaland  for  the  Front.  91 

and  we  were  walking  our  horses  down  in  single  file,  and  had  just 
got  in  sight  of  the  kraal,  when  Mr.  Chappe,  who  was  close  behind 
me,  called  out,  "  Look  out,  there  are  some  men  with  guns,"  and  we 
suddenly  saw  about  twelve  or  fifteen  Matabeli,  fully  armed,  moving 
about  in  the  rocks  in  front  of  us.  I  formed  up  the  men  and  dis- 
mounted half  of  them,  keeping  them  at  the  "  ready  "  to  see  what  was 
going  to  happen.  As  soon  as  we  halted,  six  or  seven  of  the  Matabeli 
came  out  from  the  rocks,  and  we  saw  that  they  all  had  rifles  and 
assegais.  One  of  them,  a  very  fine-looking  boy,  not  more  than  eighteen, 
was  evidently  chief  of  the  party ;  he  stepped  forward  from  the  rest, 
and  stood  about  twenty  yards  from  us  without  any  sign  of  fear.  I  told 
Mr.  Acutt  to  call  to  them  to  put  down  their  arms,  to  which  he  replied 
that  they  would  put  down  theirs  when  we  did  ours.  He  also  said  he 
would  come  forward  and  talk  if  any  one  went  forward  without  arms  ;  I 
had  a  revolver  on  under  my  coat,  but  no  weapon  visible,  and  T  rode 
forward.  He  was  coming  forward  when  Acutt  rode  up  to  me  with 
his  carbine,  and  the  Matabeli  would  not  come  any  closer.  It  was 
impossible  for  us  to  do  anything,  shut  in  as  we  were  and  not  know- 
ing how  many  Matabeli  there  might  be  there  ;  so  after  a  short  parley 
we  retired  out  of  the  valley,  leaving  them  in  possession  of  the  cattle. 
We  watched  to  see  if  they  followed  us  out  of  the  valley,  but  did 
not  see  them  do  so,  although  from  what  happened  afterwards  it  appears 
that  some  of  them  must  have.  They  did  not  know  that  we  had  taken 
the  Insukameni  cattle  that  morning,  or  that  the  Victoria  Scouts  had 
had  a  skirmish  with  some  Matabeli  that  same  morning,  close  to 
Indaima's,  and  had  killed  twenty  of  them  ;  nor  did  I  know  this  till 
I  returned  to  camp. 

We  rode  on  towards  camp  after  leaving  the  valley,  passing  Lieu- 
tenant Bodle  and  his  party  in  the  bush,  and  off-saddled  for  half-an-hour 
at  a  small  stream.  We  had  just  saddled  up  and  moved  on  again  when 
a  messenger  galloped  up  from  behind  to  say  that  Captain  Campbell  had 
been  shot,  and  was  seriously  wounded.  I  started  back  at  once,  but  on 
getting  to  Major  Browne's  party,  the  rear-guard  of  the  party  driving 
the  cattle,  I  heard  that  he  was  still  four  or  five  miles  back,  that  he 
was  riding  on,  and  that  Dr.  Edgelow  and  eight  men  had  gone  back 
to  bring   him   on.     As  I   could   have  done  nothing  by  going  back  I 

92  The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

pushed  on  into  camp.  On  the  way  in  Mr.  Tanner,  my  galloper, 
whom  I  had  sent  back  with  the  cattle,  caught  me  up,  hurrying  on  to 
get  a  cart  sent  back  for  Campbell  ;  he  had  been  with  Campbell 
when  he  was  wounded.  It  appears  that  after  Captain  Heany  started 
with  the  cattle,  Captain  Campbell  and  Messrs.  Gourlay  and  Tanner 
got  leave  to  go  out  on  the  right  flank  to  look  for  more  cattle ; 
they  saw  several  and  were  trying  to  drive  them  towards  the 
rest,  when  they  got  in  amongst  some  large  granite  boulders,  and 
suddenly  Campbell  saw  a  native  covering  him  from  behind  a  rock.  He 
drew  his  revolver — they  had  no  rifles  with  them — but  before  he  could 
fire,  the  native  shot  him  through  the  left  hip.  He  fell  from  his  horse, 
and  Gourlay  then  came  up  and  fired  several  revolver  shots  at  the 
native,  but  without  effect.  They  helped  Campbell  on  to  his  horse, 
and  he  managed  to  sit  there  with  one  of  them  supporting  him  on 
each  side. 

When  I  got  back  to  camp  about  3  p.m.,  I  found  everything  in  a 
great  state  of  excitement.  Some  of  the  Victoria  Scouts  had  come 
in  and  reported  that  they  had  had  a  skirmish  with  some  Matabeli 
that  morning,  that  they  had  killed  twenty-two,  and  taken  150  head 
of  cattle,  but  had  had  no  casualty,  and  that  a  large  impi  estimated 
at  7,000  was  then  close  to  camp.  The  horses  and  oxen  were  got  in, 
and  everything  got  in  readiness  for  an  attack,  but  it  turned  out  to  be 
a  false   alarm. 

I  was  much  relieved  to  find  Captain  Williams'  Scouting  party  in 
camp  when  I  returned.  They  had  gone  out  six  days  before,  and  were 
only  to  have  been  out  three  days,  but  the  distance  was  much  greater 
than  I  had  estimated,  and  they  were  unable  to  get  back  sooner.  They 
had  been  some  distance  along  the  main  road,  but  had  seen  no  signs  of 
any  Matabeli. 

Poor  Campbell  was  brought  in  about  4  o'clock,  and  an  examination 
was  made  of  his  wound.  It  was  found  that  the  bullet  had  gone  through 
the  hip  joint,  completely  shattering  it,  and  the  doctors  decided  at  once 
that  his  only  chance  was  in  immediate  amputation.  Doctors  Jameson, 
Edgelow,  and  Stewart  performed  the  operation,  which  they  accomplished 
successfully,  and  there  were  hopes  that  he  might  pull  through.  He 
was  extraordinarily  plucky  over    it,  but    had    had    no    hope    from  the 

Leaving  Mashonalafid  for  the  Front,  93 

first.  He  sank  gradually,  and  died  about  one  p.m.  the  next  day. 
The  cattle  had  arrived  safely  in  charge  of  Captain  Heany,  although 
he  had  had  hard  work  to  keep  them  together.  During  the  day  Bishop 
Knight- Bruce  had  arrived  with  his  waggon,  and  with  him  Honourable 
M.  Gifford,  E.  Burnett,  and  Biscoe,  who  had  not  been  able  to  come 
with  us  at  first,  but  had  been  subsequently  supplied  with  horses  by  Mr. 
Rhodes,  who  was  then  in  Salisbury.  The  cattle  were  put  in  a  strong 
kraal  near  the  laager,  and  we  passed  a  quiet  night,  which  was  more  than 
I  had  expected,  as  I  was  sure  that  if  there  was  an  impi  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood they  would  try  to  recover  the  cattle. 

The  following  morning,  i6th,  was  dull  and  wet,  and  about  8  a.m. 
the  Victoria  Column  arrived  under  Major  Wilson  ;  their  strength  on 
joining  us  was  414  white  men,  172  horses,  about  forty  native  drivers  and 
leaders,  and  about  400  Mashonas,  who  had  been  raised  near  Victoria  by 
Mr.  Brabant.  They  were  a  very  fine  body  of  men,  and  were  all  keen 
for  work.  They  had  three  galloping  Maxims — two  with  horses,  one 
with  oxen,  one  seven-pounder  screw  gun  on  a  low  carriage,  which  was 
carried  on  a  waggon,  and  one  one-pounder  Hotchkiss  with  oxen.  The 
men  were  all  armed  with  M,H.  rifles,  and  all  the  dismounted  men,  of 
which  there  were  about  250,  with  bayonets.  They  had  180,000  rounds 
M.H.  ammunition,  1,000  one-pound  shells  for  Hotchkiss,  and  300  rounds 
for  seven-pounder  gun.  They  had  eighteen  waggons  carrying  ammuni- 
tion and  supplies,  and  had  about  two  months'  full  rations  with  them. 
The  officers  were  :  — 

Staff. — Major  Wilson  ;  Adjutant  Kennelly ;  A.D.C.'s,  Lieutenants  Bowen 
and  Chalk ;  Pioneers,  Lieutenants  Browne  and  Ware  ;  and  Quartermaster, 
Captain  Greenfield. 

No.  I  Troop.  -Captain  Fitzgerald,  Lieutenants  W.  B.  Harris  and  Hughes. 

No.  2  Troop. — Captain  Bastard,  Lieutenant  Sampson. 

No.  3  Troop. — Captain  Napier,  Lieutenants  Williams  and  Stoddart. 

No.  4  Troop. — Captain  Judd,  Lieutenants  Beal  and  Hofmeyr. 

Infantry. — Captain  Delamere,  Lieutenants  Steer  and  Robinson. 

Artillery. — Captain  Lendy,  Captain  Reid,  and  Lieutenant  Rixon. 

Scouts.  — Captain  the  Hon.  C  J.  White,  Lieutenant  Dollar,  Messrs. 
Burnham,  Ingram,  Vavasour,  Mayne,  and  Possett. 

Native  Contingent. — Lieutenant  Brabant. 

Volunteer  Unattached. — Captain  Donovan. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobeftgjila. 


Captain  Argent  Kirton  was  in  charge 
of  their  transport,  and  had  adopted  a  dia- 
mond shaped  laager,  which  they  kept  all 
through.  The  Victoria  Column  had  two 
mounted  Troops  each  about  thirty 
strong.  Captain  the  Hon.  C.  J.  White 
had  accompanied  the  Victoria 
Column,  in  charge  of  their 
Scouts,  numbering  about  forty, 
and  I  placed  him  in  charge  of 
all  the  scouts  of  the  combined  columns. 
Captain  Lendy,  as  senior  artillery 
)fificer  of  the  Expedition,  had  the  general 
iperintendence  of  all  the  guns,  and  had  to 
that  they  were  kept  in  proper  order, 
dthough  the  working  of  each  was  left  to 
own  detachment.  As  the  Victoria 
Column  was  worse  off  for  horses  than 
even  we  were,  and  theirs  were  not  in  as 
good  condition  as  ours,  I  decided  to  keep 
the  two  columns  as  close  together  as  possible  when  on  the  march, 
letting  one  advance  and  one  rear-guard  serve  for  the  combined 
columns.  I  did  not  wish  to  mix  up  the  duties  of  the  two  columns  at 
all,  as  it  would  have  led  to  questions  of  seniority  udiich  are  awkward 
to  deal  with  in  two  volunteer  forces,  and  therefore  each  column  found 
its  own  daily  duties,  guards,  pickets,  etc.,  and  had  its  own  officers 
of  the  day. 

There  was  some  slight  trouble  at  first  over  the  artillery  of  the 
Victoria  Column,  as  they  claimed  to  have  been  raised  as  one  Troop  under 
Captain  Lendy,  and  to  be  independent  of  Major  Wilson.  As  this  was 
of  course  impossible,  I  saw  them  all  and  talked  to  them,  giving  them 
ten  minutes  to  decide  whether  they  would  come  on  with  the  Column 
under  Major  Wilson,  doing  whatever  he  ordered,  or  return  at  once  to 
Victoria;  they  decided  for  the  former,  and  I  heard  no  more  of  the 

As  the  Salisbury  Column  was  always  on  the  right  on  the  march,  it 

Diagram  showing  formation 
OK  Victoria  Laager. 

Leaving  Mashonaland  for  the  Front,  95 

always  found  the  right  flanking  party,  and  the  Victoria  Column  the  left. 
They  consisted  of  one  Troop  each,  of  about  forty  men,  of  which  half 
were  extended  in  single  file,  covering  the  whole  flank  of  the  Column, 
the  other  half  with  a  galloping  Maxim  acted  as  support.  The  two 
Columns  furnished  the  front  and  rear  guards  on  alternate  days  ;  there 
was  also  a  Troop  each  divided  in  the  same  way  as  the  flanking 

On  the  day  on  which  the  Victoria  Column  arrived,  Captain 
Campbell  was  buried  with  full  military  honours  at  dusk  that  evening. 
As  he  was  an  ex-Artillery  Oflicer,  the  Artillery  volunteered  to  furnish 
the  carrying  party,  and  A  Troop  furnished  the  firing  party.  All  the 
Salisbury  and  a  great  many  of  the  Victoria  Column  attended  the 
funeral,  and  the  service  was  conducted  by  the  Bishop.  I  think  there 
were  a  good  many  standing  round  the  grave  that  evening  who  realized 
for  the  first  time  that  what  we  had  undertaken  was  no  child's  play,  but 
stern  reality,  and  that  poor  Campbell's  fate  might  at  any  time  be  the 
fate  of  one  or  all  of  us  ;  but  there  could  be  no  turning  back  ;  we  had 
undertaken  the  work,  and  had  to  go  through  with  it. 

The  Victoria  Column  had  brought  with  them  about  150  head  of 
captured  cattle,  and  these  with  what  we  had  brought  up  our  number  to 
about  450.  As  it  would  have  been  inconvenient  to  drive  such  a  large 
herd  with  us,  I  arranged  with  Mr.  Brabant  that  he  should  send  back  100 
of  his  natives,  under  an  Induna  that  he  could  trust,  to  Victoria  with  all 
that  we  did  not  require  for  slaughter  purposes  ;  and  accordingly  the 
following  morning  we  selected  sixty  for  meat,  and  sent  362  back  to 
Victoria,  where  they  eventually  arrived  in  safety.  Captain  White  had 
about  sixty  Scouts  all  fairly  well  mounted  at  his  disposal,  and  I  arranged 
with  him  that  some  of  these  should  always  be  sopie  distance  from  the 
Column,  forming  a  cordon  something  like  ten  miles  away.  I  did  not 
wish  to  have  any  very  distant  work  done,  as  it  would  knock  up  the 
horses,  and  I  was  satisfied  that  an  hour's  notice  was  enough  to  enable 
us  to  meet  any  attack. 

Captain  Napier  had  brought  two  natives  with  him  that  Dr.  Jameson 
had  found  some  time  before  at  Matipis,  and  as  they  were  Matabeli  who 
knew  the  country  well,  but  had  to  fly  from  the  king  on  a  charge  of 
"umtagati"  (witchcraft),  and    had  no  sympathy  with  him,  they   were 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

installed  as  guides  in  charge  of  Mr.  B.  Wilson.  The  elder  one,  Mayesi, 
had  a  very  good  idea  of  the  sort  of  country  we  wished  to  keep  in,  and 
guided  us  very  successfully  all  the  way.  He  always  accompanied  the 
centre  of  the  advance  party  of  the  advance  guard  ;  the  support  followed 
him,  and  their  Maxim  opened  a  spoor,  which  one  of  the  columns  of 
waggons,  of  whichever  Column  formed  the  advance  guard  for  the  day, 
followed,  the  other  columns  of  waggons  and  the  other  Column  keeping 
their  distance  from  it.  During  the  night  one  of  the  Victoria  Column, 
Percy  Wood,  died  of  fever,  and  was  buried  by  the  Bishop  at  day- 

A  HALT. — Major  Forbes  and  staff  at  mess. 


Bv  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Advance  of  the  Combined  Columns — A  false  alarm — Finding  gold — Insukameni  kraal  deserted 
— Somabula  Forest — Matabeli  scouts — E.  Burnett  shot  — Crossing  the  Shangani  River — 
Capturing  cattle  —  Arranging  pickets  —  The  eve  of  the  battle  —  The  first  attack — 
Quested 's  natives  driven  in — Plucky  advance  of  the  Insukameni  regiment — Driven 
back  by  the  Maxims — Captain  Heany's  skirmishers  nearly  cut  off — The  enemy  routed — 
Strength  of  the  Matabeli — Inferior  to  fhe  Zulu — Effect  of  fire  upon  the  oxen — 
The  Columns  advance — Captain  Williams  cut  off  and  lost — A  threatened  attack — 
Sighting  the  Matoppo  Hill:>  — Captain  Heany  burns  Enxna  kraal. 

As  I  had  decided  to  move  forward  with  the  two  Cokimns  on  the  day 
following  the  arrival  of  the  Victoria  Column,  Captain  White  took  his 
Scouts  out  that  evening,  and  the  next  morning  the  two  Columns  marched 
at  5.30  a.m.  We  followed  the  same  path  along  which  we  had  gone 
when  we  captured  the  cattle,  and  for  the  first  three  miles  kept  on  a  large 
open  plain  ;  we  then  had  to  go  through  a  broad  strip  of  bush,  in  which 
the  Victoria  Column  had  to  do  some  heavy  cutting,  and  laagered  after 
four  and  a-half  miles  on  a  small  stream.  The  Columns  marched  where 
the  ground  would  permit  about  300  yards  apart,  each  in  a  double 
column  of  waggons,  the  dismounted  men  of  the  Victoria  Column 
marching  on  the  left  of  their  waggons,  and  the  spare  mounted  troop  and 
the  few  dismounted  men  of  the  Salisbury  Column  on  the  right  of  theirs. 
The  Victoria  Column  had  a  large  number  of  natives  under  Mr.  Harry 
Ware,  who  went  in  advance  of  the  waggons  and  cut  roads,  made  drifts, 
etc.,  and  the  Native  Contingent  of  the  Salisbury  Column  did  the  same 
for  them  as  before. 

While  we  were  outspanned  some  natives  from  a  neighbouring 
Maholi  kraal  came  in  to  "konza"  (pay  their  respects),  bringing 
presents.     They  stated  that  a  few  Matabeli  had  passed  their  kraal  the 


98  TJie  Doivnfall  of  Lobeugiila. 

previous  day  driving  cattle,  but  tliey  did  not  know  of  any  impi  in  the 
neighbourhood.  The  stream  we  were  on  was  one  of  the  sources  of  the 
Rhwe-rhwe  river,  and  in  the  afternoon  we  followed  it  down  for  some 
distance,  going  through  rather  broken  country,  and  over  old  mealie 
gardens,  and  laagered  after  doing  six  miles,  close  to  the  post  from 
which  we  had  taken  the  cattle  ;  the  country  in  front  all  appeared 
to  be  thick  bush  but  level,  and  on  our  left  there  was  a  high  range  of 
bare  granite  hills,  the  Umgogoghla,  in  which  there  were  several  Maholi 


The  following  morning  (i8th)  just  as  the  Columns  were  marching, 
two  waggons  which  had  followed  the  Victoria  Column  with  further 
supplies  arrived.  They  were  private  waggons,  but  the  owners  did  not 
wish  to  take  them  back,  and  Dr.  Jameson  bought  them  complete  and 
handed  them  to  me,  thus  giving  each  Column  an  equal  number  of 
waggons— eighteen.  These  two  waggons  I  placed  on  the  rear  face  of  the 
laager,  thus  closing  it  up,  and  the  Bishop's  light  travelling  waggon, 
which  had  now  joined  us,  stood  in  front  of  the  artillery  waggon  opposite 
the  Scotch  cart.  The  Columns  marched  at  5.30  a.m.,  crossed  the 
Rhwe-rhwe,  and  after  going  about  three  miles  came  to  a  deep  stream, 
Umtangu.  It  ran  through  high  steep  banks,  and  some  time  was  taken 
up  in  finding  suitable  drifts ;  at  last  two  single  ones  were  found  about 
half  a  mile  apart,  and  the  Columns  commenced  to  cross.  As  there  was 
no  suitable  place  for  both  laagers  close  together,  the  only  open  space 
being  close  down  to  the  river,  the  two  Columns  began  to  laager  each 
just  across  its  own  drift. 

While  we  were  busy  getting  the  waggons  into  laager,  some  of  the 
Scouts  galloped  in,  followed  by  a  messenger  from  the  Victoria  Column 
advance  guard,  to  say  that  there  were  some  hills  in  front  of  them 
covered  with  Matabeli,  the  number  being  estimated  at  4,000.  Pre- 
viously all  due  precautions  for  covering  our  crossing  had  been  taken, 
and  it  only  remained  to  get  the  laagers  in  readiness  as  soon  as 
possible.  This  was  done,  and  by  putting  several  of  the  machine  guns  in 
position  on  ant-heaps  covering  the  open  valleys  running  down  to  the 
river,  the  positions  were  made  fairly  good  ;  the  alarm  however  turned 
out  to  be  a  false  one.  The  natives  that  had  been  seen  were  only 
Mashonas,  and  did  not  probably  exceed    100  in  number,  although  this 

Fi'oin  Sigala  Mountain  to  the  S/iangani. 


had  magnified  into  the  other  large  number.     It  appeared  afterwards  that 
some  of  the  Mashonas,  whose  kraals  were  on  these  kopjes,  had  just  left 
their  kraals  and  were  bringing  grain  to  us  as  presents,  when  they  met  a 
party  of  thirteen  Matabeli  who  were  going  to  collect  some  of  their  cattle 
from  another  kraal.     The  Matabeli  at  once  set  on  them,  and  killed  ten, 
while  the  remainder,  and  all  those  from  the  kraals,  ran  up  on  the 
rocks  and  so  caused  our  alarm.     Captain  White  and  some  of  his 
scouts  were  off-saddled  close  to  where  the  natives  were  killed,  but 
knew  nothing  of  it  at  the  time. 

We  moved  on  that  afternoon  about  five  miles  and  got  into  fine 
open  country.  Just  before  laagering  we  crossed  a  good  stream  of 
water,  and  as  the  grazing  was  good  I  decided  on  giving  the  horses 
a  day's  rest  there.  Before  marching  that  afternoon  I  had  arranged 
with  Major  Wilson  that  to  save  cutting,  each  column  should  follow 
one  of  the  open  "  laagtes  "  (glades)  running  up  from  the  river, 
and  that  we  should  meet  about  two  miles  away.  There  was  an 
old  waggon  spoor  along  the  one  which  we  were  to  follow,  and 
I  told  my  advance  guard  (we  both  found  one  advance  and  one 
rear  guard  that  day)  to  follow  it.  They  did  for  a  time,  and  then 
lost  it,  and  instead  of  sending  back  to  me  went  straight  on,  with 
the  result  that  they  led  us  into  a  large  patch  of  mealie  gardens 
in  a  clearing  in  thick  bush,  where  the  going  was  very  heavy,  and 
the  oxen  could  scarcely  move  the  waggons.  It  would  have 
taken  longer  to  go  back  than  to  go  through  them,  and  so  we 
went  on  and  got  out  all  right,  but  after  the  events  of  the  morning 
it  was  rather  an  anxious  time.  During  the  previous  day  I  had  at 
last  come  to  the  conclusion  that  I  must  replace  Major  Browne  as 
Staff  Officer.  I  therefore  asked  him  to  resign,  and  Captain  Finch 
to  act  in  his  place  as  Acting  Brigade  Major  of  the  combined 
columns,  and  Adjutant  of  the  Salisbury  Column ;  this  he  did  right 
through  the  campaign.  There  were  some  kraals  close  to  where  we 
laagered,  under  a  Mashona  headman,  Umchena,  and  we  got  two 
waggon  loads  of  grain  from  them  that  evening;  and  as  the  Scouts  reported 
that  there  was  a  large  amount  at  some  more  kraals  about  seven  miles 
away,  I  sent  Captain  Heany  Avith  twenty  of  A  Troop  and  two  waggons  to 
them  at  daylight.  Owing  to  then-  being  unable  to  get  the  waggons  near  to 

H  2 

lOO  The  Dowufall  of  Lobengiila. 

the  kraals,  which  were  on  high  rocks,  and  so  being  obh'ged  to  have  all 
the  grain  carried  about  a  mile  in  baskets,  they  did  not  get  back  till  dark, 
but  brought  two  loads  with  them.  My  brother,  who  was  a  trooper  in  A 
Troop,  was  one  of  the  party  that  went  out,  and  just  before  they  returned 
I  saw  his  horse  coming  in  with  a  saddle  on  but  no  rider.  I  was  anxious 
lest  something  had  happened,  but  it  turned  out  to  be  all  right,  and  that 
he  had  only  let  him  go  where  they  were  watering  the  horses  at  a  stream 
below  the  laager. 

Captain  Heany  had  not  seen  or  heard  of  any  Matabeli,  although  he 
had  passed  the  dead  body  of  one  of  the  Mashona  that  had  been  killed 
the  previous  day.  During  the  day  Dr.  Jameson  and  Sir  J.  Willoughby 
with  a  few  men  had  ridden  on  some  distance  in  the  direction  in  which 
we  were  going,  but  saw  nothing.  They  found  that  it  was  a  long  march 
to  the  next  water,  but  that  it  was  all  through  open  country. 

We  marched  at  five  the  next  morning,  and  previous  to  marching 
I  sent  three  horses  that  had  knocked  up  to  the  Mashona  Induna 
to  be  taken  care  of.  We  crossed  fine  high  open  ridges,  and  after 
going  down  a  long  grass  slope  about  four  miles  long,  came  to  the 
Gwailo  River,  Avhich  we  found  dry  except  for  a  few  pools.  \\'hile 
on  the  high  ground  we  came  across  a  line  of  large  old  gold 
workings,  in  one  of  which  my  brother  picked  up  a  piece  of  quartz, 
about  three  pounds  weight,  covered  with  visible  gold.  From  the 
ridge  before  going  down  to  the  river  we  got  a  fine  view  of  the 
country  in  front,  and  it  looked  as  if  we  should  be  able  to  keep  in  open 
country  for  some  considerable  distance.  There  was  a  line  of  high  bushy 
kopjes  just  across  the  river,  terminating  to  the  south  in  a  hill,  Ugogo, 
under  which  we  laagered  ;  and  to  the  west  and  about  twelve  miles  from 
the  laager,  is  another  high  hill,  Khoboli,  just  to  the  west  of  which  our 
guide  told  me  the  Insukameni  kraal  lay.  We  crossed  the  Gwailo  and 
laagered,  and  as  we  had  done  a  long  march,  eleven  miles,  decided  to 
remain  there  till  next  day.  As  soon  as  we  had  laagered  I  sent  out 
Captain  Williams  in  charge  of  a  party  of  five  Scouts,  to  try  and  find  out 
if  the  Insukameni  kraal  was  occupied. 

Until  two  years  before  this  there  were  no  Matabeli  stationed  as  far 
from  Buluwayo  b)-  fifty  miles,  except  the  Max'eni,  who  had  been  sent  by 
Lobengula  on   to  the   borders   of  the  country  in   disgrace   some    years 

From  Sigala  Mountain  to  Ike  Shangani.  loi 

previously  ;  but  two  years  before,  since  the  occupation  of  Mashonaland, 
Lobengula  had  sent  the  Insukameni  and  Ihlati  regiments  to  live  near  the 
border.  Captain  Williams  and  his  party  returned  shortly  after  dark  and 
reported  that  they  had  been  as  close  as  it  was  safe  to  get  to  the  kraal ; 
that  they  had  seen  cattle  and  a  few  men  about,  and  had  heard  voices  in 
the  kraal,  but  were  unable  to  say  if  there  was  any  large  force  there.  They 
also  said  that  they  did  not  think  that  they  had  been  seen  by  the  natives. 
As  I  wished  to  have  as  few  Matabeli  as  possible  in  our  rear,  I  deter- 
mined to  send  a  force  to  the  kraal,  and  therefore  sent  Major  Wilson 
off  at  midnight  with  lOO  men,  fifty  from  each  column,  and  two  Maxim 
guns,  to  attack  the  kraal  if  occupied  and  burn  it.  I  had  intended  to 
have  gone  myself,  but  Dr.  Jameson  thought  that  I  should  remain  with 
the  main  body.  Owing  to  the  darkness  they  could  only  travel  very 
slowly,  and  had  some  difficulty  in  getting  tlie  Maxims  through  the  bush, 
and  on  the  way  they  heard  natives  in  the  bush,  but  saw  no  one.  At  day- 
light they  had  surrounded  the  kraal  and  advanced  on  it,  only  to  find  it 
deserted.  There  was  fresh  spoor  both  of  natives  and  cattle  about,  and  it 
was  evident  that  it  had  only  been  vacated  very  recently.  They  burnt 
it  all  down,  and  after  resting  the  horses  and  giving  them  a  good  feed  of 
grain,  returned  to  rejoin  the  column.  We  heard  afterwards  that  the 
kraal  had  been  occupied  when  the  Scouts  were  there  the  previous  even- 
ing, and  that  the  natives  had  seen  them,  and  fearing  a  night  attack  had 
left  it  and  gone  into  the  bush.  The  kraal  was  quite  new  and  very  large, 
and  was  probably  capable  of  holding  about  3,000  inhabitants.  The  same 
morning  I  advanced  with  the  two  columns,  Captain  Bastard  being  in  tem- 
porary command  of  the  Victoria  Column.  After  going  through  the  line  of 
kopjes  we  crossed  the  watershed  and  got  on  to  wide  open  flats  again,  in- 
tersected by  small  streams,  which  formed  the  head  waters  of  the  Lundi- 
We  did  six  miles  and  laagered  on  the  Uguamo  River,  the  largest  of  these 
streams.  It  is  in  this  neighbourhood  that  there  has  always  been  alluvial 
gold  reported,  but  I  do  not  think  that  any  indications  of  it  were  seen  on 
the  march. 

About  three  miles  to  the  west  of  the  laager  we  saw  the  Somabula 
forest,  a  thick  black  line  extending  from  a  point  rather  to  the  south  of 
us,  as  far  as  we  could  see  to  the  north.  This  forest  is  very  dense,  and 
is  supposed  to  go  right  up  to  the  Zambesi,  and  it    was  principally  to 

I02  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

avoid  it  that  we  had  kept  so  far  to  the  south.  It  was  from  three  to  four 
miles  wide  where  the  Hartley  Hill  road  went  through  it,  and  it  was 
always  looked  upon  as  the  most  likely  place  for  the  Matabeli  to  wait  for 
us.  I  did  not  wish  to  pass  it  before  Major  Wilson  rejoined  me,  and  so 
remained  on  the  Uguamo  that  afternoon  ;  Major  Wilson  and  his  party 
returned  about  four  p.m.  Dr.  Jameson  had  insisted  upon  accompanying 
them,  although  I  had  tried  to  prevent  him  ;  he  would  not  realise  how 
important  it  was  that  he  should  keep  as  much  as  possible  out  of  danger, 
but  whenever  there  was  any  outside  work  to  be  done  he  insisted  upon 

The  following  day,  22nd  October,  we  marched  at  5.30,  and  got  to 
the  Somabula  Forest,  where  we  found  that  we  had  to  go  through  a 
narrow  strip  of  thick  bush  with  a  good  deal  of  cutting  to  be  done.  To 
make  things  worse  a  fog  came  on,  and  it  was  a  very  anxious  time. 
We  got  through  the  bush  safely  however,  and  after  crossing  a  nasty 
little  stream,  got  up  into  the  high  open  ground  again,  and  then  went 
down  a  gradual  slope  to  the  Vungu  River,  on  the  east  bank  of  which 
we  laagered.  From  there  we  sent  back  two  runners,  coloured  "  boys," 
to  Salisbury,  who  got  through  in  safety.  The  only  previous  com- 
munication we  had  had  was  from  the  Iron  Mine  Hill,  and  Dr. 
Jameson  had  sent  back  from  there  to  let  Mr.  Rhodes  know  of  the 
taking  of  the  cattle  and  Captain  Campbell's  death.  The  Vungu  was  a 
wide  watercourse,  but  nearly  dry,  and  we  had  no  trouble  in  crossing  it, 
which  we  did  that  afternoon,  and  did  four  miles  on  to  the  high  ground 
on  the  other  side.  While  on  the  march  that  afternoon.  Captain  White 
sent  back  to  report  that  he  and  his  Scouts  had  come  across  seven  armed 
Matabeli  warriors  ;  that  they  had  tried  to  stop  them,  but  could  not ; 
and  on  their  firing  at  the  Scouts,  the  latter  had  returned  the  fire. 

The  following  morning,  23rd,  just  as  we  were  starting,  a  dense  fog 
came  on.  The  fogs  drift  over  very  quickly,  and  I  hoped  that  it  would 
clear  away  again  ;  but  it  did  not,  and  after  going  two  miles  our 
guide  confessed  that  he  could  not  find  his  way,  and  we  laagered  on 
the  east  bank  of  the  Vunguane  River.  The  fog  was  so  thick  that 
it  was  impossible  to  see  any  distance,  and  when  I  suddenly  gave  the 
order  to  laager  I  think  that  everyone  believed  we  were  going  to  be 
attacked,  and  wasted  very  little  time ;  both  the  laagers  were  complete 

From  Sigala  JMouiitain  to  the  Shangani.  103 

under  six  minutes.  We  heid  breakfast,  and  by  nine  o'clock  the  fog  had 
cleared  and  we  spanned-in  again. 

Before  marching  in  the  morning  I  had  sent  Captain  Williams  with 
his  brother,  Messrs.  Burnett,  Swinburne,  Gourlay,  and  Hon.  M.  Gifford, 
on  to  see  if  they  could  find  some  kraals — the  Amatoilene,  inhabited  by 
Maholi — who  were  reported  to  be  friendly  to  us,  and  which  should  be 
about  ten  miles  ahead.  They  started  off  but  lost  themselves  in  the 
fog,  and  when  we  started  for  the  second  time,  they  signalled  to  me  from 
about  two  miles  away,  they  then  went  on  again.  We  trekked  six 
miles  and  crossed  the  Tyabenzi  River,  on  the  west  bank  of  which  we 
laagered.  The  Victoria  Column  oxen  were  very  weak  that  day,  and  they 
got  some  distance  behind,  and  eventually  crossed  the  river  and  laagered 
about  half-a-mile  above  us.  We  remained  there  that  afternoon,  and 
about  three  p.m.  the  Hon.  Maurice  Gifford  rode  in  to  say  that  E. 
Burnett  had  been  shot  through  the  stomach  at  a  kraal,  and  was 
dangerously  wounded.  I  at  once  ordered  out  Captain  Spreckley  and 
twenty  men,  but  before  they  were  ready  Drs.  Jameson  and  Edgelow 
and  Sir  J.  Willoughby  rode  off,  with  Hon.  Maurice  Gifford  as 
guide,  to  the  place.  Gifford  took  them  seven  or  eight  miles  at 
full  gallop,  and  then  had  to  admit  that  he  had  lost  his  way,  and 
they  turned  back  to  camp,  where  they  arrived  about  dark.  Captain 
Spreckley  started  as  soon  as  he  could  and  tried  to  follow  Dr.  Jameson, 
but  in  turn  lost  his  way  and  found  himself  at  some  kraals  about  ten 
miles  away  just  at  dark.  They  were  fired  on  from  the  kraals  and 
returned  the  fire  and  burnt  the  kraals,  taking  some  cattle,  which  the 
natives  who  had  accompanied  them  under  Mr.  Quested  brought  back  to 
camp  ;  they  did  not  return  till  midnight,  meanwhile  Captain  Williams 
had  returned  bringing  Burnett's  body,  he  had  died  about  half-an-hour 
after  he  was  hit. 

I  gathered  generally  that  the  incident  happened  as  follows  :  Our 
Scouts  had  gone  to  a  small  kraal,  where  they  found  an  old  man  and  a 
woman  who  were  very  friendly,  and  who  told  them  that  there  were 
no  Matabeli  about,  and  only  Maholis  (slaves),  who  were  in  favour  of 
the  whites.  They  had  off-saddled,  and  Burnett  walked  off  to  another 
small  kraal  close  by  to  see  if  he  could  get  some  grain  ;  as  he  went  up 
to  one  of  the  huts  a  shot  was  fired  from  inside  and  he  fell.      It  occurred 

I04  The  Downfall  of  Lobengida. 

so  suddenly  that  the  others  thought  that  he  had  shot  himself,  but 
other  shots  were  fired,  one  of  which  went  through  Swinburne's  coat. 
Our  men  fired  several  shots,  but  could  not  see  if  they  had  killed  any 
one  ;  and  a  woman  behind  the  kraal  called  out  that  the  man  who  had 
shot  Burnett  had  run  away.  They  did  not  believe  this  and  set  fire  to 
the  hut,  and  as  the  man  appeared  he  was  shot.  They  got  Burnett  on 
his  horse  and  Gifford  started  for  a  doctor,  but  Burnett  died  soon  afcer 
they  started  ;  we  buried  him  quietly  that  night,  the  Bishop  officiating, 
and  only  a  few  of  the  officers  being  present.  He  was  a  very  popular 
man,  well  known  in  Cape  Colony  as  well  as  in  Mashonaland,  and  had 
come  up  to  the  latter  with  the  Pioneer  Column  as  one  of  the  transport 
officers  ;  we  had  now  lost  two  really  good  men  and  had  nothing  at 
all  to  show  for  it. 

The  following  day,  24th,  we  marched  as  usual  at  5.30,  and  did 
seven  miles  over  open  country,  and  laagered  on  a  small  stream  with 
high  banks  about  a  mile  short  of  the  Shangani  River,  The  kraal  at 
which  Burnett  had  been  shot  was  across  the  river.  There  was  a  line 
of  high  bushy  kopjes  on  the  west  side  of  the  Shangani  and  a  pass 
through,  opposite  to  where  we  were,  and  it  was  for  this  pass  that  we 
were  making.  As  soon  as  the  laagers  were  formed  Major  Wilson 
and  I  rode  down  to  the  Shangani,  and  after  some  difficulty  found  a 
place  where  with  a  good  deal  of  cutting  we  could  make  two  drifts. 
We  started  men  at  work  at  once  and  then  rode  up  the  other  side 
to  see  if  we  could  find  an  open  place  to  laager.  The  bush  close  to 
the  river  and  extending  for  about  half  a  mile  was  very  thick  mimosa, 
with  deep  dongas  running  through  it,  but  about  1,000  yards  from  the 
river  there  was  an  open  ridge  large  enough  to  take  in  both  laagers, 
and  after  a  little  bush  was  cleared  round  it,  forming  a  fairly  good 
position.  We  could  see  that  we  should  have  to  go  at  least  three 
miles  to  get  out  of  the  hills  and  to  get  a  better  position,  and  as 
we  expected  some  trouble  in  getting  the  waggons  across  the  river, 
decided  on  going  no  further ;  by  three  p.m.  the  drifts  were  made 
and  we  inspanned.  Before  moving  I  sent  two  mounted  Troops 
with  two  Maxims  and  a  seven-pounder  to  take  up  positions  on  two 
kopjes  on  the  west  bank  and  so  cover  our  crossing,  and  also  sent 
a   mounted    Troop    under    Captain    Borrow    across    the    river  to  work 

From  Sigala  Mountain  to  the  Shangani.  105 

down  amongst  the  hills  to  the  north,  and  one  under  Captain 
Fitzgerald  to  the  south,  to  destroy  kraals  and  seize  cattle,  and  to 
prevent  any  chance  of  our  being  attacked  while  crossing.  The 
drifts  were  not  good,  but  everyone  realised  that  it  was  a  dangerous 
place  and  worked  hard,  with  the  result  that  the  Salisbury  Column 
took  sixteen  and  the  Victoria  Column  nineteen  minutes  to  get  all 
the  waggons  across,  and  in  an  hour  and  a-half  from  the  time  of 
starting  we  were  laagered  on  the  west  bank.  That  night  for  the 
first  time  the  two  laagers  were  joined  ;  they  were  about  150  yards 
apart  and  a  thick   fence  of  thorn  connected   them   on  each  side. 

On  his  way  from  Victoria  and  previous  to  joining  us,  Major  Wilson 
had  detached  Messrs.  Arnold  and  Quested,  both  of  whom  were  well 
known  amongst  the  natives,  to  raise  what  Mashonas  they  could  and 
follow  on.  They  joined  us  soon  after  leaving  Iron  Mine  Hill  with  about 
300  Mashonas  each,  so  that  we  now  had  about  900,  and  found  them 
most  useful  in  bushing  the  laagers,  making  kraals  for  the  cattle,  and 
driving  captured  cattle. 

Shortly  after  we  had  laagered,  cattle  and  goats  began  to  come  in  from 
Captains  Borrow  and  Fitzgerald,  and  by  dark  we  had  about  a  thousand 
head  of  cattle  and  900  sheep  and  goats  ;  we  also  saw  kraals  burning 
all  round.  Both  Captains  Borrow  and  Fitzgerald  returned  about  dark 
and  reported  that  they  had  seen  no  Matabeli,  only  a  few  Maholi 
who  had  run  away  ;  that  they  had  burnt  some  kraals  and  taken  the 
cattle,  they  said  there  was  very  little  grain  (of  which  we  were 
again  badly  in  need)  in  any  of  the  kraals.  Mr.  Brabant  had  accom- 
panied Captain  Fitzgerald  with  Mr.  Arnold  and  some  of  their 
natives  ;  and  at  one  kraal,  Mgandane's,  they  had  found  about  thirty 
women  and  children,  who  had  been  captured  the  year  before  from 
their  kraals,  Gutu's  and  Bira's,  close  to  Victoria,  to  which  some  of 
Mr.  Arnold's  natives  belonged.  The  women  were  delighted  to  see 
their  own  people,  and  insisted  upon  accompanying  us  ;  they  were 
rather  a  hindrance,  but  we  could  not  leave  them  to  the  mercy  of 
the  Matabeli.  There  was  not  time  to  make  a  very  strong  kraal  for 
all  the  cattle  before  dark,  but  as  good  a  one  as  time  would  permit 
was  built  about  200  yards  from  and  to  the  east  of  the  centre  of 
the  combined  laager.     As  Mr.  Ouested's  natives  were  not  very  friendly 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula, 

with  some  of  the  others,  they  preferred  to  camp  by  themselves,  and  so 
made  a  small  kraal  about  600  yards  from  the  north-east  of  the  laagers 
on  the  rise  ;  they  had  several  women  with  them  whom  they  had  re- 
captured that  day.  Some  of  the  other  natives  slept  beside  the  cattle 
kraal,  and  the  remainder  between  the  two  laagers. 

While  the  laagers  had  been  separate  each  one  was  surrounded 
by  its  own  pickets  at  night,  but  now  that  they  had  formed  one  joint 
laager  I  rearranged  the  picket.  Each  laager  now  found  five  pickets, 
Victoria  Column  all  double  (i.e.,  six  men  each)  of  white  men,  and 
Salisbury  Column   three  double  of  white  men    and   two  single  (three 

While  Picket 

KatM  Picket 

Diagram  showing  formatio.\  of  combined  laagers  and  position  of  pickets  at 


men  each)  of  natives.  These  were  posted  each  evening  before  dark 
by  the  respective  captains  of  the  day,  who  consulted  together  so  as 
to  get  a  complete  circle  round  the  laager.  The  combined  laagers  were 
made  very  strong  that  night,  and  I  went  round  the  last  thing  to  see 
that  everything  was  all  right.  Shortly  after  dark  I  sent  up  a  socket 
signal,  as  I  did  most  nights,  followed  by  two  rockets,  on  the  chance  of 
some  scouts  from  the  South  Column  being  in  the  neighbourhood.  Ever 
since  starting  I  had  had  both  laagers  manned  at  4  a.m. — an  hour  before 
daylight — which  is  the  natives'  favourite  time  for  attack,  and  every  man 
always  slept  fully  dressed,  and  in  his  boots,  with  his  rifle  beside  him. 

From  Sigala  Mountain  to  the  Shangani.  107 

At  five  minutes  to  four  the  following  morning  we  were  suddenly 
awakened  by  quick  firing,  and  realised  that  the  enemy  were  on  us.  The 
waggons  were  manned  immediately,  and  fire  opened  all  round  the 
laager.  It  was  too  dark  to  see  the  natives  at  first,  but  their  position 
was  shown  by  the  flashes  that  came  from  the  grass  all  round  the  laager. 
I  jumped  up  on  the  nearest  waggon  and  tried  to  see  into  the  darkness, 
but  could  distinguish  nothing  but  the  flashes,  which  were  very  close  and 
frequent.  The  enemy  were  so  close  to  us  that  I  did  not  think  it  safe  to 
stop  firing,  even  had  I  been  able  to  do  so  in  the  noise  that  was  going  on, 
and  I  was  very  much  afraid  that  some  of  the  men  on  picket  would  be 
killed  either  by  friends  or  by  enemies,  and  I  was  greatly  relieved  to 
hear  shortly  afterwards  that  they  had  all  got  safely  in.  During  the 
first  attack  Mr.  Quested  came  into  the  laager ;  he  had  been  sleeping 
with  his  natives,  and  they  had  received  the  brunt  of  the  attack,  waking 
up  to  find  the  Matabeli  right  upon  them  and  stabbing  them.  Quested 
managed  to  make  a  stand  for  a  short  time,  and  then  retired  on  the 
laager  with  the  people  ;  he  was  wounded  in  the  arm  and  side,  and  had 
his  thumb  shot  off.  Most  of  his  people  managed  to  get  into  the  laager, 
although  several  were  wounded.  C  Troop  was  inlying  picket,  and  had 
saddled  up  their  horses  at  the  first  alarm  ;  A  Troop  was  on  the  right 
and  B  on  the  left  face  of  the  laager.  The  first  attack  lasted  about  half- 
an-hour,  and  then  the  enemy's  fire  ceased  ;  it  was  still  too  dark  to  see 
any  distance,  but  objects  in  the  immediate  vicinity  were  visible. 

As  I  was  afraid  that  some  of  our  friendly  natives  might  have  failed 
to  get  into  the  laager,  I  sent  out  Captain  Spreckley  with  twenty  mounted 
men  to  go  round  the  open  ground  close  to  the  laager,  and  see  if  he 
could  find  anyone  ;  he  brought  in  several  of  our  natives,  and  a  few 
shots  were  fired  at  his  party  from  the  bush,  but  no  harm  was  done. 

Shortly  after  they  returned,  and  when  it  was  getting  light  enough 
to  see  some  distance,  a  large  number  of  natives  were  seen  collecting 
on  the  top  of  a  small  rise  about  350  yards  to  the  south-east  of  the 
laager.  I  was  standing  with  Mr.  Chappe  at  the  Maxim  at  the  left  rear 
of  our  laager  watching  them  through  glasses,  and  from  the  quiet  way 
they  were  moving  about,  took  them  to  be  some  of  our  natives  who  had 
escaped  into  the  bush  at  the  first  alarm,  and  now  gone  there  for 
safety.     There  must  have  been  200  to  300  of  them,  and  I  could  see 


The  Dow7ifall  of  Lobengula, 

no  shields  among  them.  After  they  had  collected  on  the  top  of  the 
rise,  they  opened  out  and  began  to  walk  quietly  down  towards  the 
laager;  I,  and  I  think  everyone  who  was  watching  them  except  Mr. 
Chappe,  who  insisted  that  they  were  Matabeli,  thought  that  they  were 
friendlies.  They  advanced  down  the  slope  in  a  most  casual  way, 
without  hurrying  or  attempting  to  take  cover,  and  I  allowed  no  firing 
at  them.  When  they  got  to  the  bottom  of  the  slope  they  suddenly 
sat  down  and  commenced  to  fire  at  us.     A  very  heavy  fire  was  at  once 

poured  on  them 

from  two  or 

three   Max- 






_  :   ; ^  they 

"''   ,      ,  forced    to 

.^  ^*     "  retire     over 

the      hill 

much    faster 

than   they    had 

come  down.     The 

w  ay     they    advanced 

ab  most  plucky,  and  we 

found    out    aftei wards    that    they 

were  the  Insukameni,  the  best  regiment 

there.     Had  the  whole  of  the   attacking  force 

come  on  in  the  same  way,  we  should  have  had   more 

trouble   than   we   had.      As    soon   as  they  advanced, 

firing   recommenced    from  the  bush  all  round  ;    but  very  few   natives 

appeared  in  the  open,  and  after  they  retired  the  firing  ceased  again. 

After  waiting  for  some  time,  during  which  only  a  few  shots  were 
fired  at  us  at  long  distances,  and  it  was  now  broad  daylight,  I  sent  out 
Captains  Heany  and  Spreckley  with  twenty  mounted  men  each,  and 
told  Major  Wilson  to  send  a  party  of  the  same  strength  to  sec  if  the 
enemy  had  retired.  He  sent  out  Captain  Bastard,  who  extended  his 
men  in  the  bush  to  the  south  of  the  laagers,  Captain  Spreckley  doing 

The  Insukameni  Regimeni 

advancing  upon 

the  Salisbury  laager. 




Major   SIR   JOH 

Afosi  of  the 



F  ^  Scherm  of 

•wJio  ivkef^ 
belt  off. 

G  =  Captain   h 

large  bo 
viously  e 

H  &  I  =  Captain    /f^ 
(left  baci, 
flank  am  » 

K  &  N  =  Captains  Sj 
driven  in 
at S  a.m 

L  ^  Hill  over  i '"_, 

large  nu 
on  either 


—  Lovj  ntoun  L_ 
portion  oj 
for  the  1^ 
against  t, 

=  Enemy 
^  =  Enemy 
*     —  Mount 

y>^      =  Enemy 

"  "  —  ""        =  Route 
CglCg3     -Points 






-ia_   .  -  •   •    • 

=:         =  IVuifr  0 

900  Yards  to  tkeAck 

The  Downfall  of  Lobengula.  plan  m. 


OF    THE 

Battle  of  Shangani, 

OCTOBER    25th,   1893. 
Prepared  by 

Major   SIR   JOHN    WILLOUGHBY,    Bart., 

Most  of  the  distances  ascertained. 

Key  to  Plan 

A  ^^  Salisbury  Laager, 

B  =  Victoria  Laager, 

C  =  Trek  oxen  in  thorn  bush  Kraal. 

D  =  Kraal /or  captured  cattle, 

E  =  S7nall  Kopjie  surrounded  by  thick  lush  ; 

from  here  the  enemy  made  his  most 
vigorous  attack, 

F  ^=  Scherm  of  Quested^  s  Native  Contingents 

•who  ivhen  attacked  drozie  the  Mata- 
beli  off, 

G  =  Captain   Heany's    Troop  driven  in  by 

large  bodies  oj  the  enemy  not  pre- 
viously engaged  (8,io.  a-jn.) 

H  &  I  =  Captain  Fitzgerald' s  and  Bastard's 
Troops,  showing  change  of  position 
(left  back)  to  meet  counter  attack  in 
flank  and  rear  { 

K  &  N  =  Captains  Spreckley  and  Heany's  Troops 
driven  in  by  large  bodies  of  the  enemy 
at  s  a.m.,  it  being  still  too  dark  to  see. 

L  ^  Hill  oz'er  the  lo%uer  slopes  of  which  a 

large  number  of  the  enemy  retreated 
on  either  side,  being  shelled  by  the 
Hotchkiss  gun, 

M  =  Low  mound  shaped  Kopjie  where  the 
portion  of  the  enemy  that  was  too  late 
for  the  1st  and  2rd  attack  showed 
against  the  mounted  troops  and  were 

=  Enemy's  first  attack, 
=  Enemy's  second  attack. 
I     =  Enemy's  third  attack. 
*     —  Mounted  Troops. 
„     =  Bush  and  Thorn  Trees ;  where  not 
indicated  the  groutul  is  open. 
=  Water, 

Enemy's  lines  of  retreat. 
Route  of  the  Columns. 
Points  shelled. 

->»      = 


^^■^  ^:  '^1^^^ 


i(?  Z^      'k?0       ,S(?t? 

I      I      I   — 1 — 

Sx:ale/  ^  <\laA<k). 

I       I 


800  Yards  to  theJhck 


From  Sigala  Mountain  to  the  Shangani.  109 

the  same  to  the  east,  and  Captain  Heany  to  the  north-east.  Each  of 
these  parties  found  the  enemy  in  the  bush  within  half-a-mile  of  the 
laager,  and  after  a  sharp  skirmish,  in  which  we  lost  four  horses,  had  to 
fall  back  on  the  laager,  towards  which  the  enemy  followed  them,  but 
were  again  driven  back  by  the  Maxims. 

A  large  number  of  Matabeli  now  appeared  on  a  small  kopje,  2,000 
yards  to  the  west  of  the  laager,  and  they  appeared  to  be  re-forming 
there,  but  three  very  well-directed  shells  from  the  Salisbury  seven- 
pounder  dispersed  them.  Meanwhile  Captain  Lendy  was  doing  great 
execution  with  the  Ilotchkiss  gun,  firing  at  small  parties  crossing  the 
open  1,500  to  2,000  yards  to  the  south  and  south-west  of  the  laager. 
It  was  afterwards  found  that  one  of  the  one-pounder  shells  had  killed 
twelve  men.  j 

When  the  Matabeli  were  driven  back  for  the  third  time,  it  was 
thought  that  they  had  retired  altogether,  and  the  mounted  parties  were 
again  sent  out.  The  one  from  the  V'ictoria  laager  found  a  i^w  natives 
in  the  bush,  and  succeeded  in  dislodging  them,  pursuing  them  for  some 
distance  and  killing  a  considerable  number.  Captain  Spreckley  found 
that  they  had  all  retired  from  the  side  on  which  he  went  out,  and 
Captain  tieany  found  none  within  about  1,000  yards  on  his  side;  the 
latter  had  just  got  on  to  an  open  ridge  visible  from  the  laager,  and 
had  dismounted  his  men  to  engage  a  body  of  the  enemy  in  his 
immediate  front,  when  he  was  attacked  from  both  sides  by  a  large 
force  ;y  they  were  close  to  him  in  the  bush  when  they  commenced 
firing,  and  tried  to  cut  him  off,  but  he  managed  by  retiring  at 
a  gallop  to  get  into  an  open  laagte  (glade),  and  halted  his  troop 
in  the  bush  on  the  side  nearest  to  the  laager.  The  enemy  at  the 
time  were  emerging  in  numbers  from  the  bush  about  eighty  yards 
in  his  rear  ;  the  troop  at  once  dismounted  and  engaged  them,  driving 
them  back  into  the  bush  and  then,  re-forming,  returned  into  laager. 
He  had  tv.'o  horses  wounded,  but  no  other  casualties,  although 
several  men  had  narrow  escapes,  one  having  the  sole  of  his  boot  and 
another  his  belt  cut  by  bullets.  The  natives  fell  back  behind  a  bushy 
kopje,  from  behind  which  they  attacked,  and  as  they  appeared  to  be  in 
force  there,  I  had  the  seven-pounder  brought  to  the  north  face  of  the 
laager,  and  shelled  their  position.     At  the  same  time  I  sent  Captains 

no  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila. 

Heany  and  Borrow  back  again,  the  latter  going  to  the  east  of  the  kopje. 
When  they  got  there  they  found  the  position  vacated,  and  after  going  a 
considerable  distance  round  and  finding  out  that  the  enemy  had  all 
retired,  returned  to  the  laager  ;    this  was  the  end  of  our  first  battle. 

A  few  Matabeli  were  still  to  be  seen  on  the  hills,  and  1  sent  out 
our  Colonial  "  bo}'s "  under  Captain  Nesbitt  to  drive  them  off,  the 
ground  being  too  rough  for  horses  ;  they  advanced  in  very  good 
order,  but  the  enemy  did  not  wait  for  them.  We  ascertained  from  a 
wounded  native  who  was  brought  in  that  the  force  which  attacked  us 
consisted  of  the  Insukameni,  Ihlati,  Amaveni,  and  Siseba  Regiments, 
and  Jingen,  Enxna,  Zinyangene,  and  Induba  kraals,  in  all  not  less 
than  5,000  ;  that  they  had  been  waiting  for  us  in  the  Somabula  forest, 
but  that  we  had  passed  it  before  they  knew  where  we  were,  and  that 
they  had  then  followed  us  up,  expecting  to  catch  us  before  we  got  to 
the  Shangani ;  that  they  had  arrived  shortly  after  dark  on  the  previous 
evening,  and  had  been  in  position  ready  to  attack  about  ten  o'clock, 
but  the  socket  signal  and  rockets  sent  up  had  frightened  them,  and 
the  attack  had  been  postponed  till  daybreak  ;  they  were  all  to 
advance  as  close  to  the  laagers  as  possible  under  the  cover  of  the 
darkness,  and  then  rush  in  with  assegais.  It  was  finding  Ouested's 
natives  so  far  away  that  caused  the  first  firing,  and  so  gave  us  the 
alarm.  The  wounded  native  was  one  of  the  Insukameni,  and  had  been 
present  when  they  walked  down  the  slope  towards  the  laager,  but  had 
been  shot  through  the  back  when  they  were  retiring;  he  said  that 
their  orders  were  to  attack  us  on  the  march  and  not  in  laager,  and  not 
to  use  their  rifles;  he  could  give  no  idea  of  the  number  killed  and 
wounded  but  said  that  there  was  a  very  large  number.  From  what  we 
ascertained  later,  there  cannot  have  been  less  than  500.  A  considerable 
number  of  dead  were  left  upon  the  field,  but  most  of  them  and  the 
wounded  were  carried  away  ;  several  of  the  wounded  hanged  them- 
selves or  threw  themselves  into  the  river  to  avoid  being  taken.  He 
said  that  he  thought  they  would  probably  attack  us  again  as  soon 
as  we  marched.  Our  casualties  had  been  very  few,  owing  to  their  bad 
shooting;  they  believing  that  the  higher  they  put  up  the  sights  of  their 
rifles  the  harder  they  would  shoot,  and  consequently  nearly  all  their 
shots  were  too  high. 

From  Si  gal  a  Mottntain  to  the  Shangani.  1 1 1 

We  only  lost  one  white  man — Trooper  Walters,  of  the  Victoria 
Column — who  was  shot  through  the  groin,  and  died  the  same  night. 
The  other  casualties  were,  Trooper  Forbes  (my  brother),  shot  through 
the  left  elbow  ;  Trooper  Conrath  (Victoria  Column),  shot  in  the  back  ; 
and  Trooper  Nutt,  shot  in  leg;  Trooper  Behrmann  (Salisbury  Column), 
through  right  side  ;  Conductor  Dunman  (Salisbury  Column),  through 
the  left  arm  ;  and  Levy  Leader  Quested,  through  left  side  and  arm.  We 
also  had  ten  horses  killed,  and  one  driver  (Colonial  "boy")  of  Victoria 
Column  shot  through  the  head.  The  loss  amongst  our  natives  was 
heavier,  Mr.  Ouested's  especially  having  suffered,  and  there  must  have 
been  forty  to  fifty  killed,  as  well  as  several  women  and  children.  As 
soon  as  things  were  quiet^  I  rode  round  the  field  with  Dr.  Jameson. 
By  Ouested's  laager  we  found  a  large  number  of  dead  and  wounded, 
some  Matabeli  and  some  friendlies.  When  the  Matabeli  rushed  them 
they  had  stabbed  indiscriminately,  and  there  was  one  child  about  two 
years  old  stabbed  in  three  places  ;  we  found  three  women  badly 
wounded  and  five  dead.  The  wounded  were  taken  to  the  laager  and 
attended  to,  and  two  of  the  three  recovered.  One  native  had  to 
have  his  arm  amputated,  and  another  his  leg,  and  the  latter  died 
from  it. 

It  was  the  first  time  that  I  and  the  majority  of  those  there  had 
been  under  fire,  and  I  was  pleased  to  find  how  steady  everyone  was  ; 
there  was  little  or  no  excitement,  and  very  little  wild  shooting. 
Everyone  took  it  as  a  matter  of  course,  and  set  to  work  as  if  he  had 
never  done  anything  else.  Quite  late  in  the  engagement  I  was  standing 
behind  one  of  the  A  Troop  waggons,  on  which  my  brother  was 
stationed,  talking  to  Captain  Heany,  when  a  bullet  from  behind  came 
between  our  heads  ;  he  just  said  that  it  was  too  close  to  be  pleasant, 
when  I  saw  that  it  had  hit  my  brother,  who  had  fallen  forward.  I  ran 
up  and  saw  that  it  had  passed  through  his  arm,  but  that  although  it 
had  cut  his  coat,  it  had  not  entered  his  body. 

The  expenditure  of  ammunition  was  as  follows  : — ALH.,  including 
Maxim  and  Nordenfeldt  gun,  3,645  ;  seven-pounder  case  2,  shrapnel  i, 
common  4,  Hotchkiss  28,  Gardner  400.  All  the  machine  guns  worked 
very  well  indeed,  and  without  a  single  jam  of  any  importance.  The  result 
of  the  engagement  was  very  satisfactory,  as  it  not  only  gave  all  the  men 

1 1 2  The  Downfall  of  Lohengnla. 

confidence,  but  showed  them  that  the  much-talked-of  MatabeH  are  very 
inferior  to  the  Zulu,  the  latter  having  been  the  standard  by  which  they 
had  hitherto  been  looked  upon.  The  Bishop  went  round  and  had  all 
the  wounded  natives  carried  up  to  the  laager  and  attended  to,  and  they 
were  afterwards  taken  on  in  a  waggon.  The  oxen  had  been  tied  up  as 
usual  to  the  trek-tows  outside  the  waggon,  and  I  had  been  curious  to  see 
what  effect  the  firing  had  on  them.  I  was  astonished  to  see  that  it  had 
practically  none ;  they  all  stood  up  when  it  began,  and  after  that  did 
not  move,  standing  perfectly  quiet  although  there  was  a  heavy  firing 
going  on  close  over  their  heads,  and  several  of  them  were  killed  by  the 
enemy's  fire. 

As  soon  as  it  was  evident  that  the  enemy  had  finally  retired,  the 
pickets  were  posted  and  oxen  and  horses  turned  out  to  graze.  As  I 
wished  the  Matabeli  to  see  that  their  attack  had  not  interfered  with 
our  advance,  1  decided  to  move  on  that  afternoon.  There  was  a 
large  open  plain  about  three  miles  from  us  and  just  beyond  the  hills, 
and  if  we  could  get  there  in  safety  we  need  not  fear  another  attack. 
The  open  space  between  the  hills  along  which  we  had  to  go  was  very 
narrow,  and  that  afternoon's  march  was  the  most  anxious  time  I  had 
all  through  the  campaign  ;  if  we  had  then  been  attacked  and  had  had 
to  laager,  the  natives  could  have  fired  right  down  into  the  laagers 
from  the  hills,  and  we  should  have  had  great  trouble  in  dislodging 
them.  The  two  columns  moved  close  together,  each  in  four  parallel 
columns,  and  as  many  men  as  could  be  spared  were  kept  on  the 
flanks  ;  we  got  out  all  right,  but  I  felt  inexpressibly  relieved  when 
we  got  round  the  ends  of  the  hills  into  a  large  open  valley.  We 
headed  for  the  widest  part  of  it  and  laagered  there,  having  done 
about  three  miles. 

We  had  noticed  a  curious  thing  that  morning,  that  whenever  a 
shell  exploded  all  the  Matabeli  near  fired  their  rifles  at  it ;  on  inquiry 
from  a  prisoner  we  found  that  they  thought  that  the  shell  was  full 
of  little  white  men,  who  ran  out  as  soon  as  it  bunst  and  killed  every- 
body near ;  we  saw  this  done  almost  every  time  that  a  shell  was 
fired  during  the  campaign.  We  had  one  prisoner,  a  very  good-looking 
boy  of  about  eighteen,  being  a  pure  Matabeli  ;  he  was  shot  through 
the  lower  part  of  the  spine,  which  was  all  shattered,  and   was   partiall)' 

From  Sigala  Mountain  to  the  Shangani.  113 

paralysed  ;  he  was  very  quiet  and  gentle,  and  very  grateful  for  all  that 
was  done  for  him  ;  he  sent  me  messages  on  several  occasions,  warning 
me  of  certain  localities  where  we  were  likely  to  be  attacked,  and 
always  gave  me  all  the  information  he  could  ;  we  took  him  to  Bulu- 
wayo  and  he  was  doing  well,  although  he  would  always  have  been 
crippled  ;  but  after  the  country  was  settled  his  people  came  for  him,  and 
I  heard  that  he  afterwards  died  at  his  kraal. 

We  made  the  laagers  very  strong  with  bush  that  night,  and  I  think 
that  everyone  would  have  been  pleased  if  the  Matabeli  had  come  again, 
as  we  had  level  open  country  all  round,  and  we  could  have  given  a  very 
good  account  of  them  ;  but  they  did  not  come.  A  shot  was  fired  by 
one  of  the  Victoria  column  vedettes  in  the  early  morning,  and  the  alarm 
was  at  once  sounded  ;  the  laagers  were  manned  immediately,  and 
patrols  were  sent  round  to  find  out  what  it  was  ;  it  appeared  that 
the  man  had  let  off  his  rifle  accidentally,  and  we  turned  in  again  ;  not 
a  shot  was  fired  from  the  laagers,  so  steady  were  the  men,  although  one 
of  my  men  wanted  to  fire  at  one  of  the  pickets,  thinking  that  they  were 

That  morning  we  marched  at  6  a.m.  and  did  five  miles  to  the  Man- 
zimnyama  River,  and  laagered  about  one  mile  to  the  west  of  it,  on  the 
site  of  an  old  kraal.  We  found  a  number  of  large  kraals  close  by,  all 
of  which  had  been  vacated  and  were  full  of  grain  ;  we  loaded  up  three 
or  four  waggons  while  we  were  outspanned  ;  our  guide  told  us  that  two 
of  the  large  military  kraals — the  Jingen  and  the  Zinyangene — were  not 
far  to  the  north  of  us,  the  latter  being  the  closer ;  and  when  we  marched 
in  the  afternoon,  I  sent  Captain  Heany,  with  twenty-one  men  of 
A  Troop,  to  destroy  it.  Captain  Finch  also  accompanied  them  ;  they 
found  the  kraal — a  large  one— about  six  miles  away  and  burnt  it ;  but 
before  doing  so,  they  saw  a  very  large  body  of  natives  coming  down  on 
them,  and  immediately  afterwards  had  to  retire  towards  the  laager. 
They  had  travelled  fast,  and  two  of  their  horses  knocked  up  and  had  to 
be  left  on  the  veldt,  the  riders  walking  ;  Captain  Heany  then  sent  a 
messenger  on  to  me.  Captain  White  had  also  joined  Captain  Heany, 
but  at  the  latter's  request  had  come  on  to  let  me  know  that  the  natives 
were  following  him  in  force. 

The  columns  marched  four-and-a-half  miles  and  laagered  on  a  high 


114  ^^^  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

open  ridge,  a  long  way  from  water ;  there  had  been  a  few  natives  seen 
along  the  march  that  afternoon  and  many  shots  were  fired,  but  nothing 
to  stop  us,  as  we  were  in  fairly  open  country  all  the  way.  Just  as 
we  were  laagering,  the  messenger  from  Captain  Heany  galloped  in 
excitedly,  telling  me  that  the  enemy  were  out  in  force.  I  at  once  sent  out 
twenty  mounted  men  with  a  Maxim  from  each  laager  to  help  to  cover 
Captain  Heany's  retreat,  and  shortly  afterwards  they  all  returned  to  the 
laager,  their  only  casualty  being,  as  I  have  said,  two  horses  left  on  the 
veldt,  although  they  had  narrowly  escaped  being  cut  off  at  one  point. 

Captain  Williams'  Scouting  party,  consisting  of  his  brother,  Messrs. 
Carden,  Gourlay,  and  Swinburne,  and  Hon.  M.  Gifford,  had  joined 
Captain  Heany  as  he  was  coming  in,  They  had  been  cut  off  by  a 
considerable  force,  but  managed  to  gallop  through,  running  the  gauntlet, 
though,  of  a  heavy  fire  at  about  a  hundred  yards  ;  after  getting  through 
the  natives  they  had  galloped  in,  and  Captain  Williams'  horse  had  run 
away  with  him  ;  Gifford  was  next  to  him,  but  could  not  get  up  to  him, 
and  Williams  disappeared  in  the  hills.  W^e  were  not  very  anxious  about 
him  at  first,  as  he  had  a  good  horse  and  was  very  good  at  finding  his 
way  about,  and  Gifford  did  not  think  that  either  he  or  the  horse  were 
wounded.  He  had  gone  back  to  the  kopjes  near  the  Shangani,  and  we 
expected  him  to  get  on  our  spoor  and  come  in  during  the  night  ;  I  sent 
up  rockets  several  times  that  night  for  him,  but  he  did  not  come,  and 
was  never  seen  again  alive. 

We  had  to  march  the  next  morning,  27th,  as  we  had  to  get  to 
water,  and  so  moved  off  at  6  a.m.  ;  Captain  Spreckley  with  C  Troop 
was  on  the  right  flank,  and  after  we  had  gone  about  three  miles  we 
suddenly  heard  them  open  a  rapid  fire  ;  we  were  crossing  some  old 
mealie  gardens  at  the  time,  and  it  was  fairly  open,  and  as  the  fire  was 
very  fast  and  seemed  to  be  approaching,  I  gave  the  word  to  laager,  at 
the  same  time  sending  B  Troop  (Captain  Borrow)  to  support  Captain 
Spreckley,  and  also  sending  Captain  Finch  to  find  out  what  was  going 
on.  The  laagers  were  on  this  occasion  both  formed  in  less  than  six 
minutes,  and  the  Salisbury  one  would  have  been  done  in  much  quicker 
time,  only  for  the  Bishop  placing  his  waggon  in  the  wrong  place. 

While  we  were  laagering  up,  the  officer  in  charge  of  one  of  the 
Victoria  Column  scouting  parties  on  the  left  galloped  in  to  say  that  he 

From  Sigala  Moimtain    to  the  Shangaiii.  115 

had  seen  a  very  large  force  of  Matabeli  on  that  flank ;  as  he  did  not 
appear  to  know  much  about  it,  I  sent  him  back  again  for  further  infor- 
mation, and  heard  no  more  of  them.  We  remained  laagered  up  for 
about  ten  minutes,  and  then,  word  being  brought  to  me  that  the  enemy 
had  been  driven  back,  we  broke  laager  and  resumed  our  march  ;  the 
right  flanking  party  had  been  attacked  all  along  the  line,  and  had  at 
first  been  forced  to  retire,  but  on  being  reinforced  by  the  Support  and 
B  Troop,  drove  the  enemy  back,  killing  a  large  number  of  them.  Our 
only  casualties  were  Trooper  Lucas,  who  was  shot  through  the  right  arm 
and  leg,  and  was  also  cut  in  several  places  by  an  assegai ;  a  Matabeli 
had  jumped  on  him  from  the  bush,  and  had  pulled  him  off  his  horse  ; 
they  closed,  and  the  Matabeli  tried  to  stab  him.  Trooper  Halforty 
came  to  rescue  Lucas,  and  in  shooting  the  Matabeli  with  his  revolver, 
shot  Lucas  as  well ;  we  also  lost  one  horse. 

We  laagered  about  two  miles  further  on,  on  some  old  lands,  and  a 
large  body  of  the  enemy  were  hanging  about  on  our  flank  all  day. 
Shortly  afterwards  a  large  number  were  reported  to  be  sitting  on  a 
kopje  about  3,000  yards  away,  and  visible  from  where  one  of  the  pickets 
was  posted  ;  I  started  to  go  up  to  Dr.  Jameson,  and  took  the  seven- 
pounder,  but  on  arriving  there  saw  that  there  were  several  large  bodies 
round  us,  and  they  looked  as  if  they  intended  attacking.  As  our 
position  was  a  fairly  good  one,  I  took  the  seven-pounder  back  to  the 
laager,  and  sent  out  Captain  Borrow  with  his  troop,  and  Captain  Bastard 
with  his,  to  try  if  they  could  draw  the  enemy  on  ;  they  were  unable  to 
however,  although  they  had  some  slight  skirmishing  about  the  edge  of 
the  bush,  out  of  which  the  enemy  would  not  come  ;  they  did  some 
slight  execution,  and  had  no  casualties. 

I  wished  to  remain  near  here  for  a  day  to  send  back  and  look  for 
Captain  Williams,  and  as  the  ground  on  which  we  were  laagered  was 
very  dirty  and  far  from  water,  I  moved  the  laager  that  afternoon  about 
one  mile  to  the  south,  and  got  on  to  an  open  space  running  down  from 
the  high  ground  along  which  we  had  been  travelling  for  some  time.  To 
the  south  of  this  was  open  flat  country  for  five  or  six  miles,  and  it  then 
rose  gradually  up  to  the  Matoppo  Hills,  which  ran  right  through  the 
country  east  and  west.  About  six  miles  away  across  the  flat  we  could 
see   a  very  large  kraal,  consisting  of  three  large    enclosures  ;  this  we 

I  2 

ii6  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcngitla. 

found  to  be  the  Enxna,  the  Induna  of  which,  Umgandane,  had  been 
killed  at  Victoria.  That  afternoon  Captain  Hurrell  and  a  young 
Dutchman  arrived  from  Victoria,  having  ridden  through  in  five  days  with 
despatches  from  Mr.  Rhodes  for  Dr.  Jameson,  and  during  the  night 
Messrs.  Dunne  and  Harrison  also  arrived  from  Charter  with  duplicates 
of  the  same  ;  they  both  reported  that  the  country  seemed  quite  quiet 
behind  us,  and  that  they  had  seen  no  Matabeli  along  the  road. 

The  following  day,  28th,  we  halted,  and  the  first  thing  in  the 
morning  sent  back  two  Colonial  "  boys,"  "  John  Selous "  (who  knew 
Matabeliland  well,  and  who  was  an  old  servant  of  Mr.  F.  C.  Selous)  and 
Ghert,  to  try  and  take  up  Captain  Williams'  spoor  and  follow  him  ; 
they  took  a  spare  horse  and  some  food  and  m.edicine.  There  were  a 
number  of  large  kraals  around  us,  and  I  sent  some  waggons  in  charge 
of  Captain  Spreckley  to  get  grain.  They  found  all  the  kraals  deserted 
with  the  exception  of  one,  in  which  they  found  a  small  Matabeli  boy 
about  two  years  old,  whom  Captain  Spreckley  brought  back,  and  he 
was  afterwards  adopted  by  Farrier-Sergeant  Wallace  ;  he  was  an 
enormously  fat  child,  with  a  wonderful  amount  of  self-composure,  and 
took  to  his  new  life  without  any  trouble.  They  also  got  about  sixty 
bags  of  grain  and  a  few  head  of  cattle. 

I  did  not  wish  to  leave  the  Enxna  kraals  so  near  to  our  road 
undisturbed  behind  us,  but  at  the  same  time  did  not  want  to  give  the 
horses  more  work  than  I  could  help,  and  Captain  Heany  volunteered  to 
ride  over  with  anyone  who  would  go,  and  burn  the  kraal  if  it  was 
deserted.  About  six  who  had  good  horses  volunteered,  and  Captain 
Lendy  took  the  Victoria  Column  seven-pounder  about  one-and-a-half 
miles  from  the  laager,  and  tried  to  reach  the  kraal  with  shells  ;  it  was 
however  too  far  ;  Captain  Heany  and  his  party  found  the  kraal 
empty,  burnt  it,  and  brought  back  fifty  head  of  cattle. 

About  ten  o'clock  "John  Selous"  and  Ghert  returned  and  said  that 
they  had  followed  the  spoor  of  Captain  Williams'  horse  for  some  time ; 
that  it  took  them  into  a  narrow  place  between  the  hills,  and  that  the 
natives  commenced  firing  at  them  ;  they  were  afraid  of  being  cut  off,  and 
so  returned.  As  soon  as  the  horses  could  be  got  up,  I  sent  Captain 
Borrow  and  twenty  men  with  "John  Selous"  to  try  and  follow  the  spoor 
again,  and  they  did  not  return  till   late  at   night;  they  followed  it  for 

From  Sigala  Moiintain  to  the   Shangani.  117 

some  miles,  and  got  back  to  within  four  or  five  miles  of  the  Shangani, 
where  they  lost  it.  Where  they  saw  it  last  the  horse  seemed  to  be 
going  strong,  and  they  did  not  think  it  was  wounded. 

When  we  marched  the  following  morning,  Captain  Hurrell  and 
"  John  Selous  "  went  back  to  try  and  get  information  about  Captain 
Williams,  and  to  go  on  to  Victoria  ;  they  were  unable  to  get  any 
definite  news,  but  got  through  safely  to  Victoria.  It  was  only  after 
we  got  to  Buluwayo  that  we  heard  full  particulars  about  him  ;  his 
horse  had  run  away  with  him,  and  had  been  hit  in  the  flank  either 
before  it  started  or  while  running  away,  and  the  natives  had  followed 
him  ;  he  got  into  broken  country,  and  the  natives,  by  calling  from  hill 
to  hill,  always  kept  near  him  ;  at  last,  his  horse  failing,  he  dismounted. 
The  natives  were  afraid  to  come  to  close  quarters  as  he  was  armed, 
having  a  magazine  rifle  and  a  revolver,  and  remained  at  about  200  yards 
firing  at  him.  He  sat  down  on  a  rock  and  returned  their  fire,  killing 
several,  but  at  last  was  shot  dead  by  a  bullet  in  the  left  temple ; 
they  stripped  him,  taking  away  everything  that  he  had,  but  did  not 
mutilate  him  in  any  way.  Captain  Gwynyth  Williams  was  a  very 
great  loss  ;  he  was  the  eldest  son  of  General  Owen  Williams,  and 
until  recently  a  Captain  in  the  Royal  Horse  Guards  ;  he  had  come 
to  Mashonaland  two  years  before  with  Lord  Randolph  Churchill, 
was  most  popular  wherever  he  was  known,  and  he  had  been  most 
useful  with  the  Expedition  by  reason  of  his  military  training  and 
natural  grasp  of  locality. 



By  Major  P.  \\.  Forbes. 

Scouts  sent  to  reconnoitre  Buluwayo — News  of  Lobengula — Umsingvveni  kraal  burnt  by  the 
natives — An  anxious  march — The  battle  of  Imbembesi — The,  horses  stampeded — The 
picket  surprised — The  Matabeli  within  300  yards — -Attempt  to  surround  the  laager — 
Plucky  advance  of  Captain  Delamore's  dismounted  men — The  enemy  retire — The  Imbezu 
beaten  by  a  lot  of  boys — The  Matabeli  power  broken — Heading  straight  for  Buluwayo — 
Kraals  deserted — Buluwayo  blown  up — Letter  from  Burnham  and  Fairbairn — -Buluwayo 
occupied — Short  of  supplies — News  of  the  Southern  Column — A  messenger  sent  to 
Lobengula — Capturing  the  king's  peacocks — Lobengula's  reply:  ''Where  am  I  to  live?" 
— -The  first  church  parade  at  Buluwayo — Despatches  for  England.^ 

We  marched  at  6  a.m.  the  next  day  (29th),  and  after  going  about  two 
miles  through  rather  broken  country  and  bush,  got  out  into  the  high 
open  veldt  again.  We  were  on  the  southern  slope  of  the  watershed, 
and  about  a  mile  from  it.  and  to  the  south  of  us  the  country  gradually 
fell  away  to  the  Matoppo  Hills  ;  we  laagered  between  two  good  streams 
of  water,  having  seen  no  natives  that  day,  although  the  bush  was  full 
of  recentl3'-made  scherms  where  they  had  stopped,  and  we  found  a  few 
head  of  cattle.  We  did  four  miles  that  afternoon,  still  on  the  flats,  and 
laagered  close  to  a  newly-deserted  kraal  which  we  burnt  that  night,  and 
from  which  we  had  taken  some  grain.  The  next  day  we  did  four  miles 
in  the  morning  and  four  in  the  afternoon,  passing  a  good  many  kraals, 
but  seeing  no  one  except  one  very  old  woman,  who  had  been  left  to 
starve  on  the  veldt,  and  whom  we  brought  on  in  a  waggon. 

In  some  kraals  close  to  where  we  laagered  v.^e  found  a  considerable 
amount,  of  powder,  caps,  and  bullets  which  had  been  left  behind,  and 
which  showed  that  the  kraals  had  been  deserted  very  hurriedly.  As 
the  grass  was  good  here  we  halted  the  following  morning,  and  I  sent 
three    men — Burnham,    Ingram,    and    Vavasour — the    first    two    being 















r  I 

The  Occupation  of  Btdiiivayo.  1^9 

American  Scouts,  and  the  third  one  of  the  Victoria  Column,  who  knew 
the  country  about  'Bukiwayo,  to  try  to  get  on  to  Buluwayo  or  to  open 
communication  with  the  Tuli  Column,  which  we  reckoned  should  not 
be  far  from  Buluwayo  by  now. 

We  were  to  march  at  3  p.m.,  and  just  before  then  one  of 
the  Scouts  who  had  gone  on  ahead  with  Captain  White,  galloped 
in  to  report  that  they  had  ridden  into  a  very  large  force  of  Matabeli 
about  three  miles  ahead,  but  had  been  able  to  ride  out  without  any  loss ; 
they  estimated  the  number  at  4,000,  and  Captain  White  was  remaining 
to  watch  their  movements.  There  was  a  narrow  strip  of  bush  to  go 
through  in  a  hollow  about  a  mile  in  front  of  us,  and  then  it  was  open 
country  for  about  two  miles,  ending  in  a  row  of  low  bushy  kopjes 
running  from  south  to  north  and  terminating  in  a  high  detached  hill, 
and  immediately  behind  the  kopjes  and  in  our  direct  route  was  the 
military  kraal  of  Umsingweni.  I  at  once  sent  out  Captain  Spreckley's 
Troop  and  one  from  the  Victoria  Column  to  try  and  draw  the  natives 
on,  but  they  could  not  get  them  to  leave  the  bush,  and  as  it  was 
necessary  to  push  on  as  fast  as  possible,  I  determined  to  move  as 
arranged,  and  to  laager  again  before  we  reached  the  kopjes ;  we 
accordingly  moved  about  two  miles  and  laagered  on  a  very  good 
position.  We  had  seen  nothing  of  the  enemy,  but  there  was  thick  bush 
extending  almost  from  the  foot  of  the  kopjes  to  within  800  yards  of  us, 
a  small  strip  just  along  the  bottom  of  the  kopjes  being  clear.  Just  as  we 
had  finished  laagering,  we  saw  a  very  large  force  of  natives  come  through 
a  neck  between  the  end  of  the  kopjes  and  the  hill  and  form  up  below 
the  hill ;  at  the  same  time  we  saw  a  lot  of  them  along  the  kopjes.  I 
told  Captain  Lendy  to  have  the  Victoria  Column  seven-pounder,  which 
was  sighted  up  to  4,000  yards,  brought  out  and  to  try  a  shot  at  them. 
The  first  shot  fell  a  little  short,  and  we  saw  them  all  fire  their  rifles  at 
it ;  the  next  two  went  right  into  the  middle  of  them,  and  must  have 
done  great  execution  ;  this  scattered  them,  and  they  retired  over  the 
neck.  Two  more  shells  very  accurately  placed  accelerated  their 
movements ;  but  for  this,  I  think  that  they  would  have  attacked 
us  that  night. 

There  was  a  thick  fog  the  next  morning,  the  ist  November,  and  we 
could  not  move  until  8  a.m.  ;  by  this  time  the  Scouts  had  reported  that 

120  The  Downfall  of  Lobcngiila. 

the  country  was  clear  of  natives  in  front  of  us.  We  passed  the  kopjes, 
finding  that  the  Umsingweni  kraal  had  been  burnt  by  the  natives,  and 
then  came  to  a  large  bushy  basin  in  which  the  Imbembesi  River  rises. 
Our  guide  wished  to  take  us  across  this,  but  I  could  see  that  by  keeping 
to  the  left  we  could  go  through  a  narrow  strip  of  bush  and  get  into  open 
country  again,  and  so  turned  the  Column  that  way.  During  the  march, 
Burnham,  Ingram,  and  Vavasour  returned  and  reported  that  they  had 
been  unable  to  get  close  to  Buluwayo,  as  there  were  too  many  natives 
about  who  had  chased  them  several  times  ;  they  had  caught  two  women 
near  a  kraal,  and  learnt  from  them  that  the  King  had  left  Buluwayo, 
but  that  some  of  the  people  were  still  there,  and  that  nothing  had  been 
heard  of  the  Southern  Column.  The  Scouts,  advance  guards,  and 
flanking  parties  saw  several  groups  of  natives  in  the  bush,  but  we  were 
not  interfered  Av^ith,  and  after  rather  an  anxious  march  through  open 
bush,  came  out  on  a  high  ridge  and  laagered.  The  country  was  quite 
open  to  the  west,  south,  and  east,  and  about  ten  miles  away  we  saw 
Intabas  Induna,  which  we  knew  to  be  eight  miles  east  of  Buluwayo. 

The  high  ridge  ran  east  and  west,  and  to  the  north  of  it  was  level 
for  about  i,ooo  yards,  after  which  it  gradually  fell  away  to  the 
Imbembesi ;  to  the  south  it  sloped  away  very  quickly,  but  there  were 
several  spurs  running  out,  and  on  one  of  these,  at  about  400  yards  from 
the  bush,  we  laagered  on  the  side  of  an  old  kraal.  The  water  was  some 
distance  away  at  the  foot  of  the  slope,  and  the  horses  and  oxen  were 
sent  down  to  it,  with  orders  that  as  soon  as  they  had  been  watered  they 
were  to  be  driven  back  towards  the  laager,  and  were  to  feed  on  the 
slopes  under  cover  of  the  guns.  It  had  been  very  cold  when  we 
marched  in  the  morning,  and  eighteen  trek  oxen  had  had  to  be  left  on 
the  ground,  in  addition  to  which  B  Troop  had  lost  three  horses  the 
previous  day,  and  I  was  going  to  send  back  some  of  the  Colonial 
"  boys  "  to  try  and  find  the  horses,  and  bring  them  and  the  cattle  on. 
I  was  giving  orders  about  it  when  I  saw  a  large  number  of  natives, 
several  of  whom  were  mounted,  driving  a  few  head  of  cattle,  come  out 
of  the  west  end  of  the  bush  ;  I  knew  that  there  was  a  main  path  to 
Buluwayo,  and  I  thought  that  they  were  going  along  it ;  they  were 
about  1,800  yards  away,  and  I  had  the  seven-pounder  brought  out  and 
commenced  to  shell  them.      There  was  a  mounted  picket   between   us, 

The  Downfall  of  Lobengula.  plan  iv. 

compass   sketch 
Battlk  of  IMHI{MHKS1, 

NOVEMBER  l^t,  1893. 
Prrparfd  by 

Major    SIR    JOHN    WILLOUGHBY.   Bart., 
Key  to  Plan 

A  -  SalUhury  Laagtf  with  wide  ga(>i  and 


B  =  Victoria  Laa£<r  Partially  hutlitd. 

ISO  yards   dttttmt  from    Salis: 

p.p.  ^  Dgad  groHHtl,  i/iwied,  -uihrrt  the  tntnty 
eould  obtain  cover  over  an  area  o/ 
20"  to  $00  yartlt  ufi  to  within  150  ana 
80  yards  e/  Laagtr. 

G.G.  =  Entmy's  first  lintt  of  tktrmishtfs 


to  cut  off  C.  , 

covtrtd   by    Shell   . 
Maxim  firt  at  i.Soo  yards. 

-Captain  Bastard's   'I  roofi  in  finrsui 

L.L.   = 

N.        ==  Troop  in   support  of  diitnounttd  1 

O.       =  Vedettes. 

^  Norden/eUl gun. 
-  Maxim  gvn. 

tlightly    adiaticed  /'O 
<cn    mo-.-ed  fonvard  fro 

Key  to  Plan 

-  Saliil'wy  Laager  milk  wUie  j:af.i  t 

-=  yutoria  Laager  partially  lu 

D.D.  =  Un/iHUhtd  tmloiun    (thorn)  /or 

80  yardi  f/  Laagff, 
Q.G.   ^  Rntm^t   ftrit    lintk    a/    ikifmlihtu 


H.H.  Rntmy  charging /rem  bnth  at  >■»«. 
lo  cut  a/f  Captain  Haitard'i  Treap. 
liii  rttrtat  covtrtd  by  Shill  and 
Maxim /Irt  at  i/ionyavdi. 

I  -Captain  Hattard't   'I  roop  in  purtuit  oj 

routid  Jniu/ritfnini,  p.m. 

vrpriud  fn    the 

L.L.    ' 

'  PotiHoH  e/  alt  the  oxtn  duting  tlie 
latttrha{/ of  the  fight. 

"  Troop  fn  support  of  diimounttd  men 
ikiruiUhlnji,  hut  loo  /ar  dttlant  t» 
afford  tuchi/  rtquirtd. 

-  Vidtttii. 

-■'  laiuhamlni  tklntiithtrt  t\fltr  the  tlam- 
Ptdtd  horitt,  hut  too  latt—l,4<J  /•»• 

-  Nordit^eldt  gun. 
•"  Maxim  gun, 

-  Cardntrgnn. 

-  Maxim  guH. 

■   J-poJndtrgun. 
MnMm  guH    ttightly    mh-amtd  /foiii 

llotxhicitt    j-ttn    mevtd /.^tfatd  /'vm 

-  Tpoundtr    gun 

HOVid  /or 

d   /,vm 

uk  OM  the 

■^  MfH  adfanc/d  hy  Major  H'ttnu  lo 
assist  in  •^fetttng  the  ir"-  '  —  "- 
Saiisbury  Laager, 

^  Notes. 

J  ^=  Appmtimate  jo/i,  It 

=-.  .UotiHtfd  ifoofs. 
=  i  tdtltes. 

=  Thorm  Husk. 

^  I'.imountfd  Troops. 

xss.  Lints  ^enemy's  rttrtat, 
-.iss  Route  HP  the  tnv  Columns. 
s  Enemy's  skirmishers. 

The  Occupation  of  Btihiwayo.  1 2 1 

over  which  we  had  to  fire,  and  the  first  shell,  owing  to  a  bad  fuse, 
exploded  nearly  over  the  picket,  but  without  hurting  them.  The  picket 
had  seen  the  natives,  and  one  of  them  came  in  to  report  them  ;  just  as 
he  arrived  we  saw  the  whole  edge  of  the  bush,  about  500  yards  away, 
alive  with  natives  coming  towards  us  ;  the  alarm  sounded  at  once,  the 
laagers  were  manned,  and  the  fight  began.  The  attack  was  entirely  on 
the  right  face  of  our  laager,  and  owing  to  the  position  of  the  laagers 
the  Victoria  Column  saw  little  of  the  main  attack.  The  natives  had 
intended  to  surround  us,  and  those  we  had  seen  on  the  left  front  were 
to  have  come  round  on  that  side,  but  were  stopped  by  the  shells,  and 
some  others  tried  in  the  same  way  to  get  round  the  right,  but  were 
driven  back  by  one  of  the  Victoria  Column  Maxims.  The  horses  and 
oxen  had  been  sent  for  immediately  the  alarm  sounded,  and  the  horses 
were  driven  up  when  the  fight  was  at  its  hottest;  just  as  they  reached 
the  laagers  some  "  boys "'  ran  out  to  turn  the  horses  in  and  stampeded 
them,  they  went  off  at  a  gallop  up  the  hollow  towards  the  enemy,  and 
it  looked  as  if  we  were  going  to  lose  them  all,  but  Sir  J.  Willoughby, 
Captain  Borrow,  and  Trooper  Neale,  the  latter  of  whom  was  on  horse- 
guard  and  endeavouring  to  intercept  them,  dashed  forward  on  horse- 
back ;  these  were  followed  by  Captain  Donovan,  Mr,  Bowen,  Corporal 
Fife-Scott,  Lieut.  P.  H.  Browne,  and  several  others,  who  jumped  on 
some  horses  that  were  in  the  laager  ;  the  stampeding  horses  were  turned 
when  within  a  hundred  yards  of  the  enemy,  but  not  before  both  they 
and  the  relief  party  were  exposed  to  a  very  heavy  fire  which,  however, 
only  killed  one  horse. 

There  was  a  mounted  picket  of  three  m.en  just  at  the  edge  of  the 
bush,  and  one  of  them  had  come  in  to  get  his  dinner.  The  other  two. 
White  and  Thompson,  were  sitting  under  a  bush  not  looking  out  at  all, 
with  their  horses  grazing  a  short  distance  from  them,  when  the  Matabeli 
came  on  and  were  on  them  before  they  saw  them.  Thompson  failed  to 
catch  his  horse,  and  then  tried  to  climb  a  tree,  but  was  pulled  down  and 
stabbed  ;  White  caught  his  and  mounted,  but  fell  off  on  his  way  into 
camp  and  then  ran  on  beside  his  horse,  he  luckily  kept  away  to  his  left, 
and  so  cleared  our  front  and  enabled  the  fire  from  the  laager  to  cover 
him.  Corporal  Whittaker,  who  had  charge  of  the  Gardner  at  the  right 
rear,  worked  it  with  great  accuracy  and  coolness,  and  managed  to  stop 

122  The   Doivnfall  of  Loben^iila, 

the  natives  immediately  in  rear  of  White,  and  so  let  him  get  to  the 
laager,  which  he  did,  falling  down  from  exhaustion  when  he  arrived. 
It  was  entirely  owing  to  their  own  carelessness  that  they  had  been 
surprised,  as  although  there  were  small  patches  of  bush  that  were  very 
thick,  they  could  get  a  good  view  for  500  or  600  yards,  and  would  have 
been  quite  safe  if  they  had  been  keeping  a  proper  look  out.  Meanwhile 
the  enemy  had  been  coming  on  in  great  numbers  ;  their  fire  was  very 
hot,  luckily  for  us  it  was  high,  and  for  ten  minutes  or  so  I  thought 
it  quite  as  hot  as  ours ;  we  had  a  Maxim,  a  Gardner,  and  the 
Nordenfelt  gun  firing  all  the  time,  besides  about  150  rifles.  The  main 
attack  was  on  our  right,  and  although  the  natives  came  on  very  v/ell 
to  within  about  300  yards  and  held  their  own  there,  they  could  not 
get  closer  and  were  at  last  forced  to  retire. 

There  were  three  half- built  huts  about  100  yards  to  the  left  front  of 
the  face,  and  a  slight  depression  in  the  ground  enabled  five  of  the  enemy 
to  crawl  up  to  them  under  cover ;  they  began  to  shoot  rather  straight, 
and  were  not  dislodged  for  some  time,  but  at  last  three  of  them  retired, 
one  badly  wounded,  leaving  two  dead  there.  While  the  main  attack  was 
being  conducted  on  our  right  face,  several  attempts  were  made  to  get 
round  us,  but  in  each  case  were  stopped  by  the  Maxims,  and  none  ot 
the  enemy  except  those  in  the  main  attack  appeared  to  care  about 
leaving  the  bush.  The  fight  lasted  about  forty  minutes  and  then  the 
enemy  retired,  but  did  so  in  a  sulky  sort  of  way,  not  hurrying  or  taking 
cover,  but  walking  quietly  back  until  they  were  out  of  sight. 

As  they  still  kept  up  a  desultory  fire  at  a  long  range,  I  sent  out  100 
of  the  Victoria  dismounted  men,  under  Captain  Delamore  and  Lieu- 
tenant Stier,  to  clear  them  out  of  the  bush,  and  sent  Captain  Borrow 
with  B  Troop  to  support  them  and  to  prevent  any  attempt  that  might 
be  made  to  cut  them  off  from  the  laager  ;  I  also  sent  Captain  Bastard 
with  his  Troop  to  try  and  cut  off  some  of  the  enemy  that  had  been  seen 
going  down  the  valley  behind  the  next  ridge  to  the  one  on  which  we 
were.  Captain  Bastard  got  too  near  the  bush,  and  a  large  force  ran  out 
from  the  left  to  try  and  intercept  him  ;  but  several  shells  from  the 
seven-pounder,  and  a  very  well-aimed  discharge  from  Lieutenant 
Biscoe's  Maxim  at  1,800  yards,  turned  the  enemy  back  into  the  bush. 
Meanwhile  the  dismounted  men  advanced  very  steadily  in  skirmishing 

The   Occupation  of  Biduwayo. 


order  into  the  bush  ;    they  were    opposed  to  a  hot 
fire  at   first,  but  luckily  no  one  was  hit,  and  they 
gradually  drove   the    enemy  back    in     front    of 
them,   and    after  advancing   about    500    yards 
into  the  bush  found  that   they  had    all  re- 
tired   and    returned    to    their  laager,   being 
greeted    with    a    cheer    by     the    Salisbury 
Column    as    they  passed.        This    was    the 
end  of  the  Tmbembesi  fight. 

As  soon    as    the    dismounted 
men  had    gone    forward,  I    sent 
out  some  of    the  Native  Con- 
tingent   to    bring    in    some 
wounded,  from  whom   we  could  find  out 
what  the  force  had  consisted  of     The 
first  one  brought  in  was  a  pure  Mata- 
beli — one  of  the  Imbezu  regi- 
ment ;    although  he  must  have 
been  in  great  agony — his  left 
leg  being  shattered  by  a  shell- 
he  burst  out  laugh-         J 
was    brought    into 

"Fancy  the  Imbezu 
lot  of  boys!"  He  was 
to  say  much,  and 
but  from  other 
that  the  force  was 
attacked  us  at  the 
addition  of  the  Im- 

The  Pickf  1 

I>Y   THF 


ing  when  he 
the  laager,  and  said, 
being  beaten   by  a 
too  badly  wounded 
died    shortly     after; 
wounded    we    found 
the    same    that    had 
Shangani,     with     the 
bezu,  Ingubu,  and  the 

N'Gobo regiments;  and  several  kraals,  including  Godhlwayo,Umsingweni, 
and  Umswanansi.  The  Imbezu  and  Ingubu  were  the  two  best  regiments 
in  the  country,  and  had  only  joined  the  others  on  the  previous  evening ; 
they  had  been  waiting  for  us  in  the  bush  on  the  Imbembesi,  and  had  we 
gone  that  way  the  result  might  have  been  very  different.  They  said  that 
when  the  Insukameni  had  told  the  King  that  they  had  been  beaten  at 
the  Shangani,  the  Imbezu  and  Ingubu  had  laughed  at  them,  saying  that 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 

The  Induna 



it  was  ridiculous  that  they,  the  crack  regiments,  should  have  to  be  sent 
to  beat  us,  and  told  the  King  that  they  would  not  have  to  fight,  but 
would  walk  into  the  laagers,  leading  us  out  on  the  other  side,  killing  the 
elder  men  and  keeping  the  rest  for  slaves.  The  King  had  given  the 
Imbezu  regiment  lOO  M.H.  rifles  and  10,000  rounds  of  ammunition,  and 
another  10,000  rounds  had  been  distributed  among  the  rest  of  the  force 
on  the  previous  evening.  They  had  had  orders  to  attack  us  on  the 
march,  but  said  that  they  could  never  find  an  opportunity  when  we 
were  not  ready  ;  they  all  admitted  that  they  were 
thoroughly  beaten,  although  they  could  not  under- 
stand how  it  should  be  so,  and  we  found  out 
afterwards  that  the  Imbezu  who  led  the  attack 
must  have  lost  in  dead  and  wounded  nearly  500 
out  of  a  total  of  700  men.  Our  casualties,  con- 
sidering the  very  heavy  fire  of  which 
we  had  the  brunt,  were  very  slight. 
Trooper  Thompson,  as  already  stated, 
was  killed  on  picket,  and  Troopers 
Cary  and  Siebert  were  shot  through 
the  head,  and  never  regained  conscious- 
ness, although  they  lived  to  the  fol- 
lowing night ;  Trooper  Barnard  was 
shot  through  the  knee,  and  Trooper 
Crewe  through  the  right  leg;  Trooper 
Calcraft  through  the  back,  and  Captain 
Moberley  and  Trooper  Mack  were  each 
grazed  the  former  on  the  side  and  the  latter  on 
the  head  ;  Driver  William  Brown  was  also  shot  in  the 
hand  and  a  Coolie  through  the  arm  ;  we  also  lost  three  horses. 
The  Victoria  Column  was  protected  from  the  fire,  and  had  no  casualty 
but  one  horse  killed. 

There  were  a  large  number  of  the  enemy's  dead  lying  on  the  field, 
but  they  had  carried  away  most  of  them,  and  during  the  fight  we  had 
seen  a  number  being  taken  away.  The  behaviour  of  all  the  men  was 
excellent,  and  although  I  was  continually  round  the  laager  I  only  saw 
two    men    who    had    lost    their   heads.      The    machine    g-uns    worked 

The   Occupation  of  Btthiwayo.  1 25 

splendidly,  and  to  them  our  success  was  mainly  due  ;  both  Lieutenant 
Biscoe's  Maxim  and  the  Gardner  in  charge  of  Corporal  Whittaker  were 
outside  the  laager  and  under  no  cover,  but  were  continually  in  action 
and  were  worked  with  the  greatest  coolness.  At  the  corner  where  the 
Gardner  was  the  enemy's  fire  was  hottest  ;  Trooper  Calcraft  was  shot 
while  at  the  gun,  but  his  place  was  taken  at  once  by  Captain  Moberley, 
himself  hit  by  the  same  bullet,  and  the  gun  did  not  cease  firing  ;  while 
two  men  were  shot  in  the  waggons  immediately  behind,  and  I  counted 
fifteen  bullet  marks  on  one  of  them  afterwards. 

It  was  a  source  of  great  satisfaction  to  us  to  find  out  what  the 
force  had  been  composed  of,  and  to  realise  that  we  had  met,  and 
handsomely  beaten,  practically  all  that  Lobengula  could  send  against 
us.  I  wished  to  send  forward  lOO  men  at  once  to  follow  up  our 
advantage  and  seize  Buluwayo  before  the  news  could  reach  there, 
but  on  consulting  Major  Wilson,  we  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
horses  were  not  in  sufficiently  good  condition  to  risk  it ;  for  the  same 
reason  we  could  not  follow  up  the  natives  to  any  distance.  We 
obtained  a  considerable  number  of  rifles,  some  being  M.H.,  and  a 
large  amount  of  ammunition  from  the  enemy  ;  we  found  that  they 
had  been  armed  with  all  sorts  of  rifles,  including  four-bore  elephant 
guns,  and  expresses  firing  explosive  bullets.  Our  expenditure  of 
ammunition  was  8,600  M.H.,  25  seven-pounder  shells,  30  Hotchkiss, 
and   570  Gardner. 

The  following  morning  I  sent  out  two  mounted  parties  to  patrol  for 
a  considerable  distance  through  the  bush,  and  on  their  return,  as 
they  stated  that  the  country  was  clear  of  natives,  although  they  had 
found  a  large  number  of  dead,  the  two  Columns  marched.  As  the 
country  appeared  quite  open  to  the  Intabas  Induna,  we  struck  straight 
across  for  it ;  each  Column  was  in  four  columns  of  waggons,  and  all 
the  natives  marched  in  between  the  Salisbury  and  Victoria  Columns. 
As  the  country  was  bare  of  trees,  I  made  each  of  the  natives  carry 
a  thorn  bush  from  the  laager,  and  the  sight  of  the  whole  Column 
marching  like  this  was  very  imposing.  We  marched  at  12  o'clock, 
but  had  to  make  a  slight  detour  to  avoid  some  rocky  ground,  and 
it  was  late  in  the  afternoon  when  we  came  to  a  thick  strip  of  bush, 
through  which  we  had  to  go,  as  the  water  was  on  the  other  side.     The 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula, 

flanking  parties  were  strengthened,  and  extended  through  the  bush  on 

both  sides,  the  Columns  got  through  safely  and  laagered  in  the  open 

on  the  other  side,  on  the  west  bank  of  one  of  the  tributaries  of  the  Koce 

stream.     There  were  a  large  number  of  kraals  about,  all  deserted,  and 

close  to  us  was  the  Umswanansi  kraal,  the  Induna  of  which — Malevo — 

had  been  at  Victoria ;  we  burnt  this  and  all  others  within  reach,  and  a 

large  quantity  of  grain.     Both  Gary  and    Siebert   died    at   this  laager, 

and  were  buried  the  next  morning. 

We  were  now  about  three  miles  from  the  Intabas  Induna,  and  saw 

a  large  herd  of  cattle  in  the  bush  under  the  hill  in  the  evening ;  I  tried 

a  few  shells  from  the  Victoria  Column  seven-pounder,  but  the  distance 

was  too  great  to  reach  them.     The  next  day,  the  3rd,  we    started    at 

6  a.m.,  and  crossed  the  main  Koce  stream,  and   shortly  after  crossing  a 

large  force  was  reported  in  the  bush,  about  Intabas  Induna  ;  I  therefore 

laagered  up  and  sent  Captain  Spreckley  with  his  Troop  to  try  and  draw 

them  on  ;  this  they  were  unable  to  do,  although  there  was  a  heavy  fire 

from  the  bush,  and  they  heard  the  Indunas  trying  to  get  the  men  to 

advance  ;  they  had  no  casualties  and  returned  to  the  laager.     As  soon 

as  they  returned  I  took  out  Mr.  Biscoe's  Maxim  to  a  rise,  about  1,000 

yards  from  the  bush,  and  fired  a  few  rounds  into  the   edge  of  it,  and 

at  the  same  time  Captain   Lendy  put  one  seven-pounder  and  several 

one-pounder  shells  into  it,  which  effectually  dispersed  the  enemy. 

Before   starting  that   morning  I   had   sent   Burnham,  Ingram,  and 

Posselt  on  again  to  see  if  they  could  reach  Buluwayo; 

and  just  as  we  were  crossing  the  Koce,  we  saw  and 

heard   a  large  explosion  in  the    direction   of 

Buluwayo,  and  shortly  afterwards  we  saw  a 

large  column  of  smoke  rising,  and  soon  after 

we    laagered    I    got   a   note    from    Burnham, 

brought  by  a  native,  in  which  he  said  he  was 

within  sight  of  and  about  seven   miles  from 

Buluwayo,  which  had  been  fired  in  four  places, 

and  that  he  was  going  on  there. 

We  marched  again  at  3  p.m.,  keeping  to 

,  the  left  of  the  Intabas   Induna,  to  avoid  the 

Messrs.  Burnham  and  Ingram,  ' 

THE  American  Scouts.  bush  between  there  and  Buluwayo;  and  close 

The  Occupation  of  Buhiwayo.  127 

to  the  hill  got  on  to  the  road  from  Umhlangeni  (Inyati)  to  Hope  Fountain, 
and  followed  it  for  about  three  miles  through  open  bush,  where  we  got 
into  open  country  again  and  laagered  on  a  small  stream,  a  tributary  of 
the  Umguzu.  Just  as  the  leading  waggons  were  coming  in  Ingram  and 
Posselt  returned,  bringing  letters  from  Burnham  and  Fairbairn  ;  the 
latter,  with  Usher,  had  remained  in  Buluwayo  after  the  other  whites  left, 
and  had  had  a  very  anxious  time  since  the  King  had  left.  They  were 
delighted  to  see  our  Scouts,  and  asked  for  a  few  men  to  be  sent  on  that 
night  to  protect  them  against  any  stray  Matabeli  that  might  still  be 
hanging  about.  As  Captain  Borrow  was  advance  guard  with  his  Troop, 
I  sent  him  off  at  once  with  twenty  men,  and  Ingram  as  a  guide,  to 
occupy  Buluwayo  ;  and  thus,  exactly  a  month  after  leaving  Charter,  the 
main  town  of  Matabeliland  was  occupied  by  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  and  the  nation  was  scattered  ov^er  the  country. 

There  were  several  small  kraals  round  the  laager,  from  which  we 
got  some  grain,  and  in  the  distance  to  the  south  we  could  see  the 
Inyatini  and  Umziniyantini  military  kraals.  I  gave  orders  that  no 
kraals  were  to  be  burnt  now,  as  we  should  require  all  the  grain  we  could 
get.  It  was  about  an  hour  before  sunset  when  Captain  Borrow  left,  and 
about  half-an-hour  afterwards  I  sent  my  galloper,  Mr.  Tanner,  after  him 
to  tell  him.  not  to  allow  his  men  to  do  any  looting,  and  to  put  sentries 
over  any  stores,  etc.,  there  might  be,  until  the  Columns  arrived.  Mr. 
Tanner  rode  as  fast  as  possible,  but  failed  to  catch  him,  and  rode  rio-ht 
up  and  into  the  burning  kraal  ;  Captain  Borrow  had  turned  off  to  Mr. 
Dawson's  store,  where  Fairbairn  and  Usher  were,  and  spent  the  nio-ht 
there.  The  kraal  was  lighted  up  by  the  fires  burning  all  round,  and 
Tanner  rode  into  the  centre  of  it  but  could  see  nothing  but  hundreds 
of  Kaffir  dogs  running  about.  It  must  have  been  a  very  eerie  sensation, 
and  he  escaped  from  it  as  quickly  as  possible,  and  luckily  found  his 
way  back  to  the  laagers,  being  helped  by  the  rockets  that  I  sent  up 
as  usual. 

The  following  morning  we  marched  at  6  a.m.,  and  after  going  three 
miles  through  old  lands  came  to  the  Umguzu  River,  which  we  had  some 
trouble  in  crossing ;  there  was  not  much  water  in  it,  but  the  banks  were 
steep  and  had  to  be  cut  away  ;  it  is  said  to  be  full  of  crocodiles,  which 
Lobengula  always  preserved.     I  had  hoped  to  have  made  Buluwayo  in 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula, 

one  trek,  but  it  was  too  far,  and  we  had  to  laager  soon  after  crossing  the 
river ;  the  country  all  about  was  covered  with  low  thorn  bush,  with  no 
grass  except  close  to  the  river.  Dr.  Jameson  and  Sir  J.  Willoughby 
rode  on  to  Buluwayo  when  we  halted.  We  marched  again  at  12  o'clock, 
and  after  crossing  two  small  streams,  over  the  first  of  which  we  had  to 
make  drifts,  arrived  at  Mr.  Colenbrander's  house  at  2  p.m.  The  kraal 
of  Buluwayo  (which  was  still  burning)  was  on  the  rising  ground  across 
the  stream  about  1,000  yards  away,  and  the  bush  had  all  been  cleared  for 
some  distance  round.  There  were  several  houses  and  huts  in  Mr, 
Colenbrander's  compound  which  would  be  very  useful  for  hospital  and 
store  purposes,  and  so  we  laagered  up  there,  the  Salisbury  laager  taking 
the  north-west  corner  of  the  compound  and  forming  up  so  as  to 
flank  the  north  and  west  sides  of  it,  and  the  Victoria  laager  taking  the 
opposite  corner.  We  found  that  the  Matabeli  had  not  interfered  in  any 
way  with  the  houses  belonging  to  white  men,  although  by  the  King's 
orders  they  had  burnt  down  Buluwayo  and  all   the  other  royal  kraals. 

itself   con- 
sisted of  a 
large    ring 
about    100 
yards  wide 
of    kraals, 
an     open 
space     of 
about  700  yards 
m  diameter,  and  m  the  centre  of  this  were 
the  King's  own  buildings  ;    they  consisted  of 
two  large  brick  houses,  one  being  the  King's 
living  house  and  the  other  the  waggon  house; 
a  large  group  of  huts  belonging  to  the  queens, 
and  a  cattle  and  goat  kraal.     All  these  were 
entirely  destroyed,  partly  by  fire  and  partly  by 
the  explosion.     The  explosion  had  consisted 
The  kraal  and  the  surro,ntdingstcKkadeu.erehcrnt     f  3^  qqq  rounds  M.  H.  ammunition  and  about 

down,   and  a  large  store  0/ ivory,  etc.,  destroyed.     ^'-    uv^,w-/v-/   iv^miv^^ 

Rui.NS  OF  Lobengula's  Storehouses 
AT  Buluwayo. 

The  Occupation  of  Buhiwayo.  129 

2,000  pounds  powder,  which  had  been  left  by  Lobengula  in  charge 
of  Fairbairn  when  he  left  Buluwayo  ;  and  he  had  given  orders  to 
the  men  remaining  there,  that  if  the  nation  was  beaten  at  Imbembesi 
they  were  to  set  fire  to  the  kraal  and  follow  him,  carrying  the 
ammunition  and  powder,  but  so  great  was  the  panic  that  they  would 
not  wait  to  pick  it  up,  but  set  fire  to  the  kraal  and  left.  All  this 
time  we  had  heard  nothing  definite  of  the  Southern  Column  beyond 
the  fact  that  Gambo,  the  Chief  of  the  Ikapa  people,  had  been  sent 
by  the  King  to  stop  their  advance.  Gambo,  although  a  son-in-law 
of  Lobengula's,  had  always  been  antagonistic  to  and  was  not  trusted 
by  him,  and  although  the  former  had  3,000  to  4,000  men,  the  King 
had  only  given  him  ten  M.H.  rifles  and  1,000  rounds  of  ammunition, 
and  Dr.  Jameson  thought  it  quite  possible  that,  instead  of  attacking 
Colonel  Goold  -  Adams'  Column,  he  would  join  them.  We  had 
heard  a  report  that  they  had  attacked  the  Column,  had  killed  a  number 
of  white  men  and  had  burnt  some  waggons,  but  this  had  not  been 

As  Dr.  Jameson  wished  the  news  of  the  occupation  of  Buluwayo 
to  get  to  Mr.  Rhodes  as  quickly  as  possible,  Burnham,  Ingram,  and  a 
Zulu  boy  who  knew  the  road,  started  off  that  evening  for  Tati — 
distance  120  miles — where  they  expected  to  find  a  telegraph  station. 
It  was  a  risky  ride,  as  we  knew  that  Gambo's  impi  was  probably  on  the 
road  somewhere,  but  Burnham  had  done  a  great  deal  of  scouting  among 
the  Indians,  and  could  be  depended  upon  to  get  through  if  it  were 
possible  for  anyone  to  do  so  ;  they  got  through  safely,  although  they 
only  just  missed  Gambo's  impi,  and  rode  for  about  a  mile  through  the 
fires,  which  were  still  burning.  On  arrival  at  Tati  they  found  the 
telegraph  had  not  reached  there,  and  that  the  heliograph  communication 
which  had  been  established  with  Palapye  could  not  be  depended  upon 
owing  to  cloudy  weather,  Burnham  consequently  went  on  to  Palapye, 
he  did  the  whole  distance,  210  miles,  in  four  days,  and  the  news  of  the 
breaking  of  the  Matabeli  power  and  the  occupation  of  Buluwayo  was 
published  in  the  English  papers  of  November  loth. 

I  had  issued  orders  that  no  one  was  to  go  into  Buluwayo  until  I  had 
been  there  myself  to  see  if  it  was  safe  (as  the  fire  was  still  burning  and 
there  had  been  several  small  explosions  where  powder  had  been  left  in 


1 30  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

the  huts),  and  on  the  following  morning  I  rode  up  with  Dr.  Jameson  ; 
we  found  everything  in  the  King's  block  of  buildings  entirely  destroyed, 
a  large  number  of  cartridges  of  all  sorts  lying  about,  mixed  up  with  bits 
of  old  rifles,  loading  machines,  and  beads  fused  by  the  heat.  Lobengula 
had  had  presents  of  rifles  made  him  by  different  hunters,  and  amongst 
others  there  were  the  remains  of  one  double-barrelled  rifle  with  one 
barrel  above  the  other  instead  of  side  by  side  as  is  usual.  There 
was  nothing  of  value  visible,  although  several  curiosities,  including 
the  silver  elephant  given  to  Lobengula  by  the  Tati  Company,  were 
picked  up  afterwards  among  the  ruins  ;  but  there  was  a  considerable 
amount  of  grain,  of  which  we  got  about  600  bags,  and  this  we 
wanted  badly. 

This  being  Sunday,  the  Bishop  held  a  voluntary  service  v^hich  was 
largely  attended,  in  the  afternoon,  in  Mr.  Dawson's  compound.  On 
Dr.  Jameson's  arrival  in  Buluwayo  the  previous  day,  he  had  sent  out  to 
Usher's  farm — about  fourteen  miles  away — to  try  and  find  a  Matabeli 
boy  who  was  working  for  Usher,  and  who  he  thought  would  be  willing 
to  take  a  message  to  the  King.  As  the  boy  did  not  come  in.  Usher 
went  out  himself  to  look  for  him  ;  he  did  not  find  him  but  returned 
about  dark  and  reported  that  he  had  seen  an  impi  500  or  600  strong 
about  six  miles  out,  that  several  of  the  large  chiefs  from  round  Buluwayo 
were  with  it,  and  that  it  had  been  part  of  Gambo's  force.  As  it  was 
important  these  men  should  be  prevented  if  possible  from  getting 
to  the  King,  Major  Wilson  went  out  before  daylight  the  following 
morning,  with  sixty  men  and  one  Maxim,  to  try  and  find  them  ;  but 
although  they  went  a  large  round  could  not  do  so,  and  returned  in 
the  afternoon.  On  the  same  morning  Calcraft,  who  had  been 
wounded  at  Imbembesi,  died,  and  was  buried  that  evening ;  Rixon, 
of  the  Victoria  Column,  had  died  the  previous  day  of  fever.  I  had 
sent  a  message  by  Burnham  to  any  transport  riders  who  might  be 
on  the  Tati  road  to  push  on  as  fast  as  possible,  as  we  were  getting 
short  of  supplies. 

Dr.  Jameson  had  arranged  for  80,000  pounds  of  meal  to  be  waiting 
at  Tati,  and  to  be  ready  to  come  in  as  soon  as  he  sent  for  it  ;  he  sent 
for  it  by  Burnham  but  it  had  not  arrived  at  Tati,  and  did  not  till  some 
time  later.     As  the  Victoria  Column  was  better  off  for  supplies  than  we 

The  Occupation  of  Bitluwayo.  131 

were,  all  that  both  Columns  had  were  put  into  one  of  Mr.  Colenbrander's 
houses,  and  Captain  Greenfield  took  charge  of  them,  issuing  them  as 
required.  The  following  day  (Tuesday,  7th)  two  Makalakas  arrived 
bringing  a  letter  from  Colonel  Goold- Adams,  who  was  then  at  Mangwe 
— sixty  miles  away — and  the  same  afternoon  Johan  Colenbrander, 
Armstrong,  and  Mullins  also  came  in,  having  ridden  through  from 
Palapye  with  despatches  for  Dr.  Jameson.  They  stated  that  Colonel 
Goold-Adams'  Column  had  kept  too  far  to  the  west  in  trying  to  avoid 
the  range  of  hills  through  which  the  main  road  ran,  had  run  short  of 
water  and  grass,  and  had  had  to  come  back  to  the  main  road,  that  they 
had  been  attacked  by  Gambo  and  had  lost  two  white  men  killed, 
besides  some  natives,  and  Mr.  Selous  had  been  slightly  wounded, 
that  they  were  coming  on,  but  very  slowly,  as  their  oxen  were  done  up  ; 
they  also  said  that  Khama  had  turned  back  with  all  his  men.  Colonel 
Goold-Adams  said  he  had  sent  Captain  Raaf  and  100  men  forward, 
and  we  heard  from  Colenbrander  that  they  ought  to  be  on  the  Kami 
River,  twelve  miles  out,  that  night.  As  our  oxen  had  had  a  little 
rest,  we  sent  ten  span  off  to  them  at  once  in  charge  of  Captain  Judd, 
who  was  to  hand  them  over  to  Captain  Raaf  at  the  Kami,  or  wherever 
he  met  him,  and  Dr.  Jameson  sent  orders  to  Captain  Raaf  to  return 
with  them  to  Colonel  Goold-Adams.  The  reason  for  sending  Captain 
Raaf  back  was  that  we  could  spare  no  food  for  his  men,  and  did  not 
want  them  before  their  waggons  could  get  in.  I  had  been  trying  since 
our  arrival  to  get  some  natives  to  take  a  letter  to  the  King,  who  was 
said  to  be  about  thirty  miles  to  the  north  of  Buluwayo,  in  the  bush 
near  Shiloh,  and  that  morning  three  Colonial  "  boys,''  John  Grootboom, 
a  very  plucky  boy,  Samuel,  and  Wilhelm  volunteered  to  go.  Dr. 
Jameson  gave  them  a  letter  written  in  English,  Dutch,  and  Zulu,  to 
Lobengula,  telling  him  we  had  occupied  Buluwayo,  that  the  nation 
was  beaten,  and  that  he  wished  to  avoid  further  bloodshed,  asking 
him  to  come  in  and  see  him,  guaranteeing  his  safety.  It  was  a 
dangerous  mission,  as  although  they  would  be  safe  if  they  got  to  the 
King,  there  was  a  great  chance  of  their  being  killed  before  arriving 
there.  Dr.  Jameson  also  said  he  would  give  the  King  two  days 
(I  think)  after  the  return  of  the  messengers  to  enable  him  to  come  in,  or 
if  he  did  not  by  then  he  would  send  after  him. 

K  2 

132  The  Downfall  of  Lobengitla. 

The  following  day  (8th)  he  sent  two  Zambesi  boys  as  spies 
to  see  what  they  couid  find  out ;  and  during  the  day  Captain 
Heyman,  who  had  been  Acting  S.O.  to  Colonel  Goold- Adams,  came  in 
from  the  other  Column. 

Nothing  of  interest  occurred  on  the  next  day  except  that  I 
sent  out  Mr.  Brabant  with  some  natives  to  catch  the  King's 
peacocks,  which  were  at  the  Ingugeni  kraal  about  three  miles  off, 
and  which  we  did  not  want  to  have  destroyed ;  they  brought  in  I 
think  eight.  The  following  day  the  two  Zambesi  boys  returned,  and 
reported  that  they  had  been  right  amongst  the  Matabeli,  who  according 
to  their  account  were  extended  across  the  country  about  thirty  to  forty 
miles  north  of  Buluwayo,  protecting  the  King,  who  was  said  to  be  at 
the  Intaba-gi-konga,  a  small  hill  in  thick  bush  at  the  junction  of  the 
Imbembesi  and  Inquequesi,  about  fifty  miles  from  Buluwayo.  They 
said  there  were  a  very  large  number  of  natives  there,  in  three  large 
camps  at  Shiloh,  on  the  Imbembesi,  and  at  Umhlangeni,  but  they  were 
all  much  cowed.  As  an  instance  they  said  they  had  walked  about 
amongst  the  Imbezu  and  talked  to  them,  they  themselves  pretending  to 
be  looking  for  some  of  their  people  who  had  left  their  kraals,  and  the 
Imbezu  had  been  quite  civil,  whereas  previously  no  Zambesi  natives 
had  dared  to  go  near  or  speak  to  an  Imbezu. 

The  mounted  messengers  should,  we  calculated,  have  been  back 
before  this,  and  we  were  afraid  they  had  been  killed,  and  Dr.  Jameson 
arranged  that  I  should  start  off  the  following  day  with  200  of  the 
Salisbury  and  Victoria  Columns  to  try  and  get  the  King  ;  but  after 
arrangements  were  made  he  found  there  was  such  a  strong  feeling 
against  it  on  account  of  the  danger  that  he  countermanded  it.  The 
following  day  (9th)  the  three  messengers  returned,  bringing  a  letter 
written  by  John  Jacobs,  a  Colonial  "boy"  who  had  accompanied  the 
King  ;  the  letter  was  written  in  English,  and  said  that  the  King  had 
received  the  Doctor's  letter  and  read  it,  and  "  so  I  will  come."  He 
asked  where  he  was  to  live,  as  all  his  houses  had  been  burnt,  and  ended 
by  asking  for  writing  paper,  pens,  and  ink.  The  messengers  said 
they  had  gone  to  Shiloh,  where  they  were  taken  prisoners  and  handed 
over  to  the  Imbezu  to  be  looked  after,  that  the  letter  had  been  taken 
from  them  and  sent  to  the   King,  that  there  was  a  very  large  impi  there. 

The  Occupation  of  Biiluwayo.  133 

but  they  were  kept  close  prisoners  and  did  not  see  much  that  was  going 
on  ;  Grootboom  had  had  some  conversation  with  Umjan,  the  chief  of 
the  Imbezu,  whom  he  had  known  when  he  was  in  MatabeHland  before 
as  driver  to  Mr.  Helm,  and  who  had  rebuked  him  for  joining  us.  They 
understood  that  the  nation  as  a  rule  did  not  wish  to  fight  any  more, 
the  Imbezu  and  Ingubu  being  especially  averse  to  it,  but  that  some  of 
the  young  men  of  the  Insukameni,  Ihlati,  and  Sesiba  were  still  anxious 
to  fight,  but  wished  us  to  come  into  the  bush,  leaving  the  waggons, 
Maxims,  and  seven-pounders  behind.  They  appeared  to  have  a  great 
horror  of  the  Maxims  and  shell  guns  and  also  of  the  rockets,  which 
they  looked  upon  as  white  man's  medicine.  They  confirmed  the  death 
of  Captain  V/illiams,  and  saw  a  compass  and  a  chain  which  he  used 
to  wear,  there  was  no  question  of  his  identification,  as  they 
described  the  paintings  (tattooing)  on  his  arms  and  legs  ;  they 
also  said  that  the  Matabeli  had  lost  very  heavily  at  both  the  fights, 
and  that  Gambo  and  his  impi  had  not  rejoined  the  King,  and  it 
was  not  known  where  they  were. 

The  following  day,  Sunday,  12th  November,  we  had  a  church 
parade  for  the  whole  Force  at  which  the  Bishop  officiated,  and  in  the 
evening  Colonel  Goold-Adams  rode  in  from  the  Kami  River,  where  he 
had  left  his  Column.  On  Monday  we  sent  back  despatches  to 
Salisbury  ;  Trooper  Savile  of  A  Troop  wished  to  go  back  and  Dr. 
Jameson  sent  Major  Browne,  who  had  nothing  to  do,  with  him  ; 
Lieutenant  Snodgrass  also  asked,  and  was  allowed  to  go.  Some 
supply  Vv^aggons  had  been  sent  by  Mr.  Duncan  to  Charter,  and  were  to 
start  from  there  a  fortnight  after  we  had  left,  and  we  had  expected  to 
hear  of  them  before  this.  As  it  was  important  that  we  should  know 
where  they  were,  I  sent  Troopers  Taylor  and  Ribstock  back  with 
Major  Browne,  giving  the  latter  distinct  orders  that  they  were  to 
return  whenever  they  met  the  waggons  ;  Major  Browne  however,  for 
some  reason  of  his  own  ignored  these  orders  and  took  them  on  to 
Salisbury.  Colonel  Goold-Adams  was  sending  despatch  riders  back  to 
Tati  that  afternoon,  and  Mr.  G.  Paget,  who  wished  to  return  to  England, 
asked  permission  to  accompany  them ;  the  Bishop  also  had  pressing 
business  somewhere  else,  and  I  gave  him  a  horse  to  go  with  them. 
The  road  was  absolutely  open,  as  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  had 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcngu/a. 

marched  up  to  it,  seeing  no  one  after  their  fight,  and  waggons  were 
already  beginning  to  come  in.  On  arriving  at  Buluwayo  I  found 
that  Mr.  Dawson  had  a  few  tinned  things  in  his  store,  which  I  took 
over  on  the  Company's  account  for  the  Hospital,  and  as  the  Victoria 
Column  had  brought  a  fair  supply,  the  patients  did  pretty  well.  All 
the  wounded  were  doing  very  well  except  my  brother,  whose  arm 
had  become  troublesome ;  the  doctors  had  thought  at  first  the 
bone  was  not  damaged,  but  it  appeared  afterwards  that  the  joint 
was  broken,  and  he  had  to  undergo  two  operations  to  take  out  loose 
pieces  of  bone. 

A   GROUP   OF   CAMP    "  BO  VS." 


By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Preparations  for  attacking  Unihlangeni — The  royal  kraals  deserted — News  of  the  king  on 
the  Bubye  river — Messengers  sent  to  Lobengula  and  the  Imbezu— Captain  Raaf 
objects  to  advance — A  consultation— The  patrol  to  retire  to  Unihlangeni — Imbezu  cattle 
captured  by  our  Mashonas,  driven  oft"  by  the  Matabeli,  and  again  recaptured — 
Further  messages  sent  to  the  king — Heavy  rain  storms — Retire  to  Shiloh — Arrival 
of  reinforcements — The  second  advance — Lobengula's  message  to  Dr.  Jameson — Dividing 
the  force— Following  the  king's  spoor — The  Matabeli  tired  of  fighting — Finding  the 
king's  bath  chair  and  two  waggons. 

As  the  King's  two  days'  grace  had  now  elapsed,  and  there  were  no 
signs  of  his  coming  in,  Dr.  Jameson  decided  that  we  should  follow  him, 
and  arranged  with  Colonel  Goold-Adams — who  was  returning  to  his 
camp  on  the  Kami  that  day — that  he  should  send  on  150  men  under 
Captain  Raaf  with  two  Maxims  and  a  seven-pounder  gun,  drawn  by 
ten  mules.  These  arrived  the  next  morning,  and  consisted  of  ninety 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  with  two  Maxims  and  the  seven-pounder 
under  Captain  Coventry,  and  sixty  of  the  Tuli  Column,  the  whole  under 
Captain  Raaf  Although  Captain  Coventry,  as  Captain  in  an  Imperial 
force,  was  senior  to  Captain  Raaf,  he  had  had  but  little  experience  in 
native  fighting,  and  so  Captain  Raaf  was  placed  by  Colonel  Goold- 
Adams  in  command.  It  had  been  decided  that  it  would  be  better  to 
attack  the  impi  which  we  heard  was  at  Umhlangeni,  as  it  was  the 
largest  and  the  country  was  said  to  be  fairly  open,  whereas  about 
Shiloh  and  the  Imbembesi  the  bush  was  very  thick,  and  it  was 
hoped  that  if  we  could  disperse  this  impi  it  might  induce  the  King  to 
come  in,  which  was  most  necessary.  Although  the  nation  had  been 
beaten  and  a  large  number  of  natives  wished  to  submit,  they  would  do 
nothing  so  long  as  the  King  remained  at  large  and  in  the  country,  and 
he  had  therefore  either  to  be  captured  or  driven  out  of  it. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

Umhlangeni  was  about  forty  miles  from  Buluwayo,  and  it  was 
decided  to  start  after  dark  that  night  and  go  as  far  as  possible,  remain 
in  the  bush  the  following  day,  and  go  on  at  night  so  as  to  reach 
Umhlangeni  and  attack  at  daylight  ;  and  accordingly  I  started  at  7.30 
with  the  following  : — Salisbury  Column,  ninety,  with  Captains  Heany 
and  Spreckley,  and  one  mule  Maxim  under  Lieutenant 
Biscoe  ;  Victoria  Column,  sixty,  under  Major  Wilson, 

with  a  horse   Maxim    under 

Captain      Lendy;      Tuli 

Column,  sixty,  under  Captain 

Hon.   C.    J.    Coventry;    and 

Bechuanaland  Border  Police, 

ninety,     the      two     latter     under 

Captain      Raaf,     with      two     horse 

Maxims  and  one  mule  seven-pounder 

in  charge  of  Captain  Tancred. 

We    took    three    days'     food 

^...      carried  by  natives,  and  each  man 

carried  lOO  rounds  of  ammunition. 

Lieutenant  Brabant  brought  about  200 

of   his    natives    as    carriers,   and  to    drive 

cattle  if  we  captured  any.      We  marched    till 

one    o'clock    and    then    halted    on    the     Koce 

River,  about   two   miles    beyond    the    Intabas 

Induna,    having   done   fourteen    miles     all 

the  way  through  fairly  thick  bush  ;  we 

foimed  up  in  a  square,  the    Salisbury 

and  Victoria  Columns  taking  the  front 

and   right  faces,  and   the  Tuli 

and       Bechuanaland       Border 

Police    the    left    and    rear,    a 

Maxim    being  at  each  corner 

and  the  seven  pounder  on  one 

face.    Our  horses  were  not  very 

first    class,  and    I    thought    it 

HoisiiiN^,  The  Bkitish  1-lag  at  Buluwayo.  better  to  go  on  earlier  than   I 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King.  137 

had  intended  in  order  to  save  them,  we  therefore  moved  on  at  one  o'clock ; 
just  before  we  marched  Sir  J.  Willoughby  and  Mr,  Murray  Gourlay  came 
up.  We  went  on  about  eight  miles,  about  three  of  which  were  through 
very  dense  bush,  and  came  to  the  Elebeni  kopjes,  and  in  them,  just  beside 
the  road,  the  kraal  of  that  name.  This  was  a  royal  kraal,  but  a  small 
one,  it  was  quite  deserted,  and  the  queens'  huts  — there  were  three 
queens  living  there — were  the  best  I  saw  in  the  country ;  the  kraal  was 
full  of  grain,  mostly  mabele  (Kaffir  corn),  but  there  was  also  a  large 
amount  of  mealies  here.  We  dismounted  for  half  an  hour  and  gave  the 
horses  a  good  feed  ;  I  climbed  on  to  the  top  of  one  of  the  huts  with 
Mr.  Colenbrander,  and  got  a  very  good  view  of  the  country  round, 
he  showed  me  the  Umhlangeni  Hill  and  where  Shiloh  lay.  After 
feeding  the  horses  we  went  on  and  halted  just  at  dark  about  two  miles 
short  of  the  Imbembesi ;  we  passed  the  site  of  the  old  Induba  kraal, 
and  saw  the  new  one  about  1,000  yards  to  our  left,  but  no  natives. 
We  had  a  heavy  shower  during  the  afternoon,  and  it  was  a  very  nasty 
squally  night  and  very  dark  till  the  moon  rose  about  ten  o'clock  ;  we 
had  formed  up  as  on  the  previous  night,  except  that  we  had  a  double 
line  of  men  on  each  face,  and  so  reducing  the  size  of  the  laager.  At 
1 1  p.m.  we  moved  on  again,  crossing  the  Imbembesi  at  a  wide  sandy 
drift,  then  quite  dry,  and  getting  to  the  Inkwekwesi  River  about  3.30. 
We  made  a  slight  detour  just  before  getting  there  to  avoid  a  kraal  of 
Malabama's  that  is  on  the  road,  and  where  we  heard  dogs  barking  and 
smelt  fires  ;  crossing  that  river  we  formed  up  on  the  north  side  to  wait 
till  it  was  light  enough  to  attack. 

I  arranged  that  Major  Wilson  with  145  men  and  two  Maxims 
should  advance  to  the  right  of  the  position  where  the  natives  were  said 
to  be,  and  Captain  Raaf  with  his  force  to  the  left,  Captain  Heany  with 
forty-five  men  and  the  seven-pounder  advancing  along  the  road  where 
it  was  open,  Messrs.  Acutt  and  Colenbrander  guiding  the  two  columns. 
It  was  a  very  convenient  position  to  attack,  and  the  dispositions  were 
very  well  carried  out,  but  no  impi  was  there,  nor  had  there  been 
one ;  there  were  a  few  natives  living  with  their  wives  and  cattle  along 
the  edge  of  the  bush,  and  they  after  firing  a  few  shots  ran  away.  We 
killed  ten  or  eleven  men,  took  some  women  and  children  prisoners,  and 
about  1,000  head  of  cattle.     From  the  women  we  heard  that  the  King 

138  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila. 

had  left  Intaba-gi-konga  and  was  on  the  Bubye  river,  the  sources  of 
which  were  about  ten  miles  to  the  north  of  Umhlangeni,  that  he  had 
four  waggons  with  him,  but  the  oxen  were  knocked  up  and  they  were 
being  pulled  by  natives,  and  that  he  had  very  few  people  with  him, 
as  they  were  all  sick  of  fighting;  they  also  said  they  had  no  idea 
that  we  were  coming  until  they  actually  saw  us  there.  On  hearing  that 
the  King  was  quite  close,  and  as  far  as  I  could  learn  in  fairly  open 
country,  I  determined  to  wait  till  dark  and  then  push  on  after  him. 
We  took  possession  of  one  of  the  two  Mission  Stations  belonging  to 
Messrs.  Reiss  and  Eliot  at  Umhlangeni,  both  comfortably  built,  brick 
houses,  thatched,  standing  in  compounds,  they  had  been  comipletely 
gutted  by  the  natives,  everything  breakable  having  been  broken  to 
pieces  ;  there  was  also  a  large  dam  built  by  Mr.  Reiss,  and  round  this 
there  was  excellent  grass. 

I  had  intended  to  go  on  that  night,  but  in  the  evening  Captain 
Raaf  persuaded  me  that  it  would  be  better  to  send  scouts  out 
first,  to  find  out  whether  the  King  had  really  left  Intaba-gi-konga  or 
not,  and  although  I  did  not  wish  to  waste  any  time,  as  the  King  might 
be  travelling  on  all  the  time,  I  gave  in  to  him.  I  sent  Burnham  and 
Ingram  to  Intaba-gi-konga  after  dark  with  a  native  guide,  and  two  of 
Captain  Raaf's  men  to  the  Bubye,  and  we  remained  at  Umhlangeni ; 
each  of  these  parties  returned  soon  after  daylight.  Burnham  reported 
that  there  were  people  living  about  the  hill,  but  he  had  gone  care- 
fully round  it,  and  there  were  no  signs  of  the  King's  waggon  spoor  ;  he 
had  seen  a  few  natives,  but  they  had  all  run  away,  and  a  great  lot  of 
cattle.  The  other  party  reported  that  they  had  gone  about  eleven  miles 
to  the  Bubye,  and  had  seen  a  few  natives,  but  no  sign  of  the  King's 
spoor,  and  had  brought  back  as  a  prisoner  a  native  that  they  had 
caught  in  a  kraal  on  the  Bubye.  On  their  way  back  they  had  seen 
some  natives  and  called  to  them  to  stand,  but  on  their  running  away 
they  had  fired  on  them  and  killed  one. 

During  the  night  a  native  had  come  in  with  a  flag  of  truce,  extem- 
porised by  himself,  consisting  of  a  bit  of  calico  tied  on  a  stick,  and 
explained  that  he  had  been  left  by  Mr.  Eliot  in  charge  of  his  station, 
but  he  had  been  powerless  to  prevent  the  natives  looting  it.  which 
they  did  on  their  return  from  the  Imbembesi  fight  ;  he,  Makasa,  had 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King.  139 

been  with  the  impi  there,  and  gave  a  graphic  account  of  what  had 
happened.  He  corroborated  what  the  women  had  said  about  the  King, 
and  this  was  further  corroborated  by  a  prisoner  who  was  brought  in 
the  next  morning.  As  all  the  information  went  to  show  that  the  King 
was  on  the  Bubye,  I  sent  runners  to  Buluwayo  to  tell  Dr.  Jameson  what 
I  was  going  to  do,  and  moved  off  that  night  at  dark  with  200  men, 
leaving  Captain  Fitzgerald  in  charge  at  Umhlangeni  with  eighty  men, 
the  seven-pounder,  and  one  Maxim  (that  of  the  Salisbury  Column),  with 
mules.  The  bush  was  very  thick  for  the  first  three  miles,  and  it  was 
too  dark  to  have  flankers  out,  but  we  marched  in  two  columns,  keeping 
as  close  together  as  possible,  and  having  two  Maxims  in  front  and  one 
at  the  rear  of  the  Column.  I  had  sent  a  patrol  out  shortly  before  dark 
to  see  that  the  country  through  the  bush  was  clear.  We  followed  the 
main  Mashonaland  road  for  about  three  miles,  and  then  turned  off  to 
the  left,  getting  into  open  country  and  going  due  north  ;  we  went  on 
till  II  o'clock,  and  then,  having  done  about  ten  miles,  took  possession 
of  an  empty  kraal  and  remained  till  daylight. 

We  had  by  now  finished  all  the  food  that  we  had  brought  from 
Buluwayo,  but  had  plenty  of  slaughter  oxen,  and  there  was  a  small 
amount  of  Kaffir  corn  in  the  kraals  ;  we  moved  on  at  daylight,  and 
after  going  about  four  miles  came  to  the  Bubye,  a  series  of  large  pools 
of  water.  Just  as  we  got  there  we  saw  a  large  troop  of  cattle  being 
driven  into  the  bush,  about  1,000  yards  away,  and  I  told  Captain  Raaf 
to  send  after  them  ;  he  sent  Captain  Francis  and  about  twelve  men. 
This  was  one  of  the  senior  officers  that  Captain  Raaf  had  with  him, 
and  he  had  been  specially  pointed  out  to  me  in  Buluwayo  as  a  good 
fighting  man  ;  knowing,  however,  a  good  deal  about  his  previous 
military  experiences  in  Natal,  I  thought  that  probably  he  was  not  as 
much  to  be  relied  on  as  was  said,  and  I  afterwards  proved  quite  right. 

Just  after  Francis  had  started  off  I  saw  Raaf,  who  was  riding  about 
fifty  yards  to  my  left,  start  off  full  gallop,  followed  by  his  "staff,"  which 
always  accom.panied  him.  Captain  Raaf  had  a  wonderful  pony  that  he 
rode  right  through  this  patrol,  and  although  small  it  was  very  strongly 
built  and  always  kept  its  condition.  We  saw  them  all  start  off,  and 
then  saw  that  their  object  was  a  native  who  had  been  crossing  the 
open   but  had  suddenly  seen   us  and   commenced  to  run.     It  was  an 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcngula. 

exciting  hunt,  and  he  had  nearly  reached  the  bush  when  he  was  caught 
and  brought  back  in  triumph  by  Captain  Raaf. 

As  soon  as  we  reached  the  Bubye  we  formed  up  and  let  the  horses 

go  for  a  short  time  ;  Captain  Francis  brought  back  a  large  number  of 

cattle  and  some  prisoners,  and  some  more  prisoners  were  brought  in  by 

the  flanking  parties.   All  the  men  brought  in  were  interrogated  separately 

^      ,        and  their  information  was  all  practically  the  same  ;  that  the 

King  had  struck  the  Bubye  River  about  twenty  miles  lower 

down,  and  was  going  down   it  intending  to  cross  when 

#  __         he    had    got     far   enough    to    be   within    a   day's 

"#^^^    journey    of    the    Shangani ;    that    he   had    not    a 

large  force  actually   with    him,    but   a    very   large 

number  of  men,  women,  and 

children  were  following  him 
with  their  cattle.  One  of  them 
said  he  had  left  the  Imbezu 
Regiment  that  morning,  and 
they  and  the  Ingubu  were 
following  the  King  and  would 
arrive  at  the  Bubye  that  night ; 
he  said  they  did  not  wish 
to  fight,  but  would  not 
give  themselves  up  without 
orders  from  the  King. 
There  were  several  kraals 
close  by,  and  we  moved  up  to 
one  of  them,  where  we  found  a  quan- 
tity of  grain,  and  remained  there  until  the 
evening ;  we  heard  from  the  prisoners  that 
five  of  Lobengula's  queens  had  slept  at  the  kraal  the  night  before,  and 
had  only  left  as  we  came  up.  From  this  kraal  I  sent  off  some  of  the 
prisoners  as  messengers ;  three  to  Lobengula  and  two  to  the  Imbezu, 
telling  the  King  I  was  going  to  follow  him  wherever  he  went  if  he 
did  not  come  in,  but  that  I  wished  to  avoid  killing  any  more  of  his 
people,  and  would  not  fire  on  any  of  them  until  I  got  his  answer  ;  I  also 
guaranteed  his  safety.     To   the   Imbezu  I  sent  to  say  that  I  had  heard 

Mr.  Harry  Ware 
command  of  the  pion 
and  road  party 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King,  141 

they  did  not  wish  to  fight,  and  we  did  not  wish  to  either,  but  intended 
to  catch  the  King  if  we  had  to  follow  him  across  the  Zambesi ; 
I  told  them  my  reason  for  following  him  was  that  he  had  broken 
his  word  to  us,  having  sent  to  say  he  was  coming  and  then  having 
run  away ;  I  also  told  them  that  if  they  came  in  and  gave  themselves  up 
they  would  be  allowed  to  return  quietly  to  their  kraals. 

I  had  intended  to  have  gone  on  down  the  river  that  afternoon, 
but  Captain  Raaf  again  persuaded  me  to  wait  until  we  could  send 
out  scouts  to  report  what  was  in  front  of  us.  I  was  very  much 
against  waiting,  but  had  to  give  in  to  him,  as  I  feared  that  if  I 
moved  after  what  he  had  said  he  would  unsettle  all  his  men  to  such 
an  extent,  by  talking  about  the  difficulties  of  the  matter,  that  their 
morale  might  suffer ;  I  was  therefore  compelled  to  remain  there  for 
the  night,  moving  out  into  the  open  to  laager  just  before  dark.  The 
following  mornmg  (19th)  I  sent  Burnham  and  Armstrong  down 
the  river  at  daylight,  and  soon  after  they  had  gone  I  heard  that 
there  was  great  dissatisfaction  in  the  force  about  going  any 
further.  We  had  now  reached  the  last  kraals  to  the  north,  and 
beyond  this  there  was  no  certainty  of  our  getting  food  ;  I  was  not 
told  until  some  time  afterwards  this  agitation  had  been  started 
among  Raaf's  men,  and  that  he  had  actually  told  them  they 
should  go  back  that  day.  As  I  knew  if  the  men  were  taken 
on  against  their  wish  they  would  not  be  much  good,  I  called  Major 
Wilson  and  Captain  Raaf,  and  we  discussed  the  whole  question. 
Captain  Raaf  pointed  out  that  it  was  a  very  dangerous  mission 
we  were  on  with  what  he  called  a  handful  of  men,  no  reserve  ammu- 
nition and  no  means  of  carrying  the  wounded.  As  he  had  originally 
proposed  to  come  in  and  take  the  whole  country  on  precisely  these 
lines,  I  was  rather  surprised  at  his  saying  this  ;  he  did  not  tell  me 
his  men  had  raised  any  objection  to  going  on,  nor  that  he  had  told  them 
they  should  not.  We  then  decided  we  should  have  a  parade 
of  each  corps  at  a  certain  time,  and  without  letting  anyone  know 
beforehand  what  it  was  for  to  ask  them  if  they  were  willing  to  go  or  not. 
As  the  Company  was  unable  to  fulfil  their  side  of  the  contract  with  the 
men,  namely,  give  them  rations,  I  thought  it  only  fair  to  give  them  a 
choice.      I  impressed  upon  both  Major  Wilson  and  Captain  Raaf  that 

142  The  Downfall  of  Lobeugula, 

nothing  was  to  be  said  to  anyone  until  they  were  on  parade,  and 
then  they  were  only  to  be  asked  whether  they  would  go  on  or  not,  and 
no  pressure  of  any  sort  was  to  be  brought  to  bear  either  way.  While 
we  were  talking  Burnham  and  Armstrong  returned,  and  reported  that 
they  had  been  about  six  miles  down  the  river,  and  had  seen  a  large 
number  of  natives  and  cattle,  all  travelling  east,  that  they  had  crossed 
a  spoor  nearly  a  mile  wide  of  a  very  large  lot  of  cattle,  which  Burnham 
estimated  at  not  less  than  7,000  :  this  spoor  crossed  the  river,  which  was 
full  of  dead  cattle  that  had  been  crushed  to  death,  and  the  pools 
through  which  they  had  been  driven  were  covered  with  fish  trampled  to 
death,  that  although  they  had  been  close  to  some  of  the  natives  they 
had  not  been  molested  in  any  way,  they  also  said  the  country  was  open 
along  the  river  for  five  or  six  miles. 

The  parade  was  ordered  for  eleven  o'clock,  at  which  time  each 
corps  fell  in  by  itself,  I  spoke  to  the  Salisbury  Column,  telling  them 
I  could  not  guarantee  food  any  further,  and  asked  those  who  wished  to 
return  to  Buluwayo  to  step  forward.  To  my  astonishment  all  but 
seventeen  did  so,  these  seventeen  included  the  B  Troop  men  who  had 
come  as  escort  to  the  A  Troop  Maxim,  and  nine  from  A  and  C  Troops  ; 
I  asked  these  seventeen  if  they  were  ready  to  come  with  me  wherever 
we  might  have  to  go  to  catch  the  King,  and  they  said  they  were.>)( 
I  then  went  to  Captain  Raaf  and  asked  him  about  his  men,  and  he  said 
that  only  four  would  go  on ;  Major  Wilson  told  me  all  his  men 
wished  to  go  on,  but  as  I  knew  some  of  them  had  been  the  first  to  talk 
about  the  danger,  and  feared  that  owing  to  some  misapprehension 
pressure  must  have  been  brought  to  bear  upon  them,  I  said  to  Captain 
Raaf,  "  As  your  men  want  to  go  back,  you  will  have  to  go  with  them," 
to  which  he  replied,  "  But  I  can't  go  back,  I  am  a  soldier,  and  besides, 
I  have  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police."  They  being  Imperial  Troops 
had  of  course  not  been  consulted.  Directly  afterwards  some  officers  of  the 
Salisbury  Column  came  to  me  and  protested  very  much  against  the  way 
in  which,  as  they  said,  their  men  had  been  humbugged  into  refusing  to  go 
on,  they  said  they  had  been  told  nothing  about  it,  whereas  Major  Wilson 
they  believed  had.  I  repeated  to  them  what  the  arrangement  had  been, 
and  that  I  had  purposely  not  told  them  as  I  did  not  wish  them  to 
influence  their  men  ;  they  understood  me  to  mean  influence  them  to  go 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King.  143 

back,  whereas  I  intended  exactly  the  opposite,  knowing^as  I  did  that  they 
would  not  have  allowed  a  single  man  to  decline  to  go  on.  I  did  not  know 
until  long  afterwards  that  they  had  misunderstood  me  in  this  way, 
but  the  result  of  it  was  to  make  them  and  all  their  men  very  bitter 
against  me;  I  told  them  I  should  take  the  force  back,  and  wrote  to 
Dr.  Jameson  telling  him  what  had  happened,  stating  that  I  should 
be  at  Umhlangeni  the  following  night,  and  asked  him  to  send 
instructions  and  some  food  there.  I  decided  to  wait  there  that  night 
and  return  the  next  day.  That  afternoon  two  natives  gave  themselves 
up  to  one  of  the  pickets  and  were  brought  to  the  laager — they  proved 
to  be  an  Imbezu  and  his  slave,  the  Imbezu  told  me  that  the  messengers 
I  had  sent  out  the  previous  day  had  come  to  the  impi  and  delivered 
my  message,  that  they,  the  impi,  were  not  satisfied  of  the  genuineness 
of  it,  and  had  sent  him  to  see  if  it  was  all  right,  and  that  a  number  of 
them  were  awaiting  his  return  in  the  bush.  Previous  to  this  some  of 
our  natives  had  gone  out  on  a  raiding  expedition  by  themselves,  and 
had  found  a  large  troop  of  cattle  belonging  to  the  Imbezu  ;  these 
had  been  brought  in,  and  were  then  grazing  about  1,000  yards 
from  the  laager  in  the  open,  but  close  to  the  edge  of  the  bush. 
While  I  was  talking  to  him  we  were  sitting  on  an  ant-heap  about  100 
yards  from  the  laager,  the  "  alarm  "  sounded  and  we  all  started  up,  we 
saw  our  native  cattle  guards  running  to  the  laager  and  all  the  cattle 
being  driven  into  the  bush  by  Matabeli,  although  all  the  Matabeli  had 
rifles  they  did  not  fire  at  the  cattle  guards.  The  horses  were  all  got 
in  at  once  and  the  laager  manned,  and  I  told  Captain  Raaf  to  send  some 
men  out  to  bring  back  the  cattle,  I  also  told  Major  Wilson  to  send  a  party 
out.  Captain  Raaf  sent  out  Captains  Francis  and  Phipps,[and  Major 
Wilson  sent  Captain  Judd,  and  they  returned  shortly  afterwards  with 
the  cattle,  having  killed  eleven  or  twelve  men  who  were  driving  them. 
Several  of  the  officers  were  for  having  the  Imbezu  that  had  come  in 
shot  as  well,  saying  he  was  a  spy,  etc.,  and  his  statements  were  all 
untrue,  I  would  not  allow  him  to  be  molested  in  any  way,  as  I  believed 
then  and  do  still,  that  his  statement  was  quite  correct,  and  that  the 
Imbezu  had  been  waiting  for  his  report,  but  the  sight  of  their  cattle 
close  to  them,  only  guarded  by  a  few  Mashonas,  was  too  much  for 
them,    anyhow  I   kept  him  a  close  prisoner  in  the  laager.     After  this 

144  ^'^^  Dozvufall  of  Lobengula. 

attempt  I  thought  it  would  look  as  if  we  were  afraid  if  we  went  back 
at  once,  and  so  decided  to  go  a  few  miles  further  down  the  river  the 
next  day,  returning  the  same  afternoon.  I  knew  that  the  socket  signals 
had  frightened  the  natives  a  great  deal  when  I  had  sent  any  up,  and  as  it 
seemed  we  were  not  going  to  succeed  by  direct  means  in  catching 
the  King,  I  thought  it  worth  while  trying  indirect,  and  by  frightening 
them  and  working  on  their  superstitious  fears,  do  what  we  could  not 
by  force.  I  therefore  got  Burnham  and  another  to  ride  down  the  river 
again  in  the  dark  to  where  he  had  seen  the  natives  in  the  morning,  and 
there  let  off  two  socket  signals  right  among  them  ;  they  cause  a  very 
loud  report  when  exploding  and  leaving  the  socket,  and  another  when 
the  bursting  charge  goes  off  at  a  great  height  in  the  air,  dropping  a 
shower  of  stars.  Burnham  did  this  most  successfully,  getting  close  to 
where  a  large  number  of  natives  were  encamped,  and  as  he  said 
frightened  them  for  ''  quite  a  bit "  ;  he  and  his  companion  then  set 
fire  to  two  kraals  from  which  they  were  hurrying  in  their  fright,  and 
altogether  caused  a  considerable  panic.   ~ 

The  following  morning  I  sent  back  eight  men  who  were  sick, 
and  all  the  cattle  we  had  captured — amounting  to  400  or  500 — to 
Umhlangeni,  and  Mr.  Tanner,  who  had  fever,  went  with  them  ;  we  then 
went  about  six  miles  down  the  river,  seeing  no  natives,  but  abundant 
traces  of  a  large  number  having  been  there  lately,  and  came  to  the  end 
of  the  open  country  and  laagered  near  the  river,  with  bush  close  to  us 
all  round.  Just  after  we  laagered  the  "  alarm  "  sounded,  everything 
was  got  ready  at  once,  and  I  went  to  Captain  Raaf,  who  had  had  it 
sounded,  to  find  out  what  had  happened,  he  told  me  the  alarm 
was  a  false  one,  but  as  he  had  seen  a  man  galloping  towards  the 
laager,  he  thought  we  were  going  to  be  attacked,  this  was  one  of 
his  flankers  who  was  rejoining  the  force  unnecessarily  fast.  I  told 
him  I  would  not  have  the  alarm  sounded  by  anyone  but  myself  if 
I  was  present,  as  it  only  helped  to  upset  the  men's  nerves.  While  we 
were  laagered  here  four  natives  were  seen  stalking  one  of  the  pickets, 
and  one  of  them  fired  at  the  picket,  they  were  in  turn  fired  on  and 
three  of  them  killed.  We  saw  a  few  natives  moving  about  in  the 
distance,  and  I  think  there  were  probably  many  more  in  the  bush 
round  us.    Before  leaving  there  I  sent  away  all  the  prisoners  (about  ten) 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King.  T45 

that  we  had,  telling  them  that  although  we  were  turning  back  we  were 
not  going  to  give  up  the  chase  of  the  King,  but  were  only  going  back 
for  more  men  and  food,  and  then  going  to  resume  it.  I  also  told  them 
that  columns  would  be  sent  down  the  Gwailo  to  the  east  and  Guay  to 
the  west  to  cut  him  off,  and  that  he  must  be  taken  somewhere  ;  I  told 
off  two  of  them  to  take  this  message  to  the  King. 

We  started  back  at  two  o'clock,  and  at  starting  I  sent  Captain 
Francis  out  to  the  right  to  some  kraals  belonging  to  a  son  of  Kisi,  a 
big  Induna,  which  were  said  to  be  about  four  miles  off  our  road,  to 
destroy  them,  Major  Wilson  going  out  on  the  left  to  destroy  any  kraals 
he  could  find  ;  Captain  Francis  did  not  get  to  these  kraals,  but  burnt 
some  others,  and  Major  Wilson  burnt  a  large  number  on  his  side.  We 
moved  back  to  our  laager  of  the  previous  day,  seeing  no  natives  on  the 
way,  but  capturing  a  small  lot  of  cattle.  The  next  morning  I  sent 
Captain  Francis  out  again  to  Kisi,  Captain  Coventry  and  twenty-five 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  going  with  him  ;  after  burning  these 
kraals  they  were  to  get  across  to  the  Inkwekwesi  valley  and  destroy 
kraals  up  it,  rejoining  me  at  Umhlangeni ;  Captain  Heany  went  out 
with  twenty  men  to  the  east  to  do  the  same  thing.  Captain  Coventry 
burnt  a  large  number  of  kraals  and  took  some  cattle,  but  lost  them 
again  in  the  bush.  Captain  Heany  got  very  bad  with  fever  soon  after 
going  out  and  had  to  take  his  party  into  Umhlangeni,  but  previous  to 
this  burnt  eight  kraals.  We  moved  to  the  first  water  above,  five  miles, 
off-saddled  for  a  few  hours  and  then  went  into  Umhlangeni. 

While  off-saddled  I  got  a  letter  from  Dr.  Jameson  in  reply  to  mine, 
saying  that  he  had  consulted  with  Colonel  Goold-Adams,  and  was  sending 
Captain  Napier  with  a  large  reinforcement  of  dismounted  men  with 
waggons,  more  ammunition,  and  what  food  he  could  spare,  to  Shiloh,  and 
that  he  wished  me  to  go  on  there  direct  from  Umhlangeni,  get  on  to  the 
King's  spoor  there,  and  follow  it  right  up.  He  also  said  that  Captain 
Borrow  had  left  for  Shiloh  with  sixteen  mounted  men  and  some  carriers 
with  two  days'  food  to  last  until  the  waggons'  arrival ;  he  was  sending 
John  Jacobs,  the  King's  clerk,  to  show  us  the  way — John  Jacobs  had 
left  Buluwayo  with  the  King,  but  had  escaped  from  him  near  the  Im- 
bembesi.  The  following  morning  Captain  Borrow  and  his  men  arrived, 
having  been   to   Shiloh  and  then   come  on  ;  he  reported   the  country 



The  Downfall  of  Lobengitla. 

quite  deserted  about  Shiloh  and  along  the  road.  We  remained  there  that 
day  to  rest  the  horses,  and  had  some  heavy  rain,  the  first  of  the  season, 
although  we  had  had  slight  showers  before  ;  in  the  evening  Sir  J. 
Willoughby  rode  into  Buluwayo.  Captain  Borrow  told  me  that  every- 
thing was  quiet  round  Buluwayo,  and  that  a  great  number  of  the  chiefs 
were  giving  themselves  up,  but  that  many  were  still  waiting  to  see  what 

the  King  was  going  to  do.     The  next 
I   sent    all   the  captured    cattle,  about 
Mr.  Brabant's  natives  to    Buluwayo 
light   for    Shiloh.     We   off-saddled 
the  Imbembesi  for  four  hours,  and 
Mr.    Biscoe's    Maxim     broke   its 
one  had  to  be  put  in.    We  went       4! 
and    had    two    of    the 
that    I     have    ever 
one     was     short, 

until     we     got 
shortly  before 
the  Column, 



WAY  TO  Shiloh. 

day,  23rd  November, 
1,600,  in  charge  of 
and  started  at  day- 
on  the  west  bank  of 
in  crossing  the  river 
disselboom,  and  a  new 
on  in  the  afternoon 
heaviest  rain  storms 
experienced  ;  the  first 
but  the  second  lasted 
into  Shiloh,  which  was 
dark.  I  was  at  the  head  of 
and  when  the  rain  was  at  its 
worst  Captain  Raaf  halted  his 
^i  men,  who  were  in  rear,  without 
'^'  my  knowing  it,  and  the  Column 
got  separated.  Shiloh  is  a  deserted 
"'  mission  station  situated  in  a  hollow  with 
high  ground  all  round  it,  and  the  rain  was  so 
heavy  that  it  covered  all  the  ground  some 
inches  deep,  and  caused  us  to  lose  the  road, 
and  we  had  some  trouble  in  getting  down  to 
the  station  ;  we  got  down  at  last  however, 
thoroughly  wet  through  and  miserable,  and 
found  that  Captain  Napier  had  just  arrived 
E^  -  with  the  waggons  and  food,  a  few  mounted, 
and  200  dismounted  men.  He  had  brought  a  small 
quantity  of  brandy,  there  was  just  enough  to  give 
everyone  a  small  tot  and  small  as  it  was  it  cheered 
us  all  up. 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King,  147 

Captain  Napier  had  laagered  his  party,  and  so  I  formed  a  separate 
laager  close  by,  he  had  brought  out  ten  waggons  and  spans,  but  of 
these  only  five  were  fit  to  go  on.  It  rained  heavily  during  the  night, 
and  it  was  impossible  to  go  on,  the  next  day  I  went  through  the 
supplies  Captain  Napier  had  brought  out,  and  found  there  were 
three-quarter  rations  for  300  men  for  twelve  days,  and  enough  to 
take  the  other  280  men  back  to  Buluwayo.  I  did  not  wish  to  take  any 
waggons  with  me,  but  I  knew  that  as  they  were  there  I  should  have  to, 
if  it  was  only  for  a  few  days,  and  I  decided  on  taking  some  dismounted 
men  to  send  back  with  them  when  it  had  been  proved  to  everyone's  satis- 
faction that  it  was  impossible  to  take  them  on.  As  I  have  said,  I  had 
only  rations  for  300  men  for  twelve  days,  and  I  therefore  made  up  the 
300  as  follows  :  Salisbury  Column,  Captain  Borrow  and  twenty-two 
men  mounted  ;  Victoria  Column,  Major  Wilson  and  seventy  mounted 
and  one  hundred  dismounted  ;  Tuli,  Captain  Raaf  and  twenty  mounted, 
and  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  Captain  Coventry  and  seventy-eight 
mounted,  I  took  four  waggons,  four  Maxims — two  galloping  and  two 
on  waggons — and  the  Hotchkiss  which  had  come  out  with  Captain 
Napier.  As  Mr.  Tanner  was  still  suffering  from  fever  I  sent  him  into 
Buluwayo,  and  Mr.  Murray  Gourlay  went  in  with  him. 

The  following  morning  I  started  with  the  force  as  above,  sending 
all  the  other  men  back  to  Buluwayo,  Captain  Heany  being  in  charge  of 
the  mounted,  who  were  to  go  straight  in,  and  Captain  Bastard  of  the 
dismounted,  who  were  to  remain  with  the  waggons.  I  wrote  to  Dr. 
Jameson  telling  him  what  I  was  doing,  and  also  that  as  I  only  had 
twelve  days'  rations,  I  should  go  as  far  as  I  could,  but  should  be  back 
on  the  main  Mashonaland  road  at  the  Shangani  by  the  twelfth  day, 
and  asked  him  to  have  food  there  to  meet  me.  I  also  asked  him  to  send 
Captains  Heany  and  Spreckley  along  the  main  road  to  the  Shangani 
and  down  it,  to  create  a  diversion  in  that  direction  ;  this  he  could  not 
do,  but  sent  Captain  Spreckley  to  the  Gwai  River.  Captain  Finch  had 
been  suffering  from  toothache,  so  I  persuaded  him  to  go  into  Buluwayo 
to  have  it  seen  to,  and  as  he  Vv^as  in  a  very  poor  state  of  health  I  did  not 
think  he  would  come  out  again,  but  he  did.  We  got  on  to  the  King's 
waggon  spoor  at  his  camp,  about  one  mile  from  Shiloh,  and  followed  it 
through  thick  bush  for  eight  miles,  and  then  laagered  on  a  small  stream  ; 

L   2 

148  7 he  Dozvnfall  of  Lobcngiila. 

we  passed  a  great  number  of  large  scherms  where  the  King  and  his 
people  had  stopped,  and  found  some  grain  in  some  of  them ;  we  also 
passed  a  few  kraals,  which  we  burned,  but  saw  no  natives.  We  laagered 
up  as  before,  but  had  a  waggon  at  each  corner,  and  the  oxen  fastened  to 
their  trek-tows  in  a  square  inside,  and  inside  them  again  the  slaughter 
cattle.  The  following  morning,  just  as  we  were  starting,  Mr.  B.  Wilson 
came  out  with  some  brandy  for  which  I  had  sent  for  the  sick,  and  a 
letter  from  Dr.  Jameson  still  emphasizing  the  necessity  of  getting  the 
King,  and  saying  that  messengers  had  been  in  from  him  bringing  an 
answer  to  the  m.essage  sent  by  me  from  down  the  Bubye,  also  saying 
that  he  would  send  food  to  the  Shangani.  These  messengers  said  that 
the  King  had  only  been  three  miles  away  when  we  turned  back,  that  he 
was  very  sick  and  almost  deserted  ;  the  King  asked  Dr.  Jameson  to  stop 
the  troops  going  after  him,  saying  again  that  he  would  come  in.  Mr.  B. 
Wilson  did  not  wish  to  come  on,  and  as  Acutt  was  sick  I  allov/ed  him  to 
go  back  with  him.  Two  of  my  horses  had  strayed  away  from  the  others 
in  the  bush  and  could  not  be  found  when  we  marched  ;  we  went  on  four 
miles  through  very  heavy  ground,  and  laagered  in  a  small  open  valley .,vr 
Colenbrander  had  been  on  the  right  flank  during  the  march,  and  had 
come  on  a  lot  of  cattle,  which  he  drove  in,  bringing  with  them  two  little 
boys  who  had  been  herding  them. 

While  out-spanned  one  of  the  pickets  sent  in  to  say  that  about 
twenty  armed  Matabeli  had  come  up  to  them,  and  said  that  they 
wanted  to  speak  to  me,  that  they  were  quite  civil,  but  refused  to  put 
Uieir  arms  down.  I  had  the  horses  brought  in  at  once  and  the  laager 
manned,  and  went  out  with  two  small  parties  of  mounted  men  to  see 
them,  but  by  the  time  I  got  there  they  had  all  run  away,  nor  could 
any  of  them  be  found,  although  I  sent  Captain  Raaf  with  some  men 
a  long  way  round  to  look  for  them,  he  did  not  return  till  so  late  that 
we  could  not  march  that  night.  We  had  been  having  heavy  storms 
every  day,  and  there  was  a  very  heavy  one  that  night.  At  daylight 
Captain  Finch  returned,  bringing  Trooper  Farquhar  of  the  Victoria 
Column  with  him,  and  my  two  horses,  which  I  was  very  glad  to  see,  he 
had  found  them  at  Shiloh  ;  he  brought  a  letter  from  Dr.  Jameson,  saying 
that  the  King  had  sent  in  again  asking  for  Usher  and  Fairbairn  to  be 
despatched  to  talk  to  him,  and  that  from  all  accounts  he  was  in   a  bad 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King.  149 

way.  We  moved  on  at  6.30,  but  the  country  was  so  wet  and  heavy 
that  we  only  managed  to  do  eight  miles  all  day,  and  had  to  halt 
in  the  middle  of  the  day  without  water.  When  we  started  in  the 
morning,  Captain  Raaf  asked  me  to  allow  him  to  ride  on  two  or  three 
miles  to  look  for  water ;  he  went  on  eight  miles  to  water,  and  spent  the 
day  with  his  staff  there.  Luckily  there  were  few  natives  about  or  he 
would  very  likely  have  been  cut  off  from  us  ;  although  there  were 
twenty-five  of  his  party  altogether,  there  were  only  twelve  duty  men,  the 
remainder  being  his  staff.  During  the  march  that  day  some  natives  had 
been  seen  and  followed,  and  one  of  them  who  had  climbed  a  tree  was 
caught ;  Burnham,  who  had  gone  off  with  Captain  Raaf,  also  caught 
two.  These  told  us  the  same  story  about  the  King  that  we  had  heard 
before,  and  also  said  that  the  people  were  leaving  him  fast  and  coming 
back  to  their  kraals  ;  they  thought  he  was  on  the  Shangani,  and 
intended  to  remain  there  for  a  time.  That  night  and  the  next  day  were 
very  wet  and  we  halted  for  the  day;  the  oxen  were  all  knocked  up,  and 
it  was  quite  evident  that  if  we  were  to  catch  the  King  we  must  leave  the 
waggons  behind,  I  therefore  had  all  the  best  horses  picked  out,  and 
found  that  I  could  take  on  160  mounted  men.  As  we  were  not  more 
than  eighteen  or  twenty  miles  from  Umhlangeni,  I  decided  on  sending 
the  waggons  across  there  instead  of  back  to  Buluwayo.  The  force  to  go 
on  consisted  of  Salisbury  Column  28,  Victoria  Column  46,  Tuli  Column 
24,  and  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  60,  with  two  Maxims — one  horse 
and  one  mule — and  one  pack-horse  carrying  ten  days'  food  for  every  ten 
men ;  and  the  remainder  under  Captain  Delamore  were  to  go  to 
Umhlangeni  and  wait  there  for  orders  from  me.  We  marched  the 
following  morning,  and  after  going  eight  miles  crossed  the  Imbembesi, 
the  river  was  about  three  feet  deep  where  we  crossed  it,  we  laagered 
on  the  east  bank,  and  Burnham  who  had  been  scouting  brought  in  two 
prisoners  he  had  caught ;  we  went  on  nine  miles  in  the  afternoon,  and 
laagered  for  the  night  in  heavy  rain  at  a  recently  burnt  kraal. 

The  next  day,  30th,  we  did  eight  miles  in  the  morning  to  some 
water  holes,  and  eight  miles  more  in  the  afternoon  ;  we  could  see  the 
Bubye  Valley  in  front  of  us,  but  could  not  reach  it  that  night  and  had 
to  laager  about  two  miles  short  of  it.  We  had  been  passing  scherms  all 
along  the  road  (we  were  following  the  King's  spoor   all  the  way),  and 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

some  of  them  had  only  been  very  recently  vacated,  and  we  did  not 
know  where  we  might  catch  up  some  of  the  people.  Shortly  before  we 
came  to  the  place  where  we  laagered  that  evening,  we  had  to  go  down 
a  long  deep  donga  with  high  banks  and  thick  bush  on  each  side  of  us, 
it  was  a  place  where  the  Maxims  could  have  been  of  little  use,  and  I 
was  very  anxious  until  we  got  out  of  it.  It  opened  into  a  wide  valley, 
and  just  as  we  got  out  some  of  the  flankers  brought  in  about  twenty 
women  and  children  with  a  few  men  that  they  had  found  in  the  scherm, 
they  had  not  shown  fight,  and  appeared  to  be  thoroughly  frightened. 
Previous  to  this  Colenbrander,  who  had  been  in  front,  had  captured  a 
native  whom  he  knew  as  one  of  the  Indunas  ot 
Buluwayo,  and  these  were  all  brought  to  the  laager. 
Just  as  we  were  laagering,  one  of  the  flankers  came 
in  to  say  that  there  was  a  large  scherm  in  the  bush 
about  half  a  mile  away  full  of  people,  and  I  sent 
Captain  Borrow  with  his  men  and  Colenbrander  to 
interpret,  to  see  them ;  it  was  nearly  dark  when 
they  got  there.  They  found  about  200  people,  but 
the  men  all  hid  among  the  women,  and  Colenbrander 
could  not  tell  who  they  were,  they  seemed  to 
----  be  very  submissive,  and  Colenbrander  told 

them  to  bring  wood  and  water  down  to  the 
laager,  which  they  agreed  to  do  but  did 
not ;  he  brought  down  two  "  boys  "  that 
had  worked  for  him  before. 

After  dark  I  talked  to  the  Induna 
and  heard  from  him  pretty  much  what 
before,  that  the  King  was  at  the  Shangani 
and  had  a  very  small  number  of  men  actually  with  him,  but  that  bits  of 
all  the  regiments  were  in  the  neighbourhood  guarding  him  ;  that  it  was 
only  a  few  of  the  young  men  of  the  Insukameni,  Ihlati,  and  Siseba 
Regiments  who  wanted  to  fight,  and  that  all  the  rest  of  the  nation  were 
getting  tired  of  trekking,  and  were  breaking  away  in  small  parties  and 
going  back  to  look  for  their  wives  and  children.  He  also  stated  that 
they  were  suffering  very  much  from  hunger  and  small-pox  ;  the 
people  with  him  came  from  the  kraals  round  Buluwayo  and  expressed 



we    had    been    told 

The  Pursuit  of  the  King,  151 

themselves  as  only  too  glad  to  be  allowed  to  go  quietly  home.  /J 
told  him  that  they  were  at  liberty  to  do  so,  and  that  on  arriving  at 
Buluwayo  he  must  report  himself  to  Dr.  Jameson  ;  I  also  warned  him 
that  he  must  not  send  on  to  let  the  King  know  that  we  were  coming, 
threatening  to  destroy  all  his  people  if  he  did,  he  promised  not  to  do  so, 
but  I  afterwards  found  out  that  he  had.  Previous  to  meeting  any  of 
these  parties  of  natives,  I  had  consulted  with  Major  Wilson  and  Captain 
Raaf  as  to  what  was  best  to  be  done  about  them,  and  we  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  by  treating  them  kindly  and  not  molesting  them  we 
should  have  the  best  chance  of  getting  to  the  King.  If  we  attacked 
them  we  should  probably  get  some  men  wounded,  which  would  hamper 
us,  and  the  news  of  our  fighting  would  only  induce  the  King  to  push  on 
faster,  and  as  our  horses  were  in  a  poor  state  and  our  food  supply  very 
limited,  it  was  very  important  that  we  should  catch  up  with  him  as 
quickly  as  possible.  I  had  not  hesitated  about  leaving  these  people 
unmolested  behind  us,  as  I  always  intended  to  go  back  up  the 
Shangani  River. 

The  following  morning  we  moved  on  two  miles  to  the  Bubye  and 
laagered  there,  and  when  we  marched  I  sent  Captain  Fitzgerald  to  the 
party  that  had  been  seen  the  evening  before  to  take  whatever  cattle  they 
might  have,  as  a  punishment  for  not  coming  in,  he  saw  none  of  the 
natives,  but  took  about  twenty-five  very  thin  sheep  and  goats.  The  place 
where  we  halted  was  very  pretty  with  very  large  thorn  trees  and  good  grass, 
and  the  horses  got  a  good  feed.  We  moved  on  at  two  p.m.,  and  before 
starting  I  sent  Burnham  and  Ingram  forward  to  look  for  the  next  water  ; 
at  starting  we  had  to  cross  the  Bubye,  which  was  dry,  and  a  very  narrow 
channel  with  steep  banks.  By  bad  driving  'the  leading  Maxim  was 
upset,  the  gun  turning  completely  over  and  throwing  the  near  wheeler 
right  over  the  top  of  the  off  one,  luckily  no  one  was  hurt  and  no  harm 
done,  and  it  did  not  take  long  to  get  it  right  again.  We  did  eight  miles 
that  afternoon  all  through  bush  and  camped  in  an  open  valley  at  the 
head  waters  of  the  Gwambo  stream,  on  the  way  we  passed  a  number  of 
natives  living  in  scherms,  they  were  in  a  miserable  state  and  their  cattle 
all  half  starved,  they  were  delighted  at  being  told  that  they  could  go 
quietly  home.  Burnham  had  found  some  natives  on  the  Gwambo,  and 
had  the  Induna  with  him  when  we  arrived,  he  told  the  same  story  as 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

the  others,  and  said  that  all  his  people  were  in  a  deplorable  state  from 
starvation,  fever,  and  small-pox  ;  I  repeated  to  him  what  I  had  just 
said  to  the  others. 

We  had  been  following  the  spoor  of  the  King's  waggons  all  the  way, 
and  it  kept  a  very  straight  course  through  the  bush,  he  had  done  very 
little  cutting,  having  driven  straight  over  everything  but  the  largest 
trees.  We  had  passed  two  of  his  waggons  which  he  had  burnt  when  he 
left  them,  and  close  to  this  laager  we  found  the  remains  of  his  bath-chair, 
the  latter  had  been  pulled  by  sixteen  men,  and  hence  I  think  arose  the 
report  we  had  heard  on  the  Bubye  that  his  waggons  were  being  pulled  by 
natives.  We  could  not  see  sufficient  of  the  country  when  at  the  Bubye 
to  say  how  far  we  were  below  the  point  at  which  we  had  turned  back 
before,  but  we  thought  it  to  be  about  fifteen  miles.  We  had  been  having 
a  great  number  of  heavy  storms,  and  this  evening  the  worst  storm  that  I 
ever  saw  threatened  passed  over  us  ;  the  clouds  came  up  very  fast, 
inky  black  and  full  of  lightning,  and  all  thought  we  were  in  for  a 
regular  downpour.  The  King's  waggons — now  reduced  to  three — had 
separated  here,  and  we  had  some  trouble  in  getting  on  the  right  spoor 
again,  but  we  found  that  they  had  only  separated  to  avoid  a  nasty  bog, 
into  which  some  of  our  horses  got.  The  spoor  from  here  ran  down  the 
east  bank  of  the  Gwambo,  running  then  almost  due  north,  through  an 
open  valley  600  to  1,000  yards  wide,  and  along  the  edge  of  the  bush 
on  both  sides  were  deserted  scherms. 

Fording  a  River. 

CH     MAP. 

lisbupy  and  Victoria  to  Buluwayo, 
Shangani  Patrol, 

ior   Wilson's  Party  when  killed. 

Major  P.  W.  FORBES, 

%  Company's  Combined  Forces  in  Mataheliland. 


^coile  t  incli=-i()\  miles 


i^^^^^/ryTc^d^  y^-^v-. 

The  downfall  of  lobengula.    plan  ii. 




ilumns  from  Salisbury  and  Victoria 
And  of  the  Shangani  Patrol, 

showing  position  of  Major  XVihon^s  Party  when  killed. 

Prepared  by  Major  P.  W.  FORBES, 

Comvtanding  ilu  Briiiik  South  A/ricct  Company  s  Combined  Forces  in  Matabetiland. 

Approximate  Scale  I  7«c//— i6i  viites 




By  Major  P.  W.  P"orbes. 

Close  upon  the  king — An  anxious  time  for  the  scouts — Preparations  for  an  attack — The 
king's  camp  deserted — Major  Wilson  sent  to  reconnoitre — Preparations  for  a  dash  for  the 
king— Messengers  sent  back  to  Major  Forbes — Captain  Borrow  sent  with  reinforcements 
— Heavy  firing  across  the  river — The  column  attacked — The  sole  survivors  of  Major 
Wilson's  party — Burnham's  account  of  the  disaster — To  retire  up  the  river — Short  oi 
ammunition  —News  sent  to  Dr.  Jameson — A  deluge  of  rain — Mr.  Howard's  plucky  swim 
across  the  river. 

We  did  six  miles  in  the  morning,  and  as  we  went  along  a  native  called 
out  to  Colenbrander  from  the  bush  and  came  out  to  us,  he  was  from  a 
kraal  near  Umhlangeni,  and  had  been  a  pupil  of  the  Missionary,  he  told 
us  that  the  King  was  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Shangani,  about  fifteen 
miles  away,  on  the  previous  day,  and  that  the  force  actually  with  him 
was  very  small,  although  there  were  a  large  number  of  people  scattered 
about  near  him  looking  after  cattle,  etc.  He  also  told  us  that  the  spoor 
turned  into  the  bush  again  about  three  miles  below,  and  that  we  should 
find  no  water  between  the  Gwambo  and  the  Shangani,  and  said  that 
Magwegwe  the  Induna  of  the  Buluwayo  kraal,  and  Manyou,  and  several 
other  Indunas  were  with  the  King,  and  that  Ingubugubu,  the  King's 
brother,  who  had  just  returned  from  Cape  Town,  had  passed  there  on  the 
previous  day  on  his  way  to  the  King,  he  said  he  knew  nothing  definite 
about  Gambo's  movements,  but  believed,  and  we  afterwards  found  it  to 
be  true,  that  he  had  ridden  across  with  two  other  men  and  had  joined 
the  King,  but  had  none  of  his  people  with  him. 

We  moved  on  in  the  afternoon,  intending  to  go  as  far  as  to  where 
the  spoor  turned  into  the  bush  and  then  to  laager,  pushing  right  on  to 
the  Shangani  in  one  march  the  next  morning.  I  had  sent  Burnham, 
Ingram  and  Mayne,  the  three  American  Scouts,  on  in  the  morning  with 

154  T^<^  Downfall  of  Lobengztla. 

a  Zulu  boy  to  interpret  for  them,  as  we  were  getting  close  to  the  King  and 
were  continually  coming  on  small  parties,  I  wished  Burnham  if  possible 
to  find  out  the  lay  of  the  country  for  some  distance  in  front,  in  order  to 
be  able  to  take  us  across  to  where  the  King  was,  and  so  save  us  following 
the  spoor  and  running  into  an  ambush,  in  case  they  laid  one  for  us.  Just 
after  we  moved  in  the  afternoon  they  returned,  and  Burnham  reported 
that  they  had  followed  the  spoor,  which  as  we  had  heard  turned  up  into 
the  bush  about  four  miles  ahead,  they  had  then  followed  it  about 
two  miles  towards  a  bushy  ridge,  and  just  before  reaching  the  ridge 
they  had  off-saddled  in  some  rather  broken  country.  Ingram's  horse  had 
knocked  up,  and  he  started  to  lead  him  back ;  soon  after  he  had  left  them 
they  were  suddenly  surrounded  by  about  twenty  armed  Matabeli,  who 
told  them  that  they  belonged  to  Gambo  and  that  they  wanted  them  to  come 
and  see  Gambo.  Burnham  in  turn  suggested  that  they  should  come  and 
see  me,  and  they  talked  for  some  time  ;  one  of  the  Matabeli  who  was,  so 
Burnham  said,  the  most  ferocious-looking  brute  he  had  ever  seen,  being 
for  taking  them  into  the  bush  and  killing  them.  The  Scouts  had  their 
horses  with  them,  and  while  they  were  talking  had  quietly  saddled  them 
up  and  mounted,  and  then  started  slowly  back  along  the  spoor,  the 
natives  following  them.  It  was  an  anxious  time  for  them,  for  had  one 
shot  been  fired  they  would  have  been  killed  at  once,  and  they  were  very 
anxious  about  Ingram,  who  had  gone  on  in  front  by  himself,  the  natives 
followed  them  to  the  edge  of  the  bush,  but  did  not  come  out  of  it  and  the 
Scouts  rode  back  to  us,  catching  up  Ingram  on  the  way.  Burnham  had 
always  appeared  before  to  be  absolutely  fearless  and  ready  to  go  any- 
where, but  this  upset  his  nerves  very  much  and  showed  him,  what  he 
would  not  admit  before,  that  the  Matabeli  were  really  an  enemy  to  be 
careful  of  I  told  Major  Wilson  of  this,  but  no  one  else  except  Captain 
Finch ;  I  had  found  that  Captain  Raaf  could  not  keep  anything  to  him.- 
self,  and  did  a  great  deal  of  harm  by  talking  to  the  young  officers 
he  had  with  him  about  the  dangers  of  the  march,  etc.  Major  Wilson 
and  I  knew  what  was  in  front  of  us,  and  that  we  were  liable  to  be 
attacked  by,  as  far  as  we  could  ascertain,  2,000  to  3,000  men, 
and  were  quite  prepared  for  it  ;  we  had  seen  in  our  two  fights 
when  going  into  the  country  that  the  natives  could  not  stand  against 
the    Maxims,  and   determined    to   push    on   all  we  could,  only  taking 

TJic  Loss  of  the   Wilson  Patrol.  155 

care  that   the  Column    was    always    ready   to  form  up  and  fight  at  a 
moment's  notice. 

We  laagered  this  night  in  the  open  and  put  a  strong  bush  scherm 
round  us,  and  after  daylight  started  again  ;  we  went  over  the  high  open 
ridge  where  Burnham  had  been  surrounded  the  day  before,  and  on  it 
found  a  large  series  of  deserted  scherms ;  Burnham  went  round  these 
counting  the  blocks  of  wood  used  by  the  natives  for  pillows,  and 
estimated  that  1,500  men,  women,  and  children  must  have  used 
them.  After  crossing  this  ridge  we  came  down  again  into  the 
open  valley  of  the  Lupani,  and  although  we  had  been  told  that  we 
should  find  no  water  there,  found  a  large  pool  full  ;  as  we  came  down  to 
the  valley  we  saw  a  herd  of  wild  pigs  feeding  in  it,  and  as  they  are  very 
timid  and  easily  scared  it  did  not  look  as  if  there  were  any  natives 
about.  We  went  on  in  the  afternoon,  entering  the  bush  again  and  going 
up  a  rise  similar  to  the  one  we  had  crossed  in  the  morning.  I  had  no 
scouts  on  in  front  of  us,  as  I  did  not  wish  to  risk  losing  them,  but  had  a 
small  advance  guard  of  four  men  about  300  yards  in  advance  of  the 
column,  a  rear  guard  of  the  same  strength,  and  two  half  sections 
on  each  flank,  with  connecting  files  between  them  and  the  column.  One 
of  the  Maxims  was  at  the  head  of  the  column  and  the  other  at  the  rear," 
and  the  men  marched  in  sections  between  them,  the  Salisbury  Column 
being  first,  then  the  Victoria,  the  Tuli  Column,  and  Bechuanaland 
Border  Police,  and  on  an  alarm  the  Column  was  to  form  laager  at  once, 
Salisbury  and  Victoria  Columns  taking  front  and  right  faces,  Tuli 
Column  and  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  left  and  rear,  with  the  Maxim 
in  the  left  front  and  right  rear.  The  bush  was  thick  in  places,  but  as  a 
rule  was  thin  enough  for  a  good  view  300  or  400  yards  on  each  side,  and 
the  column  could  always  have  been  in  fighting  formation  in  two  minutes. 
I  thought  it  more  than  likely  that  we  should  be  attacked  that  afternoon, 
as  I  knew  that  this  was  the  last  bush  that  we  had  to  go  through 
before  reaching  the  Shangani,  consequently  I  was  very  careful  to  keep 
the  Column  closed  up.  The  ridge  near  the  top  was  rather  broken,  and 
just  as  we  were  getting  on  to  it  the  advance  guard  sent  back  to  report 
that  five  or  six  natives  had  crossed  the  road  in  front  of  them,  but  had 
disappeared  in  the  bush.  I  did  not  send  after  them,  as  I  did  not  wish  to 
detach  any  men ;  almost  immediately  afterwards  a  shot  was  fired  on  our 


The  Downfall  of  LobengiUa. 

Major  Wilson  and  hjs 
tarty  leaving  the  camp 

11  left  rear. 
J.  25"  Captain 
Raaf  who 
was  rid- 
ing oft 
the  road 
on  the  left 
at  once  went 
to  find  out  if  the 
flankers  had  fired  it,  and  sent  to 
report  to  me  that  they  had  not 
and  had  seen  no  one;  I  had  little  doubt 
that  this  shot  was  a  signal  either  to  attack  or 
leticat,  but  nothing  happened.  Shortly  afterwards 
the  light  flanking  party  sent  to  report  that  they  had 
come  on  fresh  spoor  of  natives  and  a  mounted  man 
going  the  opposite  way  to  us  ;  I  sent  Colenbrander 
to  see  it,  and  he  said  that  it  was  that  of  two  horses 
and  forty  to  fifty  natives.  The  ridge  was  four  or  five  miles  wide, 
and  after  crossing  it  we  went  down  again  and  came  into  the  head  of 
a  narrow  valley,  which  the  prisoners  with  us  said  led  right  to  the 
Shangani,  we  followed  it  for  three  or  four  miles,  and  then  came  to  a 
roughly  built  kraal  which  had  only  been  very  recently  vacated,  and  at 
which  we  saw  by  the  spoor  that  the  horsemen  who  had  gone  back  had 
halted,  we  were  expecting  every  minute  to  find  someone,  and  were 
ready  for  an  attack  at  any  moment. 

Burnham  and  Colenbrander  were  now  with  the  advance  guard,  and 
on  going  through  a  narrow  strip  of  bush,  several  of  which  ran  across, 
connecting  the  two  sides  of  the  valley,  saw  a  large  herd  of  cattle  with 
two  boys  guarding  them  and  a  mounted  man  riding  about  them,  they 
galloped  in  and  caught  one  of  the  boys  and  brought  the  cattle  back,  but 
could  not  catch  the  other  boy  or  the  mounted  man.  The  boy  told  me 
at  once  that  the  King's  camp  was  just  in  front,  and  that  the  King  had 
been  there  that  afternoon,  that  he  had  left  with  his  waggons  on 
the  previous  day,  but  they  had  stuck  in  the  mud  and  he  had 
returned  on  horseback  that  afternoon  for  men  to  pull  them  out,  and  that 

The  Loss  of  the   Wilson  Patrol.  157 

he  did  not  wish  to  fight,  but  he  sent  back  his  eldest  son,  Mnyamandi, 
that  afternoon  with  a  letter  to  Dr.  Jameson,  telling  him  that  he  was 
coming  in  to  Buluwayo.  As  there  was  no  time  to  waste,  I  formed  the 
Column  into  square  at  once  and  advanced,  we  had  to  go  through  a 
narrow  strip  of  bush  and  then  came  out  in  a  wide  open  flat,  and  found 
the  King's  camp  just  on  our  right  on  the  edge  of  the  bush,  as  we  came 
out  of  the  bush  a  lot  of  natives  ran  away  across  the  open,  but  I  would 
not  allow  them  to  be  fired  at.  I  rode  up  to  the  King's  camp  and  found 
it  deserted,  it  consisted  of  a  number  of  roughly  built  huts  and  shelters 
and  they  had  evidently  only  just  been  vacated,  as  fires  were  still  alight 
and  a  number  of  cooking  pots  were  lying  about.  In  one  of  the  huts  we 
found  a  small  slave  boy  asleep,  he  was  pulled  out  and  suddenly  con- 
fronted by  a  lot  of  us,  and  I  asked  him  at  once  where  the  King  was,  he 
said  he  had  left  the  previous  day  with  the  waggons  and  had  not  been 
back  since.  The  Column  was  marching  slowly  on  and  I  rode  back  to  it. 
I  called  Major  Wilson  out  at  once  and  told  him  that  I  wanted  him  to 
take  his  twelve  best  horses  and  push  on  along  the  spoor  as  fast  as  he 
could  to  see  which  way  it  went,  returning  by  dark,  this  was  about  five 
o'clock,  and  there  was  about  one-and-a-half  hour's  more  daylight,  I  said 
to  him  that  if  he  went  fast  he  would  be  able  to  do  five  or  six  miles  out 
and  back.  At  this  time  we  were  entirely  ignorant  as  to  where  the  King 
had  gone,  and  did  not  know  that  he  had  crossed  the  river  which  was 
close  in  front  of  us  and  the  spoor  was  going  down  the  west  side.  One 
report  that  we  had  heard  from  the  natives  along  the  road  was  that  he 
was  making  for  the  junction  of  the  Gwai  and  Shangani  Rivers,  and  to 
get  there  he  might  keep  on  the  west  side  of  the  Shangani  all  the  way. 
Major  Wilson  at  once  called  out  his  twelve  best  mounted  men,  and 
several  other  officers,  including  Captains  Kirton  and  Greenfield,  asked  if 
they  might  go,  and  were  allowed  ;  they  all  understood  that  they  were  to 
be  back  that  night,  and  Kirton  asked  Dr.  Hogg,  with  whom  he  was 
messing,  to  keep  some  dinner  hot  for  him  as  they  would  not  be  in  till 
dark.  Mr.  Bowen,  Major  Wilson's  galloper,  who  had  accompanied  him 
everywhere  previous  to  this,  asked  if  he  should  go,  but  Major  Wilson 
told  him  to  remain  with  the  Column.  Mr.  Bowen's  explanation  of  this 
is,  that  Major  Wilson  had  promised  him  some  time  before  that  if  we 
caught  the  King,  he  would  ask  me  to  let  him,  Bowen,  take  the  news 

158  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula, 

back  to  Buluwayo  (Bowen  had  about  the  best  horse  amongst  us),  and 
that  it  was  to  keep  his  horse  fresh  that  Major  Wilson  would  not  let  him 
accompany  him.  Major  Wilson  then  started  off  with  his  party  ;  Burnham 
and  Ingram  were  not  with  him,  but  were  still  at  the  King's  camp 
lighting  the  huts,  I  sent  for  them,  and  as  Burnham's  horse  was  not  very 
fit,  gave  him  my  own  and  sent  them  on  after  Major  Wilson  ;  Burnham 
I  thought  might  be  useful,  and  was  very  quick  at  following  a  spoor.  I 
then  took  the  Column  and  laagered  about  200  yards  from  the  river,  in 
the  open.  During  the  evening  we  heard  the  natives,  who  had  run  away 
from  the  King's  camp,  building  scherms  across  the  river. 

The  day  before  we  got  here  Major  Wilson  and  I  had  discussed  the 
question  and  agreed  that  it  was  not  advisable  to  take  the  Column  any 
further  than  the  Shangani.  We  had  now  been  nine  days  out  from 
Shiloh,  and  I  knew  that  it  could  not  be  less  than  sixty  miles  to  the 
main  drift  on  the  Shangani,  and  even  if  we  went  up  as  quickly  as 
possible,  we  could  scarcely  get  through  before  we  had  run  out  of  food, 
and  I  wished  to  avoid  this  if  possible.  When  the  laager  was  formed 
up  I  had  another  talk  to  the  boy  we  had  caught ;  he  said  he  was 
the  son  of  Magwekvve,  the  chief  of  Buluwayo,  and  if  this  was  true, 
we  knew  he  was  of  some  importance.  He  told  us  there  were  about 
3,000  men  with  the  King,  belonging  principally  to  the  Insukameni, 
Ihlati,  and  Siseba  Regiments,  with  a  few  from  each  of  the  other  regi- 
ments, he  said  that  his  father,  Manyou,  and  Gambo  were  also  there, 
the  King  he  said  had  a  swollen  leg  and  could  only  travel  very  slowly, 
he  repeated  what  he  had  told  me  before  about  Mnyamandi  having 
been  sent  back  with  a  letter. 

As  all  the  accounts  made  out  the  number  of  men  with  the  King  to 
be  about  the  same,  3,000,  the  majority  of  whom  I  knew  to  be  of  very 
little  use  from  a  fighting  point  of  view,  I  made  up  my  mind  to  take  fifty 
men  and  a  galloping  Maxim  on  the  next  morning  and  make  one  rush 
for  the  King.  I  told  Mr.  Chappe  what  I  intended  doing,  and  he 
expressed  himself  quite  willing  to  go  with  me,  I  told  him  that  I 
should  leave  the  laager  where  it  was  in  charge  of  Major  Wilson.  I 
sent  for  Captain  Coventry  and  got  him  to  bring  up  the  driver  of  the 
mule  Maxim,  a  Cape  "  boy,"  and  I  asked  him  about  the  mules,  he  told 
me  they  were  still  quite  fit,   and    that    if   necessary    they    would    do 

The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol.  159 

twenty-five  miles  out  and  back  again  the  following  day.  I  intended 
taking  Captain  Borrow  and  his  twenty  men,  who  were  all  good  men 
and  well  mounted,  and  thirty  of  the  Victoria  Column,  with  the  best 
horses  I  could  get,  and  to  start  about  3  a.m.  ;  I  did  not  give  any 
orders  about  it  as  I  had  to  wait  until  Major  Wilson  returned  to  know 
what  he  had  found  out,  I  told  Captain  Borrow  what  I  proposed,  and 
he  agreed  with  me  that  it  was  the  only  thing  to  do  as  the  Column  could 
not  go  further.  Just  at  dark  Mr.  Chappe  called  me  on  one  side  and 
told  me  that  he  had  been  talking  to  the  slave  boy,  and  he  told  him 
all  that  the  other  boy  had  told  me  was  untrue,  that  an  impi  had 
gone  back  at  day-break  to  attack  us  in  the  bush,  and  that  only  about 
100  men  were  with  the  King.  I  sent  for  the  other  boy  at  once  and 
taxed  him  with  telling  lies,  and  he  admitted  it ;  he  then  told  me  that 
an  impi  made  up  of  divisions  from  different  regiments  and  kraals,  of 
which  he  gave  me  the  names,  had  started  back  at  daylight  that  morning 
under  command  of  Umjan,  the  Chief  of  the  Imbezu,  with  orders  from 
the  King  to  attack  us  in  the  bush,  and  having  stopped  us  there  to 
follow  on  after  the  King,  he  said  there  were  only  twenty  of  the 
Imbezu  with  the  impi,  all  the  rest  having  been  killed  or  died  from 
wounds,  from  the  numbers  he  gave,  we  made  out  that  the  impi  was 
about  2,800  strong  and  they  were  to  have  been  doctored  that  day 
and  leave  the  next,  but  on  hearing  we  were  on  the  Gwambo,  the 
King  hurried  them  off  to  attack  us ;  he  also  said  that  the  men  actually 
with  the  King  now  were  only  a  few  Indunas,  and  some  of  the  Bovani 
(Maholi  slaves).  He  said  they  had  heard  that  we  had  no  Maxims 
with  us,  and  he  attributed  the  fact  of  our  not  being  attacked  in  the  bush 
to  their  having  found  out  their  mistake  at  the  last  minute,  I  went  round 
to  the  other  side  of  the  laager  and  told  Captain  Raaf  what  I  had  heard, 
and  also  that  I  wanted  extra  precautions  taken  and  the  night  pickets 
doubled.  It  was  dark  by  now,  and  Wilson  had  not  returned.  The 
prisoners  were  in  the  centre  of  the  laager  among  the  slaughter  cattle, 
guarded  by  some  of  our  "  boys,"  and  soon  after  dark  one  of  our  "  boys  " 
came  to  say  that  the  Matabeli  boy  now  said  that  the  King's  orders  to 
the  impi  had  been  to  attack  us  in  the  bush,  and  if  they  missed  us  there 
to  foUov/  us  up  and  stop  us  where  they  could,  and  that  they  were 
certain  to  attack  us  that  night.     It  was  very  dark,  and  there  were  some 

i6o  The  Downfall  oj  Lobeiigtila. 

slight  showers  during  the  night,  I  sent  round  again  to  warn  the  pickets 
to  be  on  the  alert,  and  also  warned  them  not  to  allow  any  herds  of 
cattle  several  of  which  were  grazing  about  us  to  come  near  them,  as  I 
thought  it  possible  that  if  the  natives  attacked  they  might  drive  the 
cattle  up  to  hide  their  advance. 

About  nine  o'clock  two  men,  Sergeant-Major  Judge  and  Corporal 
Ebbage,  came  back  from  Major  Wilson  and  reported  that  he  had  crossed 
the  river  and  followed  the  spoor  for  about  five  miles,  they  had 
been  sent  back  because  their  horses  were  knocked  up,  but  Major 
Wilson  was  going  on  and  was  going  to  sleep  out,  and  that  if  I  thought 
it  necessary  I  could  send  on  some  men  in  the  morning,  and  that  the 
Maxims  could  get  along  the  spoor,  but  he  did  not  think  they  would 
be  required  ;  he  also  said  that  he  had  heard  that  the  impi  was  all 
behind  us,  and  that  the  King  had  very  few  men  with  him.  Few 
of  us  went  to  sleep  that  night,  as  I  was  expecting  an  attack  every 
moment,  the  natives  had  proved  that  they  could  not  do  us  much  harm 
by  day,^and  I  thought  it  more  than  likely  that  they  would  try  a  nighc 
attack,  using  assegais  only ;  I  had  the  magnesian  lights  and  rockets 
ready  every  night  in  case  they  might  be  required. 

At  about  eleven  o'clock  Captain  Napier  and  Troopers  Robertson 
and  Mayne  rode  in  from  Major  Wilson,  and  Captain  Napier  reported 
that  they  had  followed  the  spoor,  crossing  the  river  about  two  miles 
down,  and  had  ridden  up  to  a  scherm  on  the  other  side.  From  a  native 
there  they  learned  that  the  King  was  only  a  short  distance  on,  and  had 
very  few'men  with  him,  but  that  the  impi  had  gone  back  that  morning 
to  stop  us  and  was  now  behind  us,  he  volunteered  to  guide  them  to  the 
King,  and  they  pushed  on  as  fast  as  they  could.  They  passed  a  number 
of  scherms  filled  with  women  and  children  and  cattle,  and  about  three 
miles  from_.the  river  came  to  a  series  of  large  scherms  into  which  they 
rode,  they  passed  in  succession  through  five  of  these  looking  for  the 
King,  Captain  Napier  who  was  interpreting  calling  out  in  each  that  they 
did  not  want  to  hurt  anyone,  but  had  come  to  speak  to  the  King,  the 
natives  were  too  astonished  to  take  any  action,  and  thought  that  the 
whole  Column  was  on  them.  By  the  time  they  had  got  to  the  fifth 
scherm  it  was  nearly  dark,  and  the  natives  from  the  scherms  through 
which  they  had  passed  began  to  run  up  from   behind    with  their  rifles, 

The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol.  i6i 

and  Major  Wilson  ordered  a  retreat  ;  they  withdrew  without  a  shot 
being  fired,  and  went  into  the  bush  about  half  a  mile  away.  The 
guide  had  shown  them  a  scherm  with  a  high  fence  round  it,  not 
far  from  the  last  one  into  which  they  had  gone,  and  told  them  that 
it  was  the  King's,  and  that  his  waggons  were  there  ;  there  was  a  very 
heavy  storm  just  after  they  retired,  and  it  became  very  dark.  While 
riding  through  the  scherms  Lieutenant  Hofmeyr  and  two  of  the  men  got 
detached,  and  in  the  darkness  could  not  rejoin  Major  Wilson.  As  soon 
as  they  had  formed  up  in  the  bush  Major  Wilson  asked  Captain  Napier 
if  he  would  ride  back  and  let  me  know  where  he  was  and  what  he  had 
done,  to  this  Captain  Napier  agreed,  and  brought  with  him  Trooper 
Robertson,  one  of  his  employes,  and  Mayne,  one  of  the  Victoria  Scouts  ; 
they  neither  saw  nor  heard  anyone  by  the  way,  and  arrived  as  I  have 
said  about  eleven, ^Major  Wilson  sent  no  written  message,  and  no  direct 
verbal  one,  beyond  telling  Captain  Napier  to  let  me  know  what  had 
happened,  but  on  my  asking  Captain  Napier  what  Major  Wilson 
expected  me  to  do,  he  said  he  thought  he  expected  me  to  go  on 
at  once  with  the  whole  force,  but  that  to  attack  the  King  at  daylight 
it  would  be  necessary  to  be  there  by  4  a.m.  I  told  him  at  once  that  it 
was  impossible  for  me  to  move  that  night,  but  that  I  intended  to  push 
on  at  daylight  as  we  were  surrounded  and  expected  to  be  attacked 
at  any  moment,  and  that  in  my  opinion  if  we  attempted  to  move  before 
it  was  light  we  should  bring  the  impi  on  us  at  once.  The  Column, 
owing  to  the  Maxims,  could  not  travel  without  making  a  considerable 
amount  of  noise,  and  it  would  be  very  dangerous  to  attempt  to  cross 
the  river  through  deep  sand  and  in  the  dark,  when  it  was  impossible  to 
say  what  force  might  be  v/aiting  for  us  on  the  other  bank,  where  the 
bush  was  very  thick. 

The  river  was  very  low  and  there  had  been  no  local  rain  to  cause 
it  to  rise  ;  we  found  afterwards  that  it  rose  the  following  morning  from 
heavy  rains  on  the  Gwailo,  seventy  or  eighty  miles  away,  I  was  then 
confronted  with  the  alternatives,  either  to  recall  Major  Wilson  at  once, 
or  to  support  him  with  as  many  men  as  I  could  without  materially 
weakening  the  Column  ;  I  did  not  wish  to  recall  him,  as  I  had  absolute 
confidence  in  his  judgment  and  he  had  decided  to  wait  there,  he  knew 
as  well  as  I  did  how  important  it  was  that  the    King  should  be  caught 


1 62  The  Downfall  of  Lobengztla. 

and  he  knew,  which  I  did  not,  the  exact  state  of  affairs  about  the  King. 
If  I  recalled  him  I  undid  all  that  we  had  been  striving  for  so  long, 
namely,  to  get  in  touch  with  the  King,  and  we  should  have  to  start  all 
over  again  or  else  give  up  the  pursuit  and  go  back  to  Buluwayo  unsuc- 
cessful. Besides  this  I  was  quite  sure  that  after  Major  Wilson  had 
shown  himself  at  the  scherms,  Lobengula  would  ride  away  as  quickly  as 
possible,  leaving  his  people  to  follow,  and  I  thought  it  quite  probable 
that  they  might  be  able  to  intercept  him  at  daylight  (as  I  did  not  expect 
him  to  leave  in  the  dark),  and  catch  him  almost  alone.  Major  Wilson 
did  not  consider  that  his  party  were  in  any  danger  when  Captain  Napier 
left,  or  he  would  have  brought  them  back  to  camp. 

Having  decided  not  to  recall  him,  the  next  thing  was  to  decide 

how  many  men  I   could   spare  without  weakening  myself   too   much. 

Captain  Borrow  had  twenty  men  all  well  mounted,  and  their  horses  had 

done  less   work   than  the  others,  so  I  decided  on  sending  them  ;  before 

giving  him  any  orders  I  went  over  to  Captain  Raaf,   told  him   all  that 

had  happened  and  what  I  proposed  to  do,  and  he  concurred.     He  was 

averse  to  weakening  the  Column  by  splitting  it  up,  but   I   showed  him 

that   I   was  not  doing  so  to  any  serious  extent,  as  we  still  had  the  two 

Maxims  ;  he  raised  no  difficulty  at  all  to  me,  but  went  back  to  his  own 

officers,  told    them    what    I    was    going    to    do    and  also,  as    he   said 

afterwards,   that    "this   was  the  beginning   of    the  end."     I  then  gave 

Captain  Borrow  his  orders,  and  told  Captain  Napier  what  I  was  doing, 

and  he  quite  agreed  with  it,  and  I  asked  if  he  wished  to  go  back  with 

them  ;  he  said  that  as  only  a  small  number  were  going   Major  Wilson 

would  only  be  able  to  act  on  the  defensive,  and  that  he  did  not  care  to 

go  back,  as  he  was  very  wet,  but  that  Robertson  would  go  as  guide. 

Mayne  had  a  touch  of  fever  and  did  not  go  back.     Just  before  Captain 

Borrow  started,  he  asked  me  if  it  was  necessary  for  his  men  to  take  their 

full  lOO  rounds  of  ammunition,  as  it  was  heavy  for  the  horses,  and  I  told 

him  to  ;  each  man  also  had  a  revolver  and  twenty  rounds  ;  they  took 

out  some  food  in  their  wallets  for  Major  Wilson's  men,  who  had  had 

none  that  evening.    They  started  off  at  about  12.30,  and  I  gave  Captain 

Borrow  a  note  for  Major  Wilson,  in  which  I  told  him  that  I  could  not 

move  before  daylight,  as  I  was  surrounded  and  expected  to  be  attacked 

at  any   moment,  but  that  I  would  move  as  soon  as  it  was  light,  and  that 

The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol.  163 

meanwhile  I  was  sending  Captain  Borrow  and  twenty  men,  which  as  I 
said  would  make  him  "safe."  I  told  him  to  use  his  own  discretion 
absolutely,  as  he  knew  the  state  of  affairs  and  I  did  not,  but  to  be 

Captain  Borrow's  men  had  formed  the  front  face  of  the  square  or 
laager,  and  as  soon  as  they  left  I  had  to  close  the  laager  up,  to  do  this 
it  was  necessary  to  drive  out  the  slaughter  oxen  which  were  in  the 
centre,  and  Captain  Raaf  and  I  with  several  of  the  men  did  this,  we 
then  closed  the  horses  and  men  in,  making  the  laager  into  a  triangle, 
with  the  Maxims  at  two  of  the  corners.  Nothing  further  happened 
during  the  night,  and  immediately  it  was  light  preparations  were  made 
for  a  move  ;  the  slaughter  oxen  had  grazed  away  and  were  not  visible, 
and  I  told  the  "  boy,"  John  Grootboom,  who  herded  them  to  go  and 
look  for  them.  Just  as  we  were  ready  to  move  we  heard  heavy  firing 
across  the  river  where  the  King  was,  it  lasted  several  minutes,  and  then 
ceased.  Just  then  Grootboom  returned  with  the  cattle,  which  he  told 
me  had  been  put  by  the  natives  into  the  cattle  kraals  at  the  King's  old 
camp,  together  with  the  cattle  which  we  had  taken  the  previous  after- 
noon, but  let  go  again  (although  this  camp  was  only  about  800  yards 
away  it  had  been  too  dark  to  see  it),  that  he  had  found  some  natives 
there  and  told  them  that  they  had  got  our  cattle,  to  which  they  replied 
that  they  would  drive  ours  out  if  he  would  point  them  out,  this  he  did 
and  they  turned  them  out  of  the  kraal.  While  they  were  doing  it  they 
heard  the  firing  at  the  King's  camp  and  expressed  astonishment  at  it, 
saying  that  the  men  with  the  King  had  said  that  they  should  not  fight 
again,  and  that  they  themselves  had  no  wish  to. 

As  soon  as  we  were  ready  I  advanced  the  Column  along  the  spoor ; 
we  were  in  as  close  a  formation  as  we  could,  with  our  right  towards 
the  river  and  the  two  Maxims  on  our  left.  Shortly  after  starting  we 
saw  three  women,  carrying  water,  come  from  the  river  and  go  across  the 
opening  in  front  of  us  into  the  bush,  and  directly  afterwards  a  man  on  a 
white  horse  came  out  of  the  bush  followed  by  about  twelve  men,  and 
went  down  towards  the  drift,  they  were  about  800  or  900  yards  in  front 
of  us.  We  kept  on  along  the  spoor,  which  followed  the  open  part  of 
the  valley  about  1,000  yards,  and  then  turned  towards  the  river,  going 
through  some  low  scrub   where  the  bush  had   been  cut  away  at  some 

M  2 


The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 

previous  time,  and  then   keeping   down    close 

to   the    river   bank,  which 

was    here   about   ten    feet 

high  and  overhanging.  We 

had  scarcely  got  into  this 

low  scrub  when   we    were 

fired  on  from  the  bush 

about  300  yards   away 

on  our  left ;  we  formed 

up    at    once,   all    the 

horses  being  crowded 

as  much  together 

'**      as  possible,  some 

'     ■     of  the  men  taking 

cover    behind    a    few 

mopani    bushes    that 

were     still     standing, 

and      the     remainder 

lying    down    round    the    horses,    the    two 

Maxims  being  on  the  right  and  left  of  our  positions  as  we  faced  the 


The  bush  in  front  of  us  where  the  enemy  was  being  very  thick 
mimosa,  extending  to  the  right  and  left  in  front  of  our  position,  and 
back  to  a  ridge  about  1,000  yards  away.  The  enemy's  fire  was  very 
heavy  for  some  time  and  very  general  from  all  over  the  bush,  but  it  was 
impossible  to  estimate  it  accurately,  as  very  few  natives  were  seen,  only 
those  who,  bolder  than  the  rest,  advanced  to  the  edge  of  the  bush  and 
took  cover  behind  some  large  stumps  there,  appearing  at  all  ;  but  we 
reckoned  that  about  300  were  firing  at  us.  Their  shooting  was  as 
usual  very  erratic,  and  ours  very  steady,  although  there  were  only  the 
puffs  of  smoke  to  fire  at,  and  for  some  time  they  did  not  do  us  much 
harm  ;  after  a  time,  however,  they  began  to  fire  at  the  Maxims,  and 
then  we  began  to  lose  some  horses.  It  was  evident  from  the  beginning 
that  we  must  get  into  a  better  position  as  soon  as  possible,  but  for  a 
long  time  it  was  impossible  to  move.  The  river  bank  was  too  high  for 
us  to  get  under  it,  and  to  move  either  backwards  or  forwards  necessitated 


The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol. 


■^  -  ■»-  .a.  '27^'^  'a."" 

inspanning  the  Maxims,  and  taking  them,  if  only  for  a  few  minutes,  out 

of  action  ;  and  with  an  indefinite  number  of  natives  in  the  bush  within 

250  yards,  I  could  not  run  the  risk  of  their  attempting  a  rush  when  the 

Maxims — which  were  our  chief  reliance  to  stop  a  sudden  rush— were 

out  of  action.    During  the  fight  two  of  Captain  Sorrow's  men,  Landsberg 

and   Nesbitt,  crossed  the  river  behind  us  ;  they  had  become  separated 

from  Captain  Borrow,  and  had  made  their  way  back  to  us  as  being  the 

safest  thing  to  do.     After  about  an  hour  of  it  the  enemy's  fire  slackened 

and  we  saw  several  natives  crossing  the  opening  a  long  way  to  our  right 

and  going  down  the  river.     I  thought  that  we  could  attempt  to  m.ove 

now,    and    had    the    horse    Maxim  ^  ^   ^  -    ...  ^ 

in  spanned  ;  the  firing  was  O^'f^-'^'i^'^i^^^-^'^sL^^*^^.^ 

still  going  on  on  both 

sides,  but  I  was  going 

to  retire  one  Maxim 

at    a    time,   keeping 

the    other    in    action 


Directly  the 
horses  were  put  into 
the  gun  a  heavy  and 
fairly  well  directed, 
though  rather  high 
fire  broke  out  from 
the  bush  to  our  right 
front,  and  it  looked 
as  if  the  enemy  were 

trying  to  get  round  us  on  that  flank.  I  had  the  Maxim  outspanned 
at  once,  and  a  very  well  directed  fire  from  it  into  the  bush  stopped 
the  enemy's  fire  from  there  altogether  ;  I  then  had  both  the  Maxims 
inspanned  and  we  retired  slowly  along  the  open,  the  Maxims  and 
all  the  available  men  (dismounted)  on  the  right  flank.  The  enemy 
kept  up  a  slight  fire  at  us  as  we  retired,  and  we  returned  it ;  we 
had  one  man  badly  wounded  and  one  mule  killed  while  retiring. 
After  going  about  600  yards  we  turned  into  the  end  of  a  strip  of 
mopani  bush  on  the  river  bank  where  there  was  fairly  good  cover  and 

Kings  w-j  .     .^ 

^■^r  /> 

i-c''k  "■  ^/^"^"U  s  A ^"^^ 

I  *Bush  « 


— •  .  «t. 


1 66  The  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

formed  up  again,  and  shortly  afterwards  the  enemy's  fire  ceased  and 
they  all  retired.  While  we  were  retiring,  Burnham,  Ingram,  and 
Gooding,  one  of  Captain  Borrow's  men,  rode  up  from  Major  Wilson  ;  as 
they  came  up  Burnham  jumped  off  his  horse,  came  to  me  and  said, 
"  I  think  I  may  say  we  are  the  sole  survivors  of  that  party  ; "  I  told 
him  to  say  nothing  about  it  till  we  were  out  of  our  own  fight.  We  had 
lost  sixteen  horses  killed  and  two  mules  in  the  fight,  and  had  five  men 
wounded,  all  of  whom  belonged  to  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  ; 
they  were  Corporal  Williams,  shot  through  the  body  ;  Trooper  Middle- 
ton,  through  calf  of  left  leg ;  Trooper  Shanaghan,  through  left  arm  ; 
Captain  Napier  and  Trooper  Newton  were  struck  by  spent  bullets,  and 
Le  Fleur  (coloured  mule  driver),  shot  through  right  leg. 

As  soon  as  we  halted  the  wounded  were  attended  to  by  Dr.  Hogg, 
who  was  in  medical  charge  of  the  Column,  and  we  proceeded  to  make 
ourselves  as  strong  as  possible,  by  cutting  down  some  trees  and  making 
a  scherm,  and  by  digging  rifle  pits  along  the  river  bank,  we  made  our- 
selves fairly  safe.  There  was  also  a  narrow  strip  of  bush  running  along 
the  river  from  the  laager  to  the  north,  and  this  was  held  all  day  by 
reliefs  of  men  stationed  about  200  yards  from  the  laager  ;  the  river  had 
been  rising  all  the  morning,  and  by  now  was  much  too  high  to  cross. 
About  half-an-hour  after  the  firing  ceased  I  sent  a  patrol  of  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  along  the  open  valley  to  our  right  to  see  if 
all  the  enemy  had  retired,  giving  them  orders  to  return  at  once  if  fired 
at  ;  they  saw  no  one,  and  on  their  return  we  turned  the  horses  out  to 
graze.  During  our  fight  we  had  heard  a  considerable  amount  of  firing 
where  Major  Wilson  was,  and  those  who  could  hear  it  plainly  were  of 
opinion  that  it  was  getting  gradually  further  away  ;  about  two  hours 
after  we  laagered  there  were  a  few  shots  fired  farther  away  and  more  to 
the  right. 

Immediately  the  laager  was  made  safe  I  had  a  consultation  with 
Captains  Raaf  and  Napier  ;  it  was  quite  impossible  for  us  to  advance,  as 
we  could  not  cross  the  river,  and  we  could  only  hope  that  some,  if  not 
all,  of  Major  Wilson's  party  had  escaped.  There  was  no  object  in 
stopping  there,  as  the  river  might  not  fall  for  some  days,  and  if  Major 
Wilson's  party  did  not  get  back  to  us  that  day,  we  should  know  that 
they  had  either  been  cut  up  or  had  escaped  up  the  river.     Major  Wilson 

The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol.  167 

knew  that  it  was  my  intention  to  return  that  way,  the  only  thing  then 
was  to  return  to  Buluwayo.  I  had  always  intended  to  return  up  the 
Shangani,  as  our  supplies  should  be  waiting  for  us  there,  and  as  far  as 
we  could  ascertain  the  country  was  fairly  open  up  the  river  ;  I  did  not 
know  the  exact  distance,  but  did  not  think  it  could  be  more  than  sixty 
miles  to  the  drift.  Captain  Raaf  wished  to  start  after  dark  that  night, 
but  I  would  not  allow  it,  as  I  did  not  wish  the  natives  to  think  that  they 
had  beaten  us,  and  I  wished  to  give  Major  Wilson  a  chance  to  get 
back;  I  therefore  decided  to  remain  where  we  were  until  the  following 
morning  and  then  to  commence  our  retreat  up  the  Shangani.  As 
soon  as  I  had  arranged  this,  I  asked  Burnham  about  Major  Wilson's 
party.  He  told  me  that  as  soon  as  Captain  Napier  had  left  on  the 
previous  evening.  Major  Wilson  had  asked  him  to  go  with  him  and  try 
to  find  the  three  men  who  were  missing,  and  after  some  time  they  had 
managed  to  do  so,  but  it  was  so  dark  that  Burnham  had  to  follow  the 
spoor  by  feeling  for  it  with  his  fingers,  and  had  at  last  found  them  by 
calling  to  them ;  that  Captain  Borrow  had  arrived  safely  before 
daybreak,  having  neither  seen  nor  heard  any  natives  on  his  way  out,  but 
that  IMajor  Wilson's  party  had  several  times  heard  natives  talking  and 
moving  about  during  the  night.  He  said  that  after  Captain  Borrow 
came,  Major  Wilson  discussed  the  question  with  all  the  officers,  and  they 
decided  on  making  a  rush  for  the  King's  scherm  and  trying  to  secure 
him.  At  daylight  they  rode  straight  up  to  it,  it  was  at  the  head  of  a 
valley  with  bush  on  each  side,  and  got  within  a  few  feet  of  it ;  Burnham 
said  that  he  saw  two  waggons,  one  of  which  he  could  see  right  through, 
and  it  was  empty,  they  halted  at  the  scherm  and  called  to  the  King 
and  were  at  once  answered  by  a  heavy  fire  from  in  front  and  both  sides. 
Burnham  reckoned  that  there  were  about  100  men  firing  at  them  ;  they 
dismounted  and  returned  the  fire,  but  had  to  fall  back,  and  as  Major 
Wilson  saw  that  the  natives  were  endeavouring  to  get  round  them,  he 
mounted  the  men  and  they  retired  at  a  gallop  to  a  large  ant-heap  600  or 
700  yards  back  down  the  valley,  behind  which  they  dismounted  again. 
The  natives  had  followed  them  down  the  open,  but  on  the  white  men 
commencing  to  fire  from  behind  the  ant-heap,  they  got  into  the  bush 
again  on  each  side.  Firing  was  kept  up  by  each  side  for  some  time, 
and  two  of  Major  Wilson's  horses  were  killed  but  no  one  hit,  and  Major 

1 68  The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 

Wilson  saw  that  the  natives  were  surrounding  him  again  ;  he  ordered 
them  to  mount  and  they  galloped  away,  two  horses  this  time  carrying 
double.  They  went  some  distance  and  got  into  the  waggon  spoor  again, 
and  away  from  the  natives,  they  were  retiring  quietly  along  the  spoor 
— what  Gooding  called  "  shogging  along,"  not  trotting — and  Major 
Wilson  and  Captain  Borrow  were  riding  behind  talking.  After  a  bit 
Major  Wilson  asked  Burnham  if  he  thought  that  he  could  get  through 
to  me,  and  he  expressed  himself  ready  to  try  if  Major  Wilson  gave  him 
a  man  to  accompany  him.  Captain  Borrow  told  Gooding,  who  was 
about  the  best  mounted  of  his  party,  to  go  with  him,  and  Ingram, 
Burnham's  mate,  also  asked  to  go  and  the  three  started  off,  they  had 
scarcely  gone  lOO  yards  when  a  large  number  of  Matabeli  rushed  towards 
them  out  of  the  bush,  shouting  and  waving  their  assegais  ;  they  galloped 
away  to  the  left  and  by  hard  riding  managed  to  get  away,  although 
they  had  a  shower  of  bullets  at  them  and  got  down  to  the  river. 
Finding  it  in  flood  they  had  to  go  some  distance  up  to  cross,  and 
eventually  swam  over,  about  one-and-a-half  miles  up  ;  immediately  after 
they  had  escaped  from  the  last  lot  of  natives  they  heard  Major  Wilson's 
party  come  to  them,  and  heavy  firing  began,  and  Burnham  was  sure 
that  none  of  them  could  have  got  away  alive,  although  Gooding  was 
much  more  hopeful.  I  checked  the  firing  which  we  heard  with 
Burnham's  account  of  what  had  taken  place,  and  made  out  that  it  was 
only  the  last  burst  of  fire  we  had  heard  that  Burnham  did  not  know 
the  result  of,  and  as  it  was  no  heavier  than  the  previous  ones,  from 
which  little  harm  had  resulted,  we  could  hope  that  some  had  escaped  ; 
we  have  now  learned  that  none  did,  but  that  they  all  stood  and  fell 
together  on  the  one  spot. 

Burnham  was  tired  out  when  he  returned  and  naturally  his  nerves 
were  much  shaken,  he  was  sure  the  natives  would  come  on  again  and 
follow  us  until  they  had  killed  us  all,  as  he  said,  "If  I  got  as  ferocious 
with  anyone  as  those  men  did  with  me,  I  would  follow  him  twenty  years 
until  I  killed  him."  He  told  me  that  it  would  be  absolutely  suicidal  for 
anyone  to  try  and  get  through  to  Buluwa\'o,  and  I  was  not  ver}-  anxious 
to  send  ;  I  knew  that  we  could  hold  our  own  marching  up  the  river,  as 
at  present  we  had  plent}-  of  ammunition,  and  I  expected  to  find  food 
and  reinforcements  at  the  drift  up  the  river.      Soon  after  this  however, 

The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol.  169 

Ingram  came  and  offered  to  ride  into  Buluwayo,  and  I  agreed  to  let  him 
if  he  could  find  anyone  to  go  with  him ;  I  told  him  that  they  could  start 
soon  after  dark  that  evening.  Soon  after  our  fight  was  over  I  had  sent 
up  a  socket  signal  to  show  any  of  Major  Wilson's  party  who  might  have 
escaped  where  we  were.  We  kept  a  good  look-out  during  the  day,  but 
nothing  happened,  and  no  natives  were  seen  on  our  side  of  the  river, 
although  a  large  number  were  seen  to  come  down  on  the  other  side 
some  distance  below  us  and  then  separate,  some  going  up  the  river  and 
some  down  ;  I  think  that  this  was  done  with  the  intention  of  stopping 
us  should  we  try  to  cross.  One  of  the  men  on  picket  reported  that  he 
had  seen  four  white  men  brought  down  by  a  number  of  natives  to  the 
river,  and  that  the  natives  were  dancing  round  them,  but  no  one  else 
saw  them;  we  saw  four  try  to  cross  the  river  about  1,000  yards  down, 
but  a  shot  or  two  turned  them  back.  Towards  the  evening  a  number 
of  natives  were  heard  singing  and  talking  in  the  bush  on  the  other  side, 
but  we  were  not  molested  in  any  way. 

I  wrote  a  letter  to  Dr.  Jameson  telling  him  what  had  happened 
and  that  we  were  going  to  retire  up  the  river,  that  we  were  all  right 
for  ammunition  to  stand  another  big  fight,  but  that  if  we  had  this  fight,  I 
should  have  to  laager  and  wait  for  more  ammunition,  as  our  supply 
would  not  warrant  me  in  risking  a  third  in  the  open,  I  asked  him  to 
send  off  reinforcements  at  once  with  food  and  ammunition,  and  also 
wrote  to  Captain  Delamore  at  Umhlangerii,  telling  him  to  push  on  with 
his  men  to  the  Shangani  by  the  main  road  and  then  follow  the  west 
bank  down  till  we  met.  I  had  just  got  these  ready  for  Ingram  when 
Captains  Raaf  and  Francis  came  over  and  asked  if  I  was  sending  any- 
thing in  writing ;  I  replied  that  I  was,  and  that  it  was  quite  safe  to  do 
so  as  there  was  no  native  in  the  country  except  those  in  our  camps 
who  could  read ;  they  implored  me  not  to  and  as  Ingram  was 
perfectly  cool  and  composed  and  knew  everything  that  had  happened 
both  with  me  and  Major  Wilson,  I  gave  in  to  them  and  did  not  send  the 
letter  to  Dr.  Jameson,  only  that  to  Captain  Delamore,  which  did  not 
refer  to  our  position  at  all.  I  did  not  know  until  after  I  returned  to 
Buluwayo  that  some  of  Captain  Raaf's  officers  had  given  Ingram  letters 
to  people  in  Buluwayo,  couched  in  a  melancholy  strain,  saying  good-bye 
to  everyone,  etc.  ;  it  did  not  occur  to  me  that  anyone  would  write,  as  I 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila, 

Mk   Howakd  swims  thf  1.- 

shangam  ki\  er 
10  capture  bome  cattle. 

\y  should 
e  that 
talked  of  our 
position  as  des- 
perate, as  I  did  not  consider  it  so  in  any  way.  We  had  met  almost 
the  whole  force  that  Lobengula  had  that  morning,  and  had  beaten  them 
with  scarcely  any  loss,  and  if  they  followed  us  we  could  do  it  again  ;  it 
they  did  not,  we  were  very  unlikely  to  meet  anything  like  so  many  any- 
where else.  We  did  not  know  that  all  Major  Wilson's  party  had  been 
destroyed,  and  it  was  the  general  belief  that  some  had  escaped,  the 
only  two  I  think  who  always  gave  them  up  being  Captain  Raaf  and 
Burnham,  the  former  always  said  that  he  had  listened  attentively  to 
the  firing  and  that  it  was  all  in  one  place,  this  differed  from  the  general 
opinion,  but  now  seems  to  have  been  right ;  Burnham  had  no  hopes 
from  the  first  of  any  of  them  having  escaped.  I  never  thought  for  a 
moment  that  we  should  be  followed,  as  my  opinion  was  always  that 
they  had  fought  in  desperation  as  we  had  got  so  close  to  the  King,  but 
that  they  would  only  be  too  glad  to  see  us  turn  back,  and  would 
then  follow  the  King. 

Ingram  was  ready  to  start  at  dark,  and  had  selected  one  oi  the 
Victoria  Column,  Lynch,  to  accompany  him,  Mayne  the  other  American 
Scout  also  volunteered  to  go,  but  I  thought  two  quite  enough  and  could 
not  spare  more  horses.  I  told  Ingram  my  reasons  for  not  sending  a 
letter,  and  told  him  to  tell  Dr.  Jameson  all  that  had  happened,  and  also 

The  Loss  of  the    Wilson  Patrol.  171 

f  i)  That  I  was  going  up  the  Shangani,  and  should  keep  to  the  river  up  to 
the  drift,  and  (2)  That  I  wanted  him  to  send  me  more  ammunition  at 
once,  as  in  the  event  of  another  big  fight  I  should  have  to  laager  and 
wait  for  it.  I  gave  Ingram  and  Ljmch  the  three  best  horses  we  had, 
one  of  them  being  Bowen's,  which  was  to  have  taken  back  the  news  of 
Lobengula's  capture,  and  they  started  at  dark  ;  their  instructions  were  to 
keep  up  the  river  for  a  time,  and  then  cut  across  to  the  Bubye  and  follow 
it  up  to  Umhlangeni.  They  got  through  all  right  without  being  inter- 
fered with,  but  the  strain  on  his  nerves  had  so  affected  Ingram  by  the 
time  he  got  to  Buluwayo  that  he  could  not  remember  what  I  had  told 
him  to  repeat  to  Dr.  Jameson,  and  he  could  not  even  tell  him  which  way 
I  intended  to  retire.  Immediately  after  they  started  I  sent  up  a  rocket, 
and  it  had  scarcely  burst  when  a  storm  that  had  been  gathering  for  some 
time  broke,  and  we  had  a  deluge  of  rain  ;  our  laager  was  small  and  the 
ground  uneven,  and  in  a  few  minutes  everyone  was  drenched  through 
and  most  of  the  horses  standing  up  to  their  knees  in  water,  altogether 
we  passed  an  unpleasant  night.  As  the  men  were  all  tired  Captain 
Finch  asked  some  of  the  officers  if  they  would  volunteer  to  do  horse 
guard  during  the  night,  and  this  they  did  for  some  nights.  We  were  not 
disturbed  during  the  night,  but  everything  was  so  wet  in  the  morning 
that  we  had  to  wait  for  a  time  to  get  our  blankets,  etc.  dry.  The 
wounded  had  passed  a  miserable  night  as  the  rough  shelter  which  we 
had  put  up  did  not  keep  the  rain  out,  and  the  horses  moving  about  had 
disturbed  them,  but  they  were  not  much  the  worse  for  their  wetting, 
and  both  then  and  right  through  were  marvellously  plucky.  I  had 
stretchers  made  for  the  worst  two,  Williams  and  La  Fleur,  and  they  were 
afterwards  carried  some  distance  in  them,  but  it  was  very  hard  work  on 
the  men  carrying,  and  we  found  that  they  could  ride  all  right  on  the 
gun  carriages,  the  others  rode  right  through. 

Shortly  after  daybreak  I  rode  with  two  or  three  men  over  the 
scene  of  the  fight  of  the  day  before,  thinking  that  I  might  find  some 
ammunition  left  by  the  enemy,  but  everything  had  been  taken  away 
and  although  we  saw  blood  in  several  places,  saw  no  dead  bodies 
near  the  edge  of  the  bush,  and  the  ground  was  too  soft  after  the  rain 
and  the  bush  too  thick  to  go  far  into  it.  During  the  night  the  slaughter 
oxen  had  broken  out  of  the   kraal,  frightened  by  the  storm  and  could 


The  Dozunfall  of  Lobengula. 

not  be  found  the  next  morning.  Soon  after  daylight  three  head  of  cattle 
came  out  of  the  bush  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  just  opposite  our 
laager,  and  Mr.  Howard,  a  volunteer  who  had  originally  served  in  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  and  had  brought  despatches  up  to 
Buluwayo,  swam  across  the  river  with  his  revolver  in  his  mouth  to  try 
and  drive  them  across.  It  was  a  very  plucky  thing  to  do  as  the  bush 
was  thick,  and  we  could  not  see  that  it  was  not  full  of  natives  ;  he  was 
carried  about  150  yards  down  and  his  attempt  failed.  The  cattle  were 
frightened  at  his  white  skin  and  ran  away  ;  he  went  a  short  distance 
after  them  and  saw  a  number  of  natives  and  scherms  in  the  distance  and 
then  returned  across  the  river. 


By  Major  P.  W.  Forbes. 

Down  the  river's  bank — Horses  falling  off  fast — Short  of  food — Capturing  the  royal  cattle — 
A  skirmish  in  the  bush — A  heavy  rain  storm — The  men  depressed — The  last  of  the 
horses  done  up — A  sudden  attack — The  gun  carriages  left  behind — Captain  Raaf 
addresses  the  force — ^The  first  night  march — Tired  out — Horse  flesh  flavoured  with 
garlic — A  fight  while  on  the  march — The  Matabeli  now  behind  us — Mr.  Selcus  brings 
tidings  of  food — Back  to  Umhlangeni  and  Buluwayo — Disbanding  the  force — Pegging 
out  farms — Death  of  Captain  Raaf — A  parade  of  all  forces  before  Mr.  Rhodes — Rumours 
of  Major  Wilson's  party — How  Englishmen  can  die. 

"At  nine  o'clock  we  commenced  our  retreat,  moving  in  solid  forma- 
tion in  three  sides  of  a  square,  left  on  the  river,  the  Maxims  being  on 
one  spoor  on  the  right  face,  the  river  formed  our  left  face  all  the  way 
up,  and  always  gave  us  a  clear  field  of  fire  for  several  hundred  yards 
after  the  river  fell,  as  it  did  after  three  days,  and  at  first  when  the  river 
was  full  it  was  a  great  protection  to  us.  Our  horses  were  by  now  in  a 
bad  state  and  several  had  to  be  left  every  day,  they  had  hitherto  had 
nothing  but  young  green  grass  to  eat ;  this  did  not  strengthen  them 
at  all,  and  for  the  few  days  previous  they  had  had  little  time  for  grazing. 
Colenbrander  and  two  men  who  were  well  mounted  were  about  300  yards 
in  front  to  act  as  advanced  guard,  and  give  us  notice  of  any  bad  ground 
that  might  be  in  front  of  us,  one  section  was  on  the  right  flank  and  one 
in  rear. 

Shortly  after  starting  the  strip  of  bush  in  which  the  King's  camp 
had  been  came  down  to  within  100  yards  of  the  river,  and  there  were  some 
scherms  in  it.  Colenbrander  was  riding  up  to  one  of  these  when  he  saw 
two  natives  with  rifles,  one  of  whom  was  aiming  at  him,  he  just  had  time 
to  jump  off  his  horse  when  the  native  fired,  hitting  the  horse  and  killing 
it  at  once,  they  fired  at  the  natives  and  killed  one  of  them — the  other 

174  '^^^  Duzviifaii  of  Lcbengtila. 

got  away.  We  did  ten  miles  up  the  river  without  seeing  any  other 
native,  halted  for  three  hours  and  then  went  on  for  four  miles  more  and 
laagered  at  a  bend  of  the  river,  where  we  were  able  to  make  a  very 
strong  scherm  by  cutting  down  several  large  thorn  trees.  The  river 
bank  formed  one-half  of  our  circular  scherm,  and  was  here  about  twenty 
feet  deep  ;  there  was  a  long  valley  stretching  down  to  the  river  on  the 
other  side,  and  I  thought  that  if  two  men  could  swim  their  horses 
across  the  river  under  cover  of  the  bush  they  could  get  into  this  valley 
and  ride  up  for  four  or  five  miles,  and  so  probably  cut  the  spoor  of  any 
of  Major  Wilson's  party  who  I  thought  were  retiring  up  the  other 
bank.  I  spoke  to  Burnham  but  he  said  it  would  be  too  dangerous, 
and  that  although  he  would  go  if  ordered,  he  should  consider  it  the 
most  risky  thing  he  had  ever ;  tried  after  this  I  did  not  press  it. 
I  spoke  to  Hovvard  afterwards  and  he  was  quite  ready  to  go,  and 
volunteered  to  do  so  by  himself,  I  would  not  allow  this,  and  could  find 
no  one  who  would  accompany  him. 

The  following  day  (6th)  we  did  fourteen  miles  more  up  the  river 
without  incident,  four  natives  were  seen  on  the  other  bank  and  four  or 
five  on  our  side,  but  they  ran  away  when  fired  at.  Our  horses  were 
falling  off  fast  and  we  were  now  getting  short  of  any  that  were  fit  for 
much,  one  of  mine  had  been  knocked  up  by  Burnham  when  he 
returned  from  Major  Wilson,  and  the  other  I  had  given  to  one  of  the 
wounded  men,  who  rode  it  right  through.  Captain  Raaf's  pony  was 
still  very  fit  and  as  he  had  still  several  good  horses  among  his  men  I 
asked  him  to  take  charge  of  the  advance,  rear  and  flanking  parties, 
getting  what  men  were  required  from  the  different  corps,  and  I  being  on 
foot  remained  with  the  Column  and  kept  it  in  shape  ;  we  laagered  this 
night  again  in  a  bend  of  the  river  and  had  a  quiet  night.  We  had  seen 
some  cattle  on  the  previous  day  and  Captain  Raaf  had  sent  after  them, 
but  they  had  been  driven  away  and  we  did  not  get  any,  we  had  to  kill 
one  of  our  two  pack-oxen  for  meat,  and  had  now  nothing  left  but  one 

The  next  day  (7th)  we  started  at  7.30,  and  on  a  bushy  ridge  to  our 
right  we  saw  the  smoke  of  some  fires  and  heard  cattle,  I  told  Captain 
Raaf  to  try  and  get  some  and  he  went  off,  but  came  back  to  say  that 
the  country  was  too  broken  to  attempt  it.     Shortly  afterwards  we  saw 

Retreat  from  the  Shangani  River. 


a  troop  of  half-grown  calves  and  Captain  Raaf  sent  Francis  to  drive 
them  in,  which  he  did  successfully ;  before  marching  in  the  morning  one 
of  the  men  had  shot  a  water-buck  cow,  which  we  cut  up  and  took  with 
us.  We  had  to  keep  away  from  the  river  a  good  deal  this  day  as  there 
was  thick  bush  close  to  it,  and  halted  in  the  middle  of  the  day  close 
to  a  large  mud-hole  full  of  "  barber,  "  we  sent  some  of  our  natives  in 
with  assegais  and  they  killed  a  large  number.  We  got  back  to  the 
river  in  the  evening  and  laagered,  having  only  done  eight 
miles  that  day  owing  to  very  heavy  rain. 

The  next  day  (8th)  we  had  done  about  three 
miles  up  the  river  when  Colenbrander  shot  a  roan 
antelope,  I  halted  the  Column  while  it  was  being 
cut  up,  and  while  halted  we  saw  a  number  of 
cattle  500  or  600  yards  away,  which  I  pointed 
out  to  Captain  Raaf  and  suggested  to 
him  that  full-grown  beef  was  better  than 
veal,  he  rode  off  at  once  with  several  of 
his  men  and  brought  back  about  100  head, 
he  also  brought  the  boy  who  was  herding 
them.  When  they  were  driven  up  I  saw  at 
once  that  they  were  regimental  slaughter 
cattle,  being  all  well-grown  oxen,  and  thought 
there  might  be  some  trouble  about  them,  the 
boy  told  me  they  were  royal  cattle  and  were 
going  down  after  the  King,  that  there  were  a  very 
large  number  of  cattle  all  along  the  river  following  the 
King,  and  that  there  were  a  few  men  with  each  lot  but 
no  impi  anywhere  near.  The  cattle  were  very  wild 
and  we  did  not  want  so  many,  so  I  had  twenty  picked 
out  and  left  the  rest  and  also  the  remainder  of  the  calves  taken  the 
previous  day.  We  went  on  about  a  mile  and  then  off-saddled  on  the  river 
in  as  clear  a  place  as  we  could  find,  but  where  there  was  a  thick  patch  of 
mopani  bush  on  our  right,  I  distributed  the  meal  left  by  Major  Wilson 
and  Captain  Borrow's  parties  here.  It  was  nearly  time  to  get  the  horses 
in  again  when  suddenly  a  hot  fire  opened  on  us  from  the  bush  in  front, 
the  pickets  had  not  been  looking  out,  and  the  natives  had  got  right  up  to 


176  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila. 

one  of  them  before  they  were  seen,  they  managed  however  to  get  in  all 
right.  Our  horses  were  grazing  to  the  left  of  the  laager,  and  immediately 
the  firing  began  Captain  Finch  and  some  men  ran  out  and  turned  them 
towards  the  river  behind  the  laager,  the  bank  sloped  gradually  down 
here,  and  there  was  good  cover  behind  it.  Raaf's  and  the  Bechuanaland 
Border  Police  horses  were  grazing  on  the  right,  and  were  frightened 
and  stampeded  across  our  front  and  then  stood  between  us  and  the 
enemy  ;  for  some  unexplained  reason  the  enemy  at  once  ceased  firing 
until  some  of  the  men  had  run  round  the  horses  and  turned  them  before 
the  bank. 

As  soon  as  they  were  all  in  I  told  Captain  Raaf  to  take  out  twelve 
men  and  turn  the  natives  out  of  the  bush,  it  was  only  a  narrow  strip 
and  by  going  to  one  end  of  it  he  could  open  fire  on  them  and  drive 
them  out,  meanwhile  I  had  all  the  horses  saddled  up  two  at  a  time, 
and  linked  behind  the  laager.  Directly  Captain  Raaf  went  out  the 
natives  all  ran  from  the  bush,  and  he  advanced  through  it,  and  on 
coming  out  at  the  other  end  saw  some  of  them  running  away  in  the 
distance  and  followed  them  for  a  short  way,  but  as  he  did  not  v/ant  to 
hurt  the  horses  did  not  go  far.  On  his  way  back  he  saw  thirty  to  forty 
natives  some  distance  av/ay  coming  up  in  our  direction,  this  report 
spread  and  it  was  very  soon  believed  that  there  was  a  large  impi 
following  us  up.  Our  only  casualty  was  one  horse  slightly  hit,  but 
during  the  firing  the  natives  had  driven  away  the  cattle  we  had 
taken  that  morning  as  well  as  the  sole  remaining  pack-ox,  and  we  were 
left  again  without  meat,  with  the  additional  satisfaction  of  knowing  that 
if  we  took  any,  they  would  probably  come  and  worry  us  and  take  it 
back  again.  /  As  soon  as  Captain  Raaf  returned  we  got  ready  to  start, 
but  a  tremendous  storm  came  on  and  delayed  us  for  a  time,  after 
waiting  until  the  worst  of  it  seemed  to  be  over  we  started,  but  it  came 
on  very  heavy  again,  and  we  had  only  done  two  miles  when  we  had  to 
laager.  The  previous  day  we  had  crossed  the  footpath  leading  from  the 
Inyoka  country,  one  of  the  Zambesi  tribes  tributary  to  Lobengula,  to 
Buluwayo,  and  near  it  Captain  Finch  picked  up  a  large  cake  of  tobacco, 
which  was  most  acceptable  as  everyone  was  getting  very  short.  We 
saw  a  large  river  running  in  from  the  other  side  during  the  morning 
march,  and  took  it  to  be  the  Gwailo.     Some  of  the  men's  spirits  were 

Retreat  from  the  Shangani  River. 


rather  cast  dowa  that  night  by  the  sight  of  an  old  map  (Bailies',  made 
thirty  years  ago)  which  was  produced  by  someone,  and  which  showed 
that  the  Gvvailo  joined  the  Shangani  over  100  miles  below  the  waggon 
drift ;  as  no  white  man  had  so  far  as  is  known  ever  been  up  the 
Shangani  before,  the  map  could  not  be  in  any  way  relied  on,  but  after 
the  hardships  our  men  had  gone  through  very  little  served  to  depress 
some  of  them. 

The  next  day  (9th)  we  moved  at  5.30,  and  after  going  about  five 
miles  came  to  a  high  ridge  running  right  down  to  the  river  bank,  it 
would  have  taken  us  a  long  detour  to  get  round  it,  and  there  was  a 
narrow  footpath  at  the  river  end.  A  few  natives  had  been  seen  on  the 
ridge  but  .had  run  away,  I  sent  some  men  on  to  the  ridge  and  others 
to  the  other  end  of  the  path,  and  then  took  the  Maxims  round  by  hand, 
running  them  on  one  wheel  and  holding  them  up  with  drag  ropes.  We 
got  round  safely  and  went  on,  and  in  the  bush  about  200  yards  further  on 
came  to  a  scherm  full  of  women  and  children  with  a  few  men,  they  had 
some  sheep  and  goats  and  I  took  them  all  on  to  an  open  space  where  we 
halted.  They  turned  out  to  be  people  belonging  to  'Mhlangabesa,  a 
brother  of  Lobengula  whom  the  King  had  had  killed  some 
years  ago  because  he  was  very  like  the  King,  and  was  often 
^  taken    for   him,  for   this   reason    they    were    not   at   all 

friendly    to    Lobengula,    their    kraals    were   on    the 
Imwekwesi  near  its  junction  with  the   Imbembesi, 
and   they  had  run  away  some  time  before. 
They  had   heard    that   the  people    on    the 
Bubye  had  been  allowed    to  go    back  to 
their  kraals,  and  most  of  their  people  had 
already  started  home,  and  they  were  only 
waiting  until  some  cattle  which  they  had 
lost  could  be   found,  they  knew  nothing 
about   the    country   round    there, 
and    could   give  us  no  idea   how 
far  it   was  to  the  drift,  they  said 
that  a   messenger   had    come    by 
there  the  previous  day  from  the 
FRIENDLY  NATIVES  BRINGING  IN  FOOD.  King,  and  hc  had  been  sent  to  tell 



The  Downfall  of  Lobeiigula. 

a.^BBP   under 

Cap^  Coventry. 
b.^aaFs  Rangers 

under  Cap* Raaf 
C. ^Victoria   Hangena 

uniJcr  Capf Hapier. 
/*_  First  position  of 

rear  Maxim. 
i°^  Second  position  oF 

raar  Mamm 
Z  «  Position  of  teadi 


where  tfie 
horses  were  shot 
and  asse^i/cif. 
OO. Morses  undercover 

all  the  men  in  charge  of  royal  cattle  to  take  them  on  after  the  King  at 
once.  We  took  some  of  the  sheep  to  kill  at  the  time,  and  I  told  the 
Induna  I  wanted  five  head  of  cattle  to  take  on,  he  sent  out  and 
brought  in  ten  head,  of  which  I  took  the  best  four. 

We  marched  again  at  2  p.m.,  and  soon  after  we  had  started  it 
began  to  rain  very  heavily.  The  river  here  came  through  very  broken 
country,  and  for  some  miles  we  were  unable  to  keep  near  it — there 
must  be  a  fall  of  600  or  700  feet  in  the  river  in  about  ten  miles 
here.  We  only  did  three  miles  that  afternoon,  through  thick  bush 
and  over  broken  country,  causing  great  trouble  in  getting  the  Maxims 
^     :  •"  «>       ,.  along.      The   gun 

horses  were  now 
tired  out  and  it  was 
doubtful  whether 
they  would  be  able 
to  pull  for  many 
more  days;  the  oxen 
got  away  in  the 
bush,  we  had  a 
quiet  night  in  the 
bush  and  waited 
until  eight  o'clock 
the  following  morn- 
ing to  get  our  things 
dry.  Marching  at 
eight  we  went  for 
three  miles  through 
very  bad  country, 
thick  bush,  long  grass  and  broken  granite  kopjes,  and  came  to  a  deep 
dry  gully  which  had  to  be  crossed.  The  gun  horses  were  done  up  and 
we  should  soon  have  to  halt,  I  asked  Captain  Raaf  to  ride  on  a  little 
and  see  if  the  country  got  any  better,  he  did  so  but  returned  to  say  it 
was  all  the  same  and  that  where  we  were  was  as  good  a  place  to  halt  as 
any.  I  sent  Captain  Napier  and  his  men  across  the  gully  to  cover  the 
passage  of  the  Maxim,  which  had  to  be  taken  over  by  hand,  and  we  got 
it  across  all  right  ;  there  was  a  good  cover  in  the  gully  for  the  horses  in 


Sketch  plan  showing  position  when   surprised  on 
lOTH  December. 

Retreat  from  the  Shangani  River.  179 

case  of  an  attack,  but  it  was  necessary  for  some  of  the  force  to  be  on 
each  side  of  it  as  there  were  kopjes  there  which  had  to  be  held,  I  there- 
fore kept  one  Maxim  on  our  side  and  we  off-saddled  ;  I  only  intended  to 
give  the  horses  about  an  hour,  and  then  to  push  on  again  and  try  to  get 
out  of  the  bush. 

The  horses  were  grazing  close  to  us,  and  just  behind  one  of  the 
kopjes  on  which  there  was  a  picket,  when  we  were  suddenly  startled  by 
shots  all  round  us,  we  started  up  and  I  shouted  to  the  men  to  get  into 
the  kopjes,  running  myself  with  Captain  Finch  to  turn  the  horses  into 
the  gully,  we  managed  to  get  them  down  all  right,  although  several 
were  killed  while  we  were  doing  it.  The  natives  had  crawled  up  in  the 
long  grass  behind  the  large  boulders  that  were  lying  about,  and  had  got 
close  to  the  horses  before  being  seen  ;  several  of  them  got  among  the 
horses  and  stabbed  two  of  them,  and  a  few  of  them  tried  to  get  into  the 
kopjes  before  we  could  occupy  them,  but  were  too  late.  As  soon  as  the 
horses  were  safe  I  went  to  the  kopjes  and  saw  that  the  men  were  all 
under  cover,  and  warned  them  to  be  careful  of  their  ammunition  ;  there 
were  very  few  natives  to  be  seen,  but  they  kept  up  their  fire  for  some 
time,  and  if  any  one  of  us  showed  himself  he  was  fired  at.  We  were 
quite  safe  in  our  kopjes,  but  there  was  the  fear  that  the  natives  might 
get  among  the  horses  by  a  sudden  rush  and  kill  them  all,  but  they  did 
not  attempt  this.  Several  of  the  men  felt  very  anxious,  and  their 
anxiety  was  increased  by  two  who  could  understand  what  the  natives 
were  saying  (for  although  we  could  not  see  them  we  could  hear  them 
talking),  and  who  kept  on  warning  them  with,  "  Look  out  now,  they  are 
going  to  surround  us,"  and  "They  are  going  to  keep  us  here  till  dark 
and  then  come  on  with  assegais."  They  did  not  make  either  of  these 
attempts,  and  after  about  an  hour's  desultory  firing  went  away,  or  rather 
ceased  firing  ;  owing  to  the  thickness  of  the  bush  we  could  not  tell  if 
they  had  really  retired  or  not. 

I  had  had  all  the  horses  saddled  up  directly  the  firing  had 
slackened  sufficiently  to  allow  two  men  at  a  time  to  leave  each  kopje, 
so  that  we  could  move  on  as  soon  as  possible  and  try  to  get  into  the 
open  again,  and  as  soon  as  the  firing  ceased  I  took  the  other  Maxim 
across  the  gully  and  had  all  the  horses  brought  up.  Sergeant  Gibson, 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  who  was  in  charge  of  one  of  the  Maxims, 

N  2 

1 80  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcugula. 

had  been  shot  dead  when  sitting  near  his  gun,  but  that  was  our  only 
casualty  in  men,  although  we  left  eight  horses  dead  there.  In  forming 
up  to  advance  I  had  all  the  horses  led  by  natives  and  as  few  men  as 
possible,  crowded  up,  and  moving  on  close  together  with  one  Maxim  in 
front  and  one  in  rear.  Captain  Raaf  took  charge  of  the  advanced  guard 
and  right  flank  with  about  thirty  men,  and  about  thirty  more  remained 
in  the  kopjes  to  cover  our  advance  until  we  had  gone  400  or  500  yards, 
and  then  retired  protecting  our  rear.  We  moved  on  like  this  for  about 
two  miles,  getting  down  to  the  river  but  having  to  leave  it  again,  as  it  was 
too  broken  to  travel  along,  and  came  to  a  small  valley  the  near  side  of 
which  was  very  steep  and  covered  with  large  loose  stones  ;  we  had 
seen  no  natives  since  leaving  the  kopjes,  and  it  looked  as  if  we  were  not 
going  to  be  molested  again.  The  horses  could  not  take  the  Maxim 
over  the  stones,  and  had  to  be  taken  out,  and  the  gun  was  half-way 
down  being  pulled  by  men,  the  other  Maxim  being  in  position  at  the 
top  when  firing  began  again  ;  Captain  Raaf  was  on  the  right  flank  and 
saw  some  natives  amongst  the  rocks  near  him,  and  opened  fire  on  them, 
which  they  returned.  The  gun  was  pulled  up  again  at  once  and  the 
horses  hurriedly  put  into  a  little  hollow  among  the  rocks,  where  they 
were  under  cover,  the  two  Maxims  got  into  position  and  all  the  men 
disposed  in  the  best  positions  round  ;  there  was  a  good  deal  of  firing 
for  some  time  but  no  casualty. 

While  it  was  going  on  a  heavy  storm  came  on,  and  as  it  was  getting 
late  I  decided  to  laager  there  for  the  night,  I  told  Captain  Raaf  so,  and 
he  and  I  looked  for  a  suitable  place.  We  found  a  fairly  good  one  in 
the  rocks  close  to  where  the  horses  were,  and  made  a  strong  fence 
round  it,  moving  the  guns  and  horses  in  as  soon  as  it  was  ready.  While 
we  were  doing  this  Captain  Napier  came  to  me  and  suggested  that  we 
should  leave  the  gun  carriages  behind  when  we  went  on,  as  the  horses 
could  scarcely  get  them  along,  and  they  were  only  a  hindrance  to  us  ;  I 
told  him  I  would  think  about  it  and  that  I  was  going  to  have  a  talk 
with  Captain  Raaf  as  soon  as  the  laager  was  finished  and  settle  what  we 
should  do.  I  was  very  adverse  to  leaving  the  carriages,  as  I  did  not  wish 
to  do  anything  which  would  make  the  natives  think  they  had  got  the 
better  of  us  or  inconvenienced  us  in  any  way,  but  owing  to  the  weakness 
of  the  horses  I  did  not  see  how  it  could  be  avoided  ;    the  wounded  were 

Retreat  from  the  Shangaiii  River.  i8i 

all  doing  very  well  and  could  all  ride,  and  we  could  carry  the  Maxim 
ammunition  on  horses. 

When  everything  was  made  ready  for  the  night  I  went  over  to 
Captain  Raaf  and  he  at  once  suggested  leaving  the  carriages  ;  I  told 
Captain  Tancred  to  see  if  we  could  carry  the  gun  in  any  way,  and  if  so 
we  would  leave  the  carriages,  we  found  that  six  men  could  carry  each 
gun  fairly  easily  in  blankets  and  so  this  was  decided  on.  I  then  dis- 
cussed the  whole  situation  with  Captain  Raaf,  and  we  decided  as  we  were 
leaving  the  carriages  and  so  could  move  more  quietly,  we  should  start 
that  night  at  ten  o'clock  and  try  to  get  to  the  river  again  by  daylight ; 
that  the  march  must  be  done  in  perfect  silence,  no  smoking  allowed,  all 
horses  that  were  knocked  up  left  in  the  laager  as  well  as  all  spare  kit» 
each  man  taking  only  a  blanket  or  cloak,  and  all  dogs  should  be 
killed  before  starting.  I  asked  Captain  Raaf  to  let  his  men  know  as 
soon  as  possible  what  wc  were  going  to  do,  and  said  I  would  tell 
Captain  Napier  and  went  away  to  do  so  ;  just  as  I  got  back  to  the 
other  side  of  the  laager  I  heard  Captain  Francis  and  Mr.  Farley  shout- 
ing "  Order !  "  and  I  then  saw  Captain  Raaf  standing  on  a  rock  and  he 
began  to  address  everybody  ;  he  began  by  saying  we  were  in  a  tight 
fix  and  had  to  get  out  of  it  as  best  we  could,  and  then  went  on  to 
say  what  had  been  arranged.  I  said  in  a  chaffing  way  to  Captain 
Napier  that  the  little  man  looked  as  if  he'd  taken  charge,  but  did  not 
stop  him,  as  although  he  was  wrong  in  doing  it  I  thought  it  was  only 
done  in  ignorance  of  etiquette,  and  that  he  meant  it  for  the  best.  We 
did  not  know  whether  the  natives  were  all  round  us  or  not,  but  hoped 
to  be  able  to  get  through  them  in  the  dark,  they  bad  been  heard  talking 
and  chopping  trees  for  scherms  just  before  dark,  and  we  knew  they 
were  somewhere  close. 

At  ten  o'clock  we  moved  as  arranged,  it  was  very  dark  and  difficult 
to  find  a  way  over  the  stones  by  which  we  could  get  the  horses  into 
the  valley.  I  went  down  first  with  Burnham  and  formed  up  the  Column  as 
they  got  into  the  valley,  Captain  Raaf  stopping  at  the  laager  and  seeing 
everyone  out  of  it ;  we  left  about  twenty  horses  in  the  laager  with  their 
saddlery,  and  a  number  of  cloaks,  blankets,  etc.  It  seemed  a  long  time 
waiting  in  the  dark  for  all  the  Column  to  come  down,  but  at  last  Captain 
Raaf  reported   everyone  was  down,  and  we  started  for  our  first  night 

1 82  The  Dounfa/l  of  Lobe  ng  it /a. 

march  ;  the  order  of  march  was  as  follows : — Burnham  and  I  in  front 
selecting  the  best  road,  then  a  Maxim  carried  by  reliefs  of  six  men  and 
followed  by  prisoners  and  horses  carrying  its  ammunition,  then  the 
wounded  riding,  and  all  the  surviving  horses — about  sixty — led  four 
together  by  one  man,  and  lastly  the  other  Maxim,  also  carried  by  six 
men.  Our  progress  was  very  slow  as  the  bush  was  thick  and  the 
Maxims  heavy,  and  the  carriers  had  to  be  frequently  relieved.  Captain 
Raaf  was  the  only  one  except  the  wounded  who  rode,  and  he  had  bad 
feet  and  could  not  walk  ;  he  kept  backwards  and  forwards  along  the 
Column,  seeing  that  it  kept  closed  up,  reporting  to  me  if  there  was  any 
delay  in  rear,  when  I  halted.  At  first  it  was  anxious  work,  and  for  the 
only  time  in  the  campaign  I  unloosened  my  revolver,  but  we  neither  saw 
nor  heard  anyone,  and  after  going  a  mile  or  so  I  knew  v.^e  must 
have  got  through  the  line  of  natives  if  there  was  one  around  us,  and 
were  safe  for  the  present.  We  marched  till  five  o'clock  with  frequent 
halts,  sometimes  to  change  reliefs  of  the  guns  and  sometimes  when 
Burnham  either  heard  or  smelt  cattle  in  front  of  us ;  on  these  occasions 
the  Column  halted  while  we  went  forward  to  find  out  what  it  was  and 
the  best  way  to  avoid  it.  The  worst  of  the  halts  was  that  the  men  w^ent 
to  sleep  immediately  they  laid  down,  and  there  was  always  a  chance  of 
one  being  left  behind  when  we  moved  on ;  the  previous  day  had  been 
a  hard  one  and  we  were  all  tired  out,  it  was  hard  work  to  keep  awake 
even  when  standing  up.  The  men  carried  the  gun  for  some  distance, 
and  then  as  they  were  getting  done  up,  we  tried  carrying  it,  tripod  and 
all,  on  a  horse  across  the  saddle,  a  man  leading  the  horse  and  one 
supporting  the  gun  on  each  side,  this  answered  very  well,  and  we  got 
on  much  faster. 

By  daylight  we  had  got  out  of  the  bush  and  kopjes  and  on  to  a 
large  open  plain  with  the  river  in  the  distance,  we  hurried  across  this 
and  laagered  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  having  done  twelve  miles  ;  we  put 
a  strong  fence  round  us,  those  who  had  food  ate  it,  and  then  feeling 
quite  safe,  at  any  rate  for  a  time,  as  the  pickets  could  see  a  long  distance, 
all  who  were  not  on  duty  had  a  good  sleep.  It  was  found  out  at  day- 
light that  one  of  the  Victoria  Column  men,  Shelldrake,  was  missing,  and 
no  one  knew  where  he  had  been  lost,  it  was  impossible  to  send  back  to 
look  for  him,  and  we  could  only  hope  he  would  turn  up  all  right,  as  he 

Retreat  from  the  Skafio^ani  River.  183 

did  the  following  day.  We  moved  on  again  at  1.30  and  did  six  miles 
through  good  country  by  four  o'clock,  and  then  rested  till  midnight  when 
we  again  started,  but  as  the  country  was  rough  and  it  was  very  dark  we 
had  to  stop  till  morning,  got  off  again  at  5.30,  and  did  five  miles  and 
then  halted./ That  morning  we  saw  the  Vungu  join  the  Shangani,  and 
knew  we  could  not  now  be  very  far  away  from  the  waggon  drift,  I  knew 
the  Longwe  joined  the  Shangani  on  our  side  about  ten  miles  below  the 
drift,  and  that  the  main  road  crossed  it  near  the  Intaba-gi-Momba  about 
half-way  between  Umhlangeni  and  the  drift,  and  by  keeping  up  it  we 
could  save  a  good  deal  of  distance.  I  therefore  sent  four  "  boys  "  on, 
Grootboom  being  one  of  them,  to  go  up  to  the  drift  and  see  if  the 
waggons  were  there ;  if  not,  two  were  to  come  back  to  report,  the  other 
two  going  to  Umhlangeni  with  a  note  to  Captain  Delamore  asking  him 
to  come  to  meet  us  down  the  Longwe.  One  of  the  "  boys  "  came  back 
soon  afterwards  saying  that  he  had  a  bad  foot ;  his  feet  were  all  right 
but  he  was  afraid  to  go  on,  he  shortly  afterwards  did  have  a  very  bad 
foot,  as  he  was  bitten  by  a  snake. 

Food  had  been  very  short  for  some  time,  and  only  those  who  had 
been  very  careful  at  first  had  had  any  bread  or  coffee  for  some  days,  and 
now  we  had  been  entirely  out  of  meat  for  two  days,  and  had  to  kill 
a  horse.  Some  of  the  men  did  not  like  the  idea  of  eating  it,  and  it  was 
not  good,  but  I  think  everyone  had  to  sooner  or  later ;  there  was 
a  sort  of  wild  garlic  growing  all  along  the  river  and  this  flavoured  the 
horse  meat.  Boots  were  rather  a  difficulty  as  the  rough  walking  had 
ruined  most  of  them,  and  all  sorts  of  substitutes  had  to  be  made,  several 
of  the  men  walking  in  wallets.  I  had  intended  to  halt  there  for  the  day, 
but  the  grass  was  so  bad  we  had  to  move,  which  we  did  at  1.30. 
Just  as  we  were  starting  Shelldrake,  the  missing  man  arrived ;  he  had 
gone  back  to  the  laager  for  something  after  we  left  that  night,  and  in 
following  us  had  lost  the  spoor,  he  had  seen  a  few  natives  but  they 
had  not  molested  him,  he  was  very  tired  and  hungry  but  glad  to  get 
back  safe.  We  saw  a  number  of  cattle  about  1,000  yards  away  soon  after 
we  started,  but  did  not  try  to  get  them  ;  we  could  only  just  manage  to 
carry  our  wounded  and  ammunition,  and  our  spare  horses  for  flanking, 
etc.,  had  now  been  reduced  to  six,  and  capturing  cattle  might  have 
brought  the  natives  on  to  us  and  given  us  more  wounded  to  take  along. 

1S4  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula^. 

We  had  gone  about  a  mile  and  were  close  to  the  river  when  fire  was 
again  opened  on  us  from  the  bush  about  200  yards  away,  the  Maxims 
were  got  into  action  at  once,  all  the  spare  men  taking  cover  as  far  as 
they  could  near  them,  and  the  horses  and  wounded  hurried  under  the 
river  bank.  The  fire  was  hot  for  a  few  minutes  and  they  were  evidently 
firing  at  the  Maxims,  as  Trooper  Nesbitt,  Salisbury  Column,  who  was 
lying  beside  one  of  them,  was  shot  through  the  arm,  and  directly  after- 
wards Sergeant  Pyke,  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  who  was  working  it, 
was  also  shot  through  the  right  arm.  I  was  close  by  him  at  the  time 
and  picked  him  up  and  saw  at  once  that  the  arm  was  broken  and  sent 
him  to  the  doctor.  The  Maxims  kept  up  a  steady  fire  whenever  we  saw 
where  the  shots  were  fired  from,  and  as  soon  as  all  the  horses  were 
under  cover  I  withdrew  the  men  to  the  river  bank,  carrying  the  Maxims 
back  one  at  a  time.  There  was  a  wide  strip  of  grass  half-way  down  the 
bank  and  the  horses  could  move  along  this  quite  protected,  and  as  there 
were  evidently  not  a  great  many  natives  there,  we  moved  on,  all  spare 
men  not  required  to  lead  horses  keeping  along  the  top  of  the  bank, 
the  Maxims  being  carried  on  mules  but  ready  to  be  brought  into 
action  at  a  moment's  notice.  We  moved  along  like  this  for  about  two 
miles  and  then  came  to  a  decent  position  where  we  could  halt  under 
cover;  the  enemy  had  kept  up  a  slight  fire  all  the  time  but  had  done  us 
no  further  damage.  There  was  a  small  rocky  ridge  close  by  running 
parallel  with  the  river  and  about  150  yards  from  it,  and  this  Captain 
Raaf  managed  to  occupy  with  the  flanking  party  before  the  enemy  got 
there,  and  so  effectually  covered  us.  We  formed  up  here  and  firing  was 
kept  up  on  both  sides  for  some  time,  the  natives  making  an  attempt  at 
getting  into  some  trees  under  the  river  bank  but  being  stopped  by  the 
Maxim  ;  a  heavy  thunderstorm  broke  as  usual  just  before  dark. 

At  1 1  p.m.  we  started  again  and  by  daylight  had  done  ten  miles, 
going  through  some  very  nasty  kopjes  and  thick  bush,  but  seeing  no 
one  rested  till  nine  and  then  on  again  until  twelve,  halting  between  some 
high  kopjes  and  the  river.  At  2  p.m.  we  were  off  again,  and  saw  a 
high  range  of  hills  running  down  to  the  river  at  right  angles  in  front 
of  us.  Captain  Raaf  rode  on  to  see  if  we  could  get  round  them,  but 
he  found  we  could  not  and  returned.  Just  then  we  came  on  three 
parallel  paths  through  the  grass,  along  which  a  considerable  number  of 

Retreat  fi'oin  the  Shangani  River.  185 

natives  had  gone  very  recently,  as  it  looked  as  if  they  were  going  to 
wait  for  us  in  the  kopjes  I  crossed  the  river  there  (it  was  quite  shallow), 
went  about  two  miles  on  the  other  side  and  then  re-crossed,  laagering  in 
an  open  space.  Just  after  crossing  to  the  other  side  natives  were  heard 
shouting  out  in  the  bush  on  our  left,  and  there  was  some  little  excite- 
ment for  a  minute  but  nothing  happened.  We  moved  again  at  7.30, 
and  shortly  afterwards  it  began  to  rain  very  heavily ;  I  knew  we 
must  be  close  to  the  Longwe  and  that  it  was  the  only  river  of  any  size 
that  ran  in  from  our  side,  but  nobody  knew  it  by  sight.  After  going 
about  a  mile  we  saw  what  looked  like  the  junction  of  two  rivers,  and  a 
little  further  on  Burnham,  Chappe,  and  I  went  to  find  out  if  it  was  still 
the  Shangani  or  another  river.  There  was  a  sandy  bed  about  300  yards 
wide  and  we  could  see  the  bush  on  the  other  side,  we  crossed  to  this 
and  then  found  we  were  on  an  island,  the  river  dividing  higher  up  ; 
we  went  back  to  the  Column  which  was  halted  and  moved  on.  In 
about  another  mile  we  crossed  a  dry  sandy  river,  and  as  some  of  our 
•'  boys "  said  this  was  the  Longwe,  we  got  on  to  an  open  place 
near  and  lay  down  till  daylight,  it  was  very  cold  and  rained  all  night. 
As  soon  as  it  was  light  enough  to  see  where  we  were  going  we  got 
down  to  the  Shangani,  we  had  halted  about  half  a  mile  from  it  and 
followed  it  again  looking  for  a  good  place  to  laager  ;  I  had  told  the 
"boys"  I  had  sent  on  that  I  should  wait  for  them  there,  and  they 
ought  to  be  back  at  any  time.  We  had  to  go  about  two  miles  before 
we  got  to  anything  like  a  decent  place,  and  then  on  coming  out  of  the 
bush  saw  what  was  unmistakably  the  Longwe  in  front  of  us  ;  as  the 
ground  on  the  other  side  of  the  Shangani  was  better  for  laagering,  we 
crossed  and  formed  up  in  a  patch  of  bush  in  a  large  open. 

While  coming  along  that  morning  and  when  it  was  barely  light,  we 
pas.sed  a  small  kraal  of  five  huts  and  heard  cattle  lowing,  I  knew 
that  there  were  nothing  but  Maholi  kraals  about  and  they  would 
probably  be  friendly,  and  if  they  were  not,  with  over  lOO  men  I  could 
surround  the  kraal  and  take  them  all  without  firing  a  shot,  and  I 
intended  to  do  so,  but  Captain  Raaf  protested  so  strongly  against  it  that 
I  had  to  give  it  up,  and  we  left  the  beef  behind  and  killed  a  horse  when 
we  laagered.  We  had  finished  our  breakfast,  in  most  cases  horse-meat 
and  garlic  only,  though  I  was  astonished  on  going  to  see  Raaf  afterwards 

1 86  The  Doioufall  of  LobengiUa. 

to  find  that  he  still  had  cookies  and  cofifee,  when  a  native  appeared  ;  he 
turned  out  to  be  a  Mahoh',  and  the  head  of  the  small  kraal  that  we  had 
passed,  had  heard  us  pass  while  he  was  in  bed  but  thought  it  was 
thunder,  and  in  the  morning  saw  our  spoor  and  came  to  see  us.  He  told 
us  we  had  left  all  the  Matabeli  behind  us  now,  and  that  that  part  of 
the  country  was  quite  quiet,  he  also  said  a  number  of  Matabeli 
were  returning  up  the  Shangani  with  their  cattle  and  going  back  to  their 
kraals  ;  he  told  us  he  could  take  us  straight  across  to  Umhlangeni, 
and  if  we  started  at  once  we  could  be  there  by  the  same  time  next 
day.  T  told  him  we  wanted  meat,  and  that  I  would  give  him  four 
cows  on  arrival  at  Umhlangeni  for  two  now,  and  he  went  to  fetch  them. 
While  he  was  away  the  two  "  boys  "  returned  to  say  there  were  no 
waggons  at  the  drift,  and  they  had  gone  back  some  distance  along 
the  Umhlangeni  road  but  had  seen  none,  and  had  then  come  back  down 
the  Longwe,  Grootboom  going  on  by  himself  to  Umhlangeni.  The 
native  returned  with  the  two  cows,  which  were  very  wild,  and  as  we 
were  afraid  of  losing  them  if  we  tried  to  drive  them  I  had  them  both 
killed  at  once,  one  we  ate  straight  off,  and  the  other  we  cut  up  and 
carried  with  us. 

As  soon  as  we  had  had  our  meal  we  started  again,  guided  by 
our  friendly  native,  and  did  about  five  miles  and  then  halted  for  the 
night  in  an  open  valley.  We  had  scarcely  done  so  when  two  men 
appeared  riding  towards  us,  they  were  greeted  with  cheers,  and  turned 
out  to  be  Messrs.  Selous  and  Acutt ;  they  told  us  that  a  relief  column, 
with  Mr.  Rhodes  and  Dr.  Jameson,  was  only  one-and-a-half  miles  away 
with  food,  etc.  I  told  Captain  Raaf  to  bring  the  Column  on  as  soon  as 
the  men  had  had  some  food,  and  rode  back  myself  with  Mr.  Selous  to 
see  the  Doctor  ;  the  Column  arrived  just  after  dark  and  were  received 
with  open  arms  and  lots  of  cookies  and  coffee.  The  relief  Column 
consisted  of  about  150  men  under  Captain  Heany,  and  with  it  were 
Mr.  Rhodes,  Dr.  Jameson,  Major  Sawyer  and  Sir  J.  Willoughby. 
Major  Sawyer  had  been  sent  up  by  Sir  H.  Loch  to  report  on  what 
was  being  done.  All  the  men  had  a  good  meal  followed  by  a  good 
night's  rest,  and  the  following  morning  we  started  for  Umhlangeni ; 
Captain  Heany  gave  horses  for  all  my  men  to  ride,  his  own  men 
walking,  the  wounded  were   carried  in    carts  and   we  did  the  twenty- 

Retreat  from  the  Shangaui  River 


two  miles  to  Umhlangeni  by  dark.  When  we  started  in  the  morning 
Mr.  Rhodes  and  Dr.  Jameson  rode  straight  in  and  at  once  sent  off 
to  announce  our  safety ;  Captain  Heyman  was  in  command  at 
Umhlangeni  with  a  mixed  force,  and  the  day  after  our  return  we 
went  on  to  Buluwayo,  Captain  Heyman  following  the  next  day 
with  all  British  South  Africa  Company's  Troops,  leaving  some  of  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  and  Cape  IMounted  Rifles  with  all  the  guns 
to  garrison  Umhlangeni,  under  command  of  Captain  Coventry.  The 
morning  after  our  arrival  at  Umhlangeni  Pyke's  arm  was  successfully 
amputated  at  the 
shoulder,  and  he  and 
all  the  other  wounded 
were  doing  very  well. 

We    had    a    very  — 
wet  journey  to    Bulu- 
wayo   but    got    in    on 
the  third  day,  and    as 
all  the  Company's  troops  were 
now  there  Dr.  Jameson  began 
to    make    arrangements     for 
disbanding  them  ;  there  were 
plenty  of  stores  in  Buluwayo 
now,  and  by  the  20th  arrange- 

The  nathe  zn  foreground  is   weantig  the  distinguishing 
mentS     had      been      made,     and       mark—yeUoiu    "Umbo"    round    Ms    head,   as  worn  by   our 

"'  /riendlies." 

on    the    2 1st    December    all 

the  men  who  wished  to  return  to  Salisbury  or  Victoria  started  off 
in  waggons,  having  received  a  month's  rations  for  the  road,  and 
on  the  following  day  all  those  who  were  returning  to  Johannes- 
burg left  via  Tati.  The  latter  did  a  very  good  journey,  getting 
through  to  Johannesburg  in  five  weeks,  but  the  Salisbury  and  Victoria 
parties  found  the  country  very  boggy  and  were  consequently  very 
much  delayed,  but  got  through  safely ;  the  Salisbury  party  under 
command  of  Captain  Spreckley  arriving  on  the  2cth  January,  and 
the  Victoria  party  under  Lieutenant  Beale  about  the  i8th;  Captain 
Carr,  of  Raaf's  Column,  was  in  charge  of  the  Johannesburg  party. 
A  large  number  of  men   decided    on    stopping   in    Matabeliland,  and 

Maholi    marching    i.\    to    Buluwayo    to 
surrender  arms. 

1 88  The  Downfall  of  Lobeugula. 

the  Company  at  once  raised  a  Police  force  150  strong  under  Lieutenant 
Bodle,  and  on  the  25th  December  the  country  was  thrown  open  for 
prospecting  and  pegging  off  farms. 

Nearly  all  the  chiefs  had  now  surrendered  and  there  was  no  fear  of 
further  trouble.  Captain  Raaf  was  not  very  well  when  we  returned 
and  was  not  sufficiently  careful,  consequently  he  became  worse 
and  died  shortly  afterwards.  My  brother  was  still  in  bed  when  I 
returned  to  Buluwayo,  his  arm  being  still  troublesome,  and  Dr. 
Jameson  did  not  consider  him  fit  to  risk  the  post-cart  journey  to 
Vryburg ;  he  therefore  gave  us  the  Bishop's  travelling  waggon, 
which  had  been  taken  over  by  the  Company,  and  on  the  31st 
December  we  started  for  Salisbury  accompanied  by  Captain  Finch, 
and  arrived  on  the  20th  January.  Before  the  men  were  disbanded  Mr. 
Rhodes  had  a  parade  of  all  the  forces  and  addressed  them  ;  all  the 
arms,  ammunition,  equipments,  etc.,  were  taken  into  store  at  Buluwayo, 
and  just  enough  issued  to  each  party  going  away  to  take  them  through ; 
the  Company  had  about  350  horses  left  after  the  men  were  disbanded, 
and  the  majority  of  them  were  handed  over  to  the  Police,  every  man 
remaining  in  the  country  had  a  rifle  and  ammunition  issued  to  him  and 
a  month's  free  rations.  We  heard  many  different  accounts  from  natives 
about  Major  Wilson's  party  after  we  returned  to  Buluwayo,  some  of 
them  stating  that  men  had  escaped,  but  most  of  them  that  they  had  all 
been  killed  ;  it  was  not  however  until  Mr.  Dawson  found  their  bones 
that  I  gave  up  all  hopes  of  some  having  got  away. 

In  conclusion  I  would  wish  to  express  my  appreciation  of  the 
behaviour  of  all  the  Company's  Troops  during  the  campaign,  and  above 
all,  my  sincere  sorrow  at  the  loss  of  gallant  Major  Wilson  and  his  brave 
band,  and  my  heart-felt  sympathy  with  their  relations  and  friends.  The 
story  of  how  these  thirty-four  (nearly  all  of  whom  were  great  friends 
of  my  own)  stood  and  fell,  shoulder  to  shoulder,  rather  than  desert  two 
of  their  number  who  could  not  escape  with  them,  will  not  only  remain 
for  ever  in  our  history,  but  will  be  handed  down  through  generations  ot 
the  native  tribes  of  Africa  as  an  instance  of  how  Englishmen  can  and 
will  die,  and  the  effect  of  their  heroism  on  the  natives,  who  above  all 
else  honour  personal  bravery,  cannot  be  over-estimated. 

MAJOR    SIR    JOHN    C.    WILLOUGHBY,    Bart. 

(Chief  Staff  Officer  to  His  Honour  the  Administrator.) 



By    Major    Sir    John    C.    Willoughby,    Bart. 

The  Victoria  incident — The  state  of  public  feeling— The  organisation  cf  the  Volunteets— 
Correspondence  with  the  High  Commissioner — The  Southern  Column — The  start  of 
the  Columns— Our  rival  allies— Crossing  the  Border— Junction  of  the  Salisbury  and 
Victoria  Columns. 

For  some  time  prior  to  July  14th,  1893,  in  the  Victoria  district,  the 
Matabeli  had  been  raiding  in  great  force — their  numbers  being  estimated 
at  5,000  to  6,000  men — killing  the  Mashonas  right  and  left,  including 
those  in  the  employ  of  Europeans,  under  the  very  eyes  of  the  latter, 
and  even  in  the  township  of  Victoria  itself  They  had  also  burnt  the 
huts  and  stores  on  farms  occupied  by  Europeans,  and  had  stolen  their 
cattle.  On  hearing  of  these  events  His  Honour  the  Administrator, 
Dr.  L.  S.  Jameson,  hastened  to  Victoria  from  Salisbury,  arriving  there 
on  the  above-named  date,  and  at  once  sent  for  the  head  indunas  of 
the  Matabeli  impi :  Manyou,  Mjan,  and  Mangandan.  These,  on  being 
interviewed,  were  very  insolent.  Dr.  Jameson  therefore  gave  them  an 
ultimatum,  ordering  them  to  retire  across  the  border  forthwith,  and  them  that  he  should  drive  them  out  if  they  had  not  com- 
menced to  do  so  within  one  hour. 

One  hour  and  forty  minutes'  law  was  actually  given,  and  then 
Captain  Lendy,  R.A.,  at  that  time  Magistrate  of  the  Victoria  district, 
received  instructions  to  go  out  with  thirty-eight  mounted  men,  and,  if  the 
impi  had  not  by  then  commenced  to  retire,  to  open  fire  on  them. 

Captain  Lendy  and  his  small  party  encountered  300  Matabeli, 
forming  the  advance  party  of  the  impi  that  were  laying  siege  to 
Magomela's  Kraal,  four  miles  north-west  of  Victoria.  Immediately  the 
Matabeli  saw  the  advanced  guard  of  the  mounted  troop  they  opened 
fire.     This  was  returned,  whereupon  the  Matabeli  fled,  and  were  pursued 

IQO  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

for  three  miles.  The  mounted  men  had  no  casualties,  but  forty  Matabeli 
were  killed,  and  several  wounded  ;  Mangandan,  the  most  impertinent  of 
the  indunas,  being  among;st  the  first  to  be  shot.  Had  Captain  Lendy 
continued  the  pursuit  two  miles  further  he  would  have  encountered  the 
main  body  of  the  Matabeli,  which,  as  soon  as  it  heard  the  firing,  fled  for 
a  considerable  distance,  a  part  of  it  however  returning  during  the  night 
to  recover  its  dead  and  the  cattle  it  had  raided. 

At  daylight  next  morning  Dr.  Jameson  again  sent  out  a  party  to 
ascertain  whether  the  Matabeli  had  re-crossed  the  border,  and  on  finding 
that  such  was  the  case,  telegraphed  via  Palapye  to  Lobengula,  informing 
him  of  what  had  occurred,  and  asking  him  to  punish  the  indunas 
responsible,  finally  demanding  compensation  for  the  damage  done  by 
his  impi  to  the  property  of  Europeans,  and  the  restitution  of  the  cattle 
stolen  from  them  ;  he  also  informed  Lobengula  that  the  white  people 
could  not  give  up  Mashona  women  and  children  to  be  slaughtered,  as 
they  had  claimed  their  protection  ;  but  that  if  any  of  the  people  had 
done  wrong  they  would  be  tried  in  the  usual  manner  before  the 
magistrate  of  the  district,  and  if  convicted,  punished  accordingly. 

A  complete  narrative  of  the  above  events  was  then  telegraphed  to 
His  Excellency  the  High  Comm.issioner  at  Cape  Town,  who  at  once 
sent  a  strong  remonstrance  to  Lobengula,  telling  him  to  comply  with 
Dr.  Jameson's  demands,  at  the  same  time  expressing  a  wish  to  remain 
on  friendly  terms  with  him  and  his  people. 

The  question  of  compensation  was  afterwards  dropped  by  order  of 
the  Colonial  Office,  and  was  never  again  referred  to. 

Lobengula,  before  receiving  his  own  people's  account  of  the  engage- 
ment, replied  in  a  most  friendly  manner,  informing  Dr.  Jameson  that  he 
would  be  quite  right  to  drive  his  impis  away  if  troublesome,  because  they 
had  distinct  orders  not  to  interfere  with  the  white  people  and  acknow- 
ledged he  was  wrong  in  having  allowed  them  to  go  so  near  the  white 

When,  however,  his  own  people  reported  the  skirmish,  he  sent  a 
second  message,  more  threatening  in  tone,  and  demanding  the  uncondi- 
tional surrender  of  Mashona  men,  women,  and  children,  before  he  would 
even  enter  into  the  question  of  compensation  for  damage  experienced  by 
the  white  men. 

Crossing  the  Border.  191 

At  this  point  all  communication  between  Dr.  Jameson  and  Loben- 
gula  ceased  ;  but  His  Excellency  the  High  Commissioner  continued  still 
to  send  friendly  messages. 

The  European  population  in  the  Victoria  district  had  been  much 
scared  by  the  occurrences  during  the  Matabeli  raid,  and  even  subsequently 
to  the  skirmish  which  ensued  they  continued  in  a  great  state  of  alarm. 
Almost  all  development  work,  both  mining  and  agricultural,  remained 
practically  at  a  standstill ;  native  labour  and  waggon  transport  were 
absolutely  unattainable  ;  and  all  waggons  on  the  road  at  the  time  turned 
back,  many  of  the  transport  riders  off-loading  and  leaving  their  goods  in 
the  veld,  to  accelerate  their  escape  out  of  the  country. 

Meetings  were  held,  and  the  people  were  openly  clamouring  for  the 
Matabeli  question  to  be  settled  once  for  all  by  vigorous  and  instantaneous 
action  ;  and  declaring  that,  if  the  British  South  Africa  Company  did  not 
undertake  this  at  once,  they  would  leave  the  country  en  masse,  consider- 
ing both  their  lives  and  their  property  in  danger. 

Dr.  Jameson,  having  himself  from  the  first  taken  the  same  view  of 
the  situation,  thereupon,  to  satisfy  their  demands,  commenced  the  organi- 
sation of  defence  columns,  which  at  the  same  time  would  be  suffi- 
ciently strong  for  offence,  should  such  subsequently  be  required.  The 
necessity  of  offensive  action  being  taken  was  fully  realised  by  everyone 
in  Mashonaland,  and  by  those  outside  who  knew  anything  of  the 
Matabeli,  as  the  only  solution  possible ;  though  of  course  no  active 
measures  of  offence  could  be  undertaken  without  the  sanction  of  the 
Imperial  Government. 

Acting  on  this  determination,  Captain  Raaf,  C.M.G.,  Magistrate  of 
Tuli,  was  authorised  to  purchase  750  horses  as  speedily  as  possible,  and 
to  organise  a  Volunteer  Force  of  250  mounted  men,  with  fifty  additional 
pack  horses  :  the  force  to  be  recruited  from  Tuli  and  the  surrounding 

The  original  idea  was  that  this  force  should  consist  entirely  of 
Dutchmen,  who  it  was  erroneously  supposed  (as  subsequently  proved 
to  be  the  case)  would  be  willing  to  campaign  with  merely  ammunition 
and  biltong,  and  in  the  event  of  a  forward  movement  would  live  on  the 
native  produce  of  the  country,  thus  obviating  the  necessity  of  a  train  of 
waggons.     Captain  Raaf,  however,  found  that,  with  few  exceptions,  the 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Dutchmen  were  unwilling  to  come  forward,  and  therefore  had  to  look 

At  the  same  time  a  Volunteer  Force  was  started  at  Salisbury  by 
Major  Forbes,  the  Magistrate  of  that  district,  and  also  at  Victoria  by 
Captain  Allan  Wilson,  of  the  Bechuanaland  Exploration  Company, 
who  had  had  considerable  experience  in  all  the  later  Kaffir  wars, 
and  who  was  personally  known  to  most  of  the  prospectors  in  the  district, 
possessing  their  full  confidence.  Each  of  these  corps  were  to  consist  of 
250  mounted  men,  with  the  object  of  defending  the  border,  but,  if 
necessary,  of  invading  Matabeliland,  unencumbered  by  waggons,  but  with 
pack  and  spare  horses.     (The  latter  idea  was  afterwards  abandoned  as 

impracticable,  owing  to  the 
poor  condition  of  the  horses. 
The  numbers  of  both  corps 
were  afterwards  considerably 
augmented  and  a  sufficient 
train  of  waggons  engaged  to 
accompany  each.) 

In  the  meantime  the  best 
routes  into  Matabeliland  from 
the  East  side,  along  which  the 
natural  features  of  the  country 
offered  fewest  obstacles,  such  as 
thick  bush  or  broken  country, 
to  an  advance,  were  sur- 
veyed as  far  as  possible,  and  the  services  engaged  of  such  guides  as 
were  forthcoming,  both  European  and  Native,  who  to  some  extent 
were  acquainted  with  the  intervening  country  between  Mashonaland  and 

Finding  that  Captain  Raaf  was  not  collecting  so  many  horses  as  he 
had  been  instructed  to  do,  300  more  horses,  mostly  salted  (i.e.,  proof 
against  horse-sickness),  were  also  purchased,  and  the  reserves  of 
ammunition,  machine  guns,  and  all  kinds  of  equipments,  of  which  the 
Company  had  a  large  stock  at  Tuli,  were  pushed  up  to  Victoria  and 
Salisbury,  while  contracts  were  made  with  Mr.  Napier  and  Mr.  Bezeiden- 
hout  to  supply  the  necessary  waggon  transport  and  oxen  for  the  Victoria 


Crossing  the  Border.  193 

and  Salisbury  Columns  respectively,  in  the  event  of  an  advance  becoming 

On  my  arrival  at  Victoria,  September  7th,  the  work  of  organisation 
had  made  great  progress.  I  found  the  Salisbury  Column  was  already 
equipped,  organised,  and  on  the  march  to  Charter,  which  place  was  con- 
sidered, from  its  central  position,  as  m.ost  suitable  for  occupation,  being 
central  for  the  defence  of  the  North  Eastern  border,  as  also  the  nearest 
point  to  the  most  Northern  and  most  favourable  route  by  which  this 
Column  could  enter  Matabeliland  if  offensive  action  became  unavoid- 
able. The  Victoria  Column  wasTiot  so  forward  in  its  organisation,  owing 
to  its  reinforcements  from  below  not  having  yet  arrived.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  the  Artillery  Troop,  under  Captain  Lendy,  fifty  strong,  garrison- 
ing the  Fort,  the  remainder  were  encamped  five  miles  North  of  Victoria. 

Both  columns  were  still  awaiting  the  full  complement  of  the  horses, 
there  being  only  100  at  the  time  belonging  to  the  Company,  though  an 
additional  100  were  subsequently  purchased  from  private  individuals 
when  it  was  found  that  Captain  Raaf  had  failed  to  get  his  full  authorised 

The  next  fortnight  was  spent  by  Dr.  Jameson  and  myself  in 
visiting  the  forces  at  Tuli  and  Charter.  In  the  meantime  frequent  scares 
occurred,  one  of  which  seemed  especially  well  founded,  as  all  the  Mashonas 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Victoria  were  busily  fortifying  themselves, 
laying  up  stores  of  food  and  water  in  their  caves  of  refuge,  and  sending 
in  to  inform  us  that  the  Matabeli  were  coming  back  in  a  short  time. 

On  September  30th,  two  men  of  Captain  White's  patrol  were  fired 
on  near  the  border,  within  thirty  miles  of  Victoria,  and  fresh  spoor  of 
impis  and  raided  cattle  crossing  the  border  were  observed  by  the  same 

From  native  information  received  locally  at  Victoria  and  Charter 
we  were  led  to  believe  that  the  Matabeli  were  advancing  in  great  force 
and  in  two  divisions — one  on  Victoria  and  the  other  in  the  direction  of 
Tati.  This  was  also  corroborated  by  Mr.  Colenbrander's  report  to  His 
Excellency  the  High  Commissioner  after  a  trip  taken  by  him  to  beyond 
Tati ;  and  the  fact  that  the  Matabeli  should  have  ventured  to  fire  on 
Captain  White's  patrol  near  a  kraal  that  a  short  time  previously  had  been 
visited  by  white  men  without  any  molestation,  was  naturally  considered 


'194  ^^ he  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

a  "proof  that  those  Matabeli  were  but  the  outposts  of  a  large  impi,  as  it 
was  unlikely  that  they  would  have  ventured  to  fire  unless  emboldened 
by  the  support  of  large  reinforcements  in  their  rear. 

About  the  same  time  a  report  came  in  that  the  Matabeli  were 
raiding  some  little  distance  west  of  Sinoia  ;  Matabeli  had  also  been 
seen  on  the  road  between  Tuli  and  Victoria. 

On  October  5th  a  patrol  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  was 
fired  on  in  the  Protectorate  and  South  of  the  Shashi  River,  and  shortly 
•afterwards  His  Excellency  the  High  Commissioner  telegraphed  his 
sanction  to  a  general  forward  movement  into  Matabeliland. 


[Copy  of  Telegram.] 

From  To 

Dr.  Jameson,  His  Excellency  the  High  Commissioner, 

Victoria,  Cape  Town. 

.  '  .  (Dated  2nd  October,  1893.) 

"  Have  just  arrived  from  Charter  and  found  Captain  White  awaiting  me  with 
the  following  report  : — 

"  About  twenty-five  miles  from  Victoria  a  Mashona  kraal  reported  that  an 
impi  of  Matabeli  crossed  Shashi  to  this  side,  captured  cattle  and  returned  beyond 

"  Captain  White's  patrol  took  up  spoor  of  natives  and  cattle  which  led  up  to 
a  kraal  eight  miles  beyond  Shashi.  Police  demanded  to  see  Induna,  whereupon 
a  large  number  of  Matabeli  appeared  upon  the  rocks  and  fired  on  them.  Police 
returned  fire,  and  retired  beyond  Shashi  to  main  body  of  patrol.  Captain  White 
then  at  once  came  into  camp  to  report  the  occurrence.  Captain  White  also 
reports,  twenty-five  miles  north-west  of  Victoria,  spoor  made  by  Matabeli 
regiments,  consisting  of  sixteen  pathways ;  calculated  by  native  experts  that 
from  6,000  to  7,000  men  have  been  there. 

"Now  I  feel  sure  Your  Excellency  will  agree  with  me  that  the  natives 
would  not  have  fired  even  upon  two  policemen  unless  large  bodies  of  Matabeli 
were  in  the  neighbourhood.  Captain  White  further  reports  that  natives  all  along 
the  border  report  the  existence  of  large  bodies  of  Matabeli  all  along  the  Shashi, 
and  I  have  little  doubt  that  this  kraal  which  fired  on  the  police  is  one  of  the 
advance  posts  of  the  Matabeli  regiments. 

"  Captain  White  also  states  that  the  kraals  along  the  Shashi  refused  to  give 

Crossing  the  Boi'de7\  195 

or  sell  food,  but  told  him  he  might  take  anything,  because  they  were  afraid  of 
Matabeli  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood. 

"I  will  now  keep  Captain  White  and  his  party  here  until  I  hear  from  Your 
Excellency,  in  case  you  should  allow  me  to  move  further  forward  with  both  the 
Salisbury  and  Victoria  parties,  and  a  few  days  later  the  Tuli  Company,  who  have 
a  shorter  distance  to  go,  should  it  be  necessary  to  go  right  into  the  country. 
Should  you  still  desire  me  to  send  out  the  large  patrol  I  mentioned  from 
Charter,  I  will  keep  Captain  White's  party  in  readiness  to  go  on  receipt  of 
your  wire." 

Note. — There  are  two  Shasha  or  Shashi  Rivers,  the  northern  being  a  small  tributary  of  the 
Tokwe  River,  and  the  southern  river  demarcating  the  Shashi-Macloutsie  territory. 


[Copy  of  Telegram.] 
From  To 

High  Commissioner,  His  Honour  Dr.  Jameson, 

Cape  Town,  Victoria, 

(Dated  October  5th,  1893.) 
October  5th.  —  Following  telegram  dated  to-day  received  from  officer 
commanding  Macloutsie  (Colonel  Goold-Adams)  begins — "  A  patrol  of  mine, 
consisting  of  a  non-commissioned  officer  and  two  men,  reports  by  heliograph 
from  my  post  between  here  and  the  Shashi,  that  whilst  patrolling  this  morning 
on  the  bank  of  the  Shashi  River,  they  were  fired  upon  by,  as  far  as  they  could 
gather,  about  thirty  Matabeli ;  our  men  returned  the  fire ;  on  some  more  of  our 
men  coming  up  the  Matabeli  retired.  I  cannot  hear  of  any  large  body  of 
Matabeli,  and  suppose  this  was  only  a  party  pushing  forward  to  see  what  we 
are  doing.  There  were  no  casualties  on  our  side.  I  have  a  patrol  of  one  non- 
commissioned officer  and  ten  men  out  at  that  spot  on  the  Shashi,  and  am  in 
constant  communication  by  the  heliograph.  What  are  Your  Excellency's 
instructions  ?  "  Ends — "  Will  you  please  make  arrangements  at  once  for  placing 
the  Tuli  mounted  force  under  Colonel  Goold-Adams  ?  " 


[Copy  of  Telegram.] 
From  To 

High  Commissioner,  His  Honour  Dr.  Jameson, 

Cape  Town,  Victoria. 

(Dated  5th  October,  1893.) 

October  5th. — "  Received  last  evening  Sir  J.  Willoughby's  and  your  Jong 

O   2 

196  The  Doivjifa//  of  Lobcn^ula. 

telegrams  reporting  the  result  of  Captain  White's  and  Mr.  Brabant's  scouting.  I 
quite  agree,  as  I  pointed  out  in  my  telegram  of  the  2nd  inst.,  that  it  would  be 
very  imprudent  to  attempt  to  push  back  the  Impis  by  attacking  them  in  the 
rough  ground  which  they  apparently  occupy;  whatever  your  plans  are  with 
regard  to  the  advance  of  the  columns  from  Fort  Charter  and  Fort  Victoria  they 
had  better  now  be  carried  out,  and  an  endeavour  made  to  induce  the  Matabeli 
to  abandon  the  position  from  which  you  would  have  great  difficulty  to  dislodge 
them  by  force.  Have  you  any  concerted  plan  by  which  this  can  be  done  ?  The 
Impis  now,  whether  large  or  small,  must  be  withdrawn  to  greater  distance  than 
they  are  apparently  at  present,  and  it  must  be  left  for  you  to  decide  what  course 
should  be  adopted  for  this  purpose.  Should  the  Impis  withdraw  peaceably  and 
of  their  own  accord  to  a  safe  distance,  they  must  be  allowed  to  do  so  without 
interruption ;  but  if  they  should  resist,  then  I  have  informed  you  you  may  take 
such  measures  as  may  be  necessary  under  the  circumstances  for  the  protection 
of  life  and  property.  Should  hostilities  occur,  Colonel  Goold-Adams  has  orders 
to  advance  at  once  on  Tati  and  Monarch  Mine,  and  I  have  requested  Khama 
that  1,000  of  his  men  may  be  immediately  placed  under  Colonel  Goold-Adams' 
command.  It  would  doubtless  greatly  strengthen  his  column  if  the  mounted 
men  belonging  to  the  British  South  Africa  Company  at  Tuli  were  placed  under 
his  directions  ;  and  it  would  be  for  you,  in  consultation  with  Colonel  Goold- 
Adams,  to  decide  whether  this  force  should  move  forward  by  itself  by  the 
Mangwe  River  towards  Mangwe,  or  accompany  Colonel  Goold-Adams  to  Tati, 
etc.,  etc.  In  either  case,  as  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  men  would  be 
working  within  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate  Territory,  I  shall  require  them  to 
come  under  the  Company's  Discipline  Act  of  1891  for  a  period  say  of  three  or  four 
months  on  such  terms  as  may  have  been  already  arranged  between  them  and 
the  Company,  and  that  they  should  be  under  any  circumstances  under  Colonel 
Goold-Adams'  authority  while  within  or  passing  through  the  Protectorate.  I 
have  given  strict  orders  that  no  pillaging  or  cruelty  to  the  natives  will  be  per- 
mitted, and  that  anyone  acting  in  contravention  of  these  orders  will  be  very  severely 
punished.  I  have  also  desired  Colonel  Goold-Adams  to  pay  for  any  supplies 
required.  I  trust  you  will  enjoin  on  the  Officers  and  men  of  the  Company's 
forces  acting  in  Mashonaland,  the  necessity  for  strict  attention  being  paid  during 
military  operations  to  the  requirements  of  humanity.  The  men  are  not  under 
any  rniUtary  law,  but  I  have  every  confidence  in  the  restraining  influence  of  the 
Officers  and  the  good  feeling  of  the  men  to  act  as  if  they  were  under  strict 
military  regulation  ;  and  that  there  will  be  no  necessity  for  me  in  the  exercise  of 
the   authority  I  possess  to  enact  any  special  laws  by  proclamation  to  provide  for 

Crossing  the  Border.  197 

the  punishment  of  offences  against  the  peopile  or  breach  of  good  disciphne.  I 
trust  that  disciphne  and  obedience  to  orders  will  ensure  to  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  troops  the  success  which  their  undoubted  bravery  and 
devotion  to  duty  in  coming  forward  in  defence  of  the  country  deserve." 


[Copy  of  Telegram.] 

From  To 

Jameson,  His  Excellency  the  High  Commissioner, 

Cape  Town. 

(Dated  October  6th,  1893.) 

October  6th. — "  Have  received  your  three  wires  of  yesterday,  and  am  now 
acting  upon  Your  Excellency's  instructions  to  carry  out  my  plans,  the  outline  of 
which  I  wired  to  you  on  October  4th.  Both  the  Charter  and  Victoria  Columns 
are  now  moving  forward,  and  with  Sir  John  Willoughby  I  shall  follow  and  join 
the  Victoria  Column,  proceeding  with  it  until  its  junction  with  the  Charter  force, 
when  further  movement  if  necessary  will  be  decided  upon. 

"  I  have  telegraphed  Captain  Raaf  this  morning  to  place  himself  under  the 
orders  of  Colonel  Goold-Adams,  and  have  asked  the  latter  to  telegraph  his 
instructions  to  Captain  Raaf.  As  in  the  attestation  paper  of  the  Tuli  Force 
Ordinance  No.  i  of  1891  is  not  mentioned,  I  have  telegraphed  Captain  Raaf  to 
get  the  signatures  of  all  his  men  to  an  attestation  paper  with  the  following 
heading:  'We,  the  undersigned,  do  promise  and  swear  that  we  will  be  faithful 
and  bear  true  allegiance  to  Her  Majesty  Queen  Victoria,  and  to  her  heirs  and 
successors  according  to  law,  and  that  we  will  faithfully  serve  in  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  Police,  and  that  we  will  perform  the  duties  assigned  to  us  to 
the  best  of  our  ability  under  the  provisions  of  the  British  South  Africa  Com- 
pany's Ordinance  No.  i  of  1891.'  "  Ends — "  As  I  shall  still  be  here  two  days 
I  have  asked  Colonel  (ioold-Adams  to  keep  me  informed  of  his  movements  and 
intentions  during  that  time,  and  after  leaving  I  shall  as  far  as  possible  by  native 
runners  keep  Your  Excellency  and  Colonel  Goold  Adams  informed  of  our 
progress  and  of  the  movements  of  the  Matabeli.  I  note  Your  Excellency's 
confidence  that  no  pillaging  or  cruelty  to  the  natives  will  be  permitted  by  the 
otificers  of  the  expedition,  and  I  am  sure  this  confidence  will  not  be  abused.  To 
further  ensure  good  discipline,  and  no  unnecessary  cruelty  to  the  natives  en 
route,  any  native  allies  which  accompany  us  have  been  placed  under  reliable  . 
white  men.     I  can  further  assure  Your  Excellency  that  the  whole  expedition  is 

198  l^hc  Downfall  of  Lobcngula, 

under  strict  military  discipline.  I  thank  Your  Excellency  on  behalf  of  the 
officers  and  men  for  the  good  wishes  expressed  at  the  end  of  your  telegram, 
which  will  be  communicated  to  them. 

"  The  Patrol  which  I  expected  last  night  has  not  yet  returned,  but  as  it  is 
under  Mr.  Brabant  and  accompanied  by  reliable  native  scouts  I  have  no  anxiety 
about  its  return.  Should  it  meet  the  column  en  route,  or  should  it  arrive  here,  I 
will  at  once  telegraph  to  Your  Excellency  Mr.  Brabant's  report. 

"The  Salisbury  and  Victoria  Forces  are  attested  under  the  provisions  of 
Ordinance  No.  i  of  1891." 

[Copy  of  Telegram.] 
From  To 

Jameson,  Goold-Adams, 

(Dated  October  6th,  1893.) 
"  His  Excellency  wired  me  last  night  to  make  arrangements  for  placing  Tuli 
mounted  force  under  you  ;  I  have  wired  Raaf  accordingly  this  morning,  and  he 
is  now  entirely  under  your  orders. 

"  Victoria  and  Salisbury  Columns  start  this  morning.  I  shall  be  here  with 
AVilloughby  till  Sunday  in  case  you  wish  to  communicate ;  we  will  then  join 
Victoria  Column  en  route.  Will  send  back  as  far  as  possible  native  runners 
from  time  to  time  with  any  information  particularly  as  to  our  progress  and 
movements  of  Matabeli  which  may  be  wired  to  Macloutsie,  and  from  there  you 
mischt  make  similar  arrangements." 

As  already  stated,  it  had  been  intended  previously  that  the  Tuli, 
Victoria,  and  Salisbury .  Columns,  in  the  event  of  an  invasion  of 
Matabeliland  becoming  necessary,  should  each  march  from  different 
points  unencumbered  by  waggons.  It  had  also  been  intended  that 
each  column  should  act  independently  and  march  by  its  own  separate 
route  to  Buluwayo.  This  plan  of  campaign  was  afterwards  modified  ; 
the  Victoria  and  Salisbury  Columns  to  take  with  them  each  twelve 
waggons  carrying  food  supplies  and  reserve  of  ammunition  ;  and 
subsequently,  when  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  were  ordered  to 
take  part  in  the  Campaign,  the  Tuli  Force  reinforced   them,  having  its 

Ci'ossinor  the  Border.  i99 

own  waggon  transport,  and  henceforth  became  a  portion  of  the  Southern 
Column  under  the  command  of  Lieut-Colonel  Goold-Adams. 

The  number  of  waggons  of  the  Victoria  and  Salisbury  Columns 
was  also  subsequently  increased  to  eighteen  in  each  column.  The  idea 
of  these  two  columns  marching  independently  of  one  another  was  also 
abandoned,  and  it  was  arranged  that  they  should  meet  at  Iron  Mine 
Hill,  at  the  head  waters  of  the  Tokwe,  a  spot  situated  equi-distant  from 
Victoria  and  Charter,  and  at  a  sufficiently  safe  distance  from  where 
it  was  likely  that  any  very  serious  opposition  from  the  Matabeli  could 
be  met  with. 

The  Salisbury  Column  finally  received  its  orders  to  march  on 
Iron  Mine  Hill  October  7th,  and  taking  a  road  of  its  own  across  the 
veld  reached  that  place  October  14th,  having  traversed  a  distance  of 
eighty-six  miles  through  a  bushy  country  without  incident. 

The  Victoria  Column  started  October  6th,  via  Makouris  (old  post 
station),  near  which  it  turned  off  the  main  road  and  struck  out  in  the 
direction  of  Iron  Mine  Hill,  this  detour  being  necessary  to  avoid  the 
very  broken  country  of  Chilimanzi's  ;  it  then  halted  for  three  days  eight 
miles  beyond,  where  it  turned  off  the  main  road  and  thirty-eight  miles 
from  Victoria,  to  await  the  Artillery  Troop  and  the  arrival  of  its 
dismounted  men  enlisted  at  Tuli.  This  halt  was  invaluable  to  the 
horses  after  their  long  journey  up  country,  as  they  still  much  needed 
further  rest  and  there  was  good  grazing  in  the  vicinity.  A  good 
position  was  taken  up  at  the  foot  of  an  almost  impregnable  granite 
kopje,  which  it  was  intended  to  hold  in  preference  to  the  laager  in  case 
of  attack.  Though  it  was  improbable  that  any  such  attack  would  take 
place,  it  was  just  possible,  as  it  was  rumoured  that  a  Matabeli  impi  was 
stationed  in  the  broken  country  of  Chilimanzi's  ;  this  rumour  it  was 
impossible  to  verify  as  the  broken  nature  of  the  country  in  that 
direction  to  the  south  rendered  efficient  scouting  quite  impossible. 

On  October  8th,  Dr.  Jameson  and  myself,  having  settled  all  the 
final  details,  and  having  seen  off  the  last  drafts  of  dismounted  men  for 
the  Victoria  Column,  lefc  Victoria,  rejoining  that  force  at  its  temporary 
halting-place  the  following  day. 

The  only  information  hitherto  received  from  the  scouts  was  to  the 
effect  that  a  few  Matabeli  had  been  seen  on  our  side  of  the  border. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila. 

The  following  day  the  Artillery  troop  under  Captain  Lendy  and 
the  last  detachment  of  dismounted  men  arrived.  The  latter,  fifty-six  in 
number,  had  done  exceedingly  well,  having  marched  from  Tuli,  a 
distance  of  240  miles,  in  twelve  days.  During  the  previous  night  a  slight 
alarm  was  occasioned  by  a  native  report  sent  in  by  our  advanced  scouts 
under  Captain  the  Hon.  C.  J.  White,  that  two  impis  of  Matabeli  were 

within  five  miles  of  the  camp  in  broken 

country  and  threatening  our  left  flank. 

As  the  country  was  too  broken  for 

the  mounted  scouts  to  reconnoitre 

in  that  direction,  native  scouts  were 

sent    out,    and    reported   that    this 

information    was   incorrect ;  it  was 

afterwards  ascertained  that  a  force  of 

Matabeli  had  been  stationed  in  the  hills 

behind  Chilimanzi's  principal  kraal,  some 

fifteen  miles  south-west  of  the  camp,  but 

that  it  retired  on  gaining  notice  of  our 

advance.    Native  information  through 

Mr.  Brabant  led  us  to  believe  that  the 

Umbezu,  Hlahlangela,  Inyamind- 

Crossing  the  Shashi  River. 

Ihovo,  Amaveni,    Imzinzati, 
Inyati,    and     Enxna     regi- 
ments   were    all    retreating 
on    the    Shangani    River.     Major 
Wilson    rode    on    from    camp    to 
Chaka's    kraal,    eight 
miles  ahead,  and  while 
interviewing  with  Mr.  Quested's 
Mashona  contingent,  recruited  in 
the  district,  the  kraal  was  raided 
by  Mr.  Brabant's  Mashona  con- 
tingent— a  slight  misunderstand- 
ing   amongst     our     rival     allies 
which  was  soon    explained    and 
put  right. 

Crossing  the  Border.  201 

It  had  originally  been  intended  to  attack  Chilimanzi  and  Ndema, 
both  powerful  Makalaka  chiefs,  who  were  reported  to  have  been  hostile 
to  whites  and  in  league  with  the  Matabeli ;  but  as  both  these  chiefs  on 
our  approach  sent  friendly  messages  and  presents  of  oxen,  with  offers  of 
help  in  the  way  of  a  contingent  from  each,  it  was  decided  to  push  on  direct 
to  Iron  Mine  Hill  and  combine  forces  with  the  Salisbury  Column.  The 
column  accordingly  started  at  6  a.m.  on  the  12th,  and  trekked  seven 
miles  to  within  two  miles  of  the  Shashi  River,  making  poor  progress 
through  rather  heavy  sand,  and  being  delayed  somewhat  in  crossing  the 
Umshagashi  River.  The  small  kraals  of  Chitakabi  and  Masendeka  on 
granite  kopjes  were  passed,  and  the  columns  halted  near  Chaka's  kraal, 
Chaka  being  chief  of  the  three  above-mentioned  kraals;  these  were 
apparently  friendly  to  us,  as  were  also  the  few  kraals  along  the,  line  of 
march  still  further  ahead.  From  here  onwards  Mr.  Brabant's  natives 
commenced  their  scouting  duties  at  least  one  trek  ahead  of  the  columns, 
being  subdivided  into  smaller  parties  under  the  men  forming  Mr.  Dollar's 
European  party  of  scouts  (twelve  in  number),  while  Mr.  Quested's  natives 
commenced  scouting  some  miles  to  the  south-east  on  our  left  and  most 
threatened  flank.  As  we  advanced  further  and  across  the  border,  the 
whole  of  the  native  contingents  were  distributed  in  front  and  rear  and 
both  flanks  to  a  radius  of  five  or  six  miles,  until  we  got  in  touch  with 
the  Matabeli  impis,  when  they  showed  such  a  strong  disinclination  to 
keep  any  distance  in  advance,  that  it  was  considered  advisable  to  depend 
merely  on  our  European  scouts  for  information  of  the  country  in  advance; 
however,  the  native  contingents  were  excessively  useful  in  saving  our 
horses  much  hard  work  during  the  earlier  stages  of  the  advance. 

On  October  the  13th  the  Column  did  two  treks  of  seven  miles  and 
five  miles  respectively ;  during  the  first  the  Shashi  River  v/as  crossed 
without  difficulty  (this  river  was  the  nominal  border  between  Mashona- 
land  and  Matabeliland),  also  theTetekwe  River,  where  the  Column  made 
its  midday  halt.  The  Salisbury  Column  was  here  reported  by  natives  to 
be  at  Iron  Mine  Hill,  and  two  Matabeli  impis  were  also  reported  to  be 
between  it  and  us ;  later  information  of  the  natives  during  the  day  sent 
in  by  our  scouts  was  that  there  were  four  impis  lying  between  us  and 
the  Salisbury  Column.  During  the  day's  march  the  kraals  of  Chaka 
and  Masibadonda  were  passed.     On  the  first  information  being  received 

202  The  Downfall  of  Lobcngnla. 

concerning  the  arrival  of  the  Salisbury  Column  at  Iron  Mine  Hill,  four 
scouts  were  sent  on  at  once  to  verify  it,  but  returned,  having  found 
the  hill  but  no  one  there.  The  Column  halted  for  the  night  about  one- 
and-a-half  miles  south-west  of  the  Matonga  River.  Dr.  Jameson  and 
myself  here  left  the  Column  to  push  on  to  Iron  Mine  Hill,  sleeping  that 
night  with  Captain  White's  inner  circle  of  scouts  near  Makamia's  kraal, 
four  miles  ahead  of  the  Column. 

Next  morning  we  reached  the  Umgezi  River,  eight  miles  distant, 
and  two  miles  further  on  gained  a  high  plateau  and  open  country,  the 
line  of  march  up  to  this  point  since  leaving  the  Salisbury  main  road 
having  led  us  through  more  or  less  bush  country  (chiefly  Magondi  forest), 
skirting,  as  before  stated,  the  very  broken  granite  country  of  Chilimanzi's. 
Iron  Mine  Hill,  a  distance  of  twenty-nine  miles  from  where  we  left  the 
Column,  wa3  reached  without  incident  at  5  p.m.,  not  a  single  native 
having  been  encountered,  the  country,  till  close  to  Iron  Mine  Hill,  being 
very  open  and  waterless.  Here  we  found  the  Salisbury  Column,  which 
had  arrived  that  morning,  just  starting  to  form  laager  at  the  head  of  the 
Tokwe,  one-and-a-half  miles  beyond,  for  the  position  at  Iron  Mine  Hill 
was  a  very  bad  one,  far  from  water,  and  the  laager  being  formed  at  the 
foot  of  the  hill  immediately  commanded  by  it,  The  Salisbury  scouts 
reported  no  Matabeli  impis  in  the  vicinity,  but  a  few  men  of  the 
Insukameni  Regiment,  in  charge  of  cattle  that  had  been  recently  raided 
from  Victoria  in  the  Mgagoshla  Hills,  some  seven  miles  north-west. 
Indaima,  whose  principal  kraal  lies  fifteen  miles  south-west  of  Iron  Mine 
Hill,  was  also  reported  anxious  to  be  friendly.  As  the  Salisbury 
Column  had  to  halt  here  pending  the  arrival  of  the  Victoria  Column,  it 
was  decided  to  employ  the  time  in  recapturing  the  above-mentioned 
cattle  and  reconnoitring  ahead. 

{^From  this  point,  for  the  details  of  the  daily  marches,  of  the  zvork 
accomplished,  and  of  the  etigagenients  fought,  the  reader  is  referred  to 
Major  Forbes  accoiuit  of  the  operations.  Major  Willoughbys  account 
is  1-esumed  at  a  later  point,  dealing  zvith  the  conchision  of  the  campaign.'] 


THE     CLOSE     OF    THE     CAMPAIGN. 
By  Major  Sir  John  C.  Willoughbv,  Bart. 

The  surrender  of  Indunas— Major  Forbes  instructed  to  pursue  Lobengula — The  Shangani 
reached — Major  Wilson  sent  on  ahead — The  party  surrounded  and  cut  off — The  last 
stand — A  relief  party  organized— The  retreat  of  Major  Forbes'  patrol— Hardships 
on  the  way— Submission  of  the  Matabeli— The  duties  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company's  Police  and  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police— Messrs.  Dawson  and  Riley's 
mission — The  death  of  Lobengula — The  final  settlement  of  the  country. 

Without  recapitulating  the  facts  embracing  the  return  of  Major 
Forbes  to  Inyati,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  some  of  the  head  indunas 
of  the  country,  including  Babyan,  Glishu,  Maarswee,  and  Sikombo,  had 
come  in  to  surrender ;  and  that  from  information  obtained  from  John 
Jacobs,  one  of  the  colonial  natives  with  the  King,  who  had  also  come 
in  to  give  himself  up,  it  was  supposed  that  the  patrol  after  the  King 
was  on  the  wrong  tack,  and  that  the  King  was  not  on  the  Bubye  at  all, 
but  in  the  direction  of  the  Gwai  River  to  the  North-West  of  Shiloh. 
Instructions  were  therefore  sent  to  Major  Forbes  to  proceed  at  once 
with  his  whole  force  to  Shiloh,  where  reinforcements  and  food  supplies 
would  be  awaiting  him,  and  from  there  to  follow  the  King's  waggon 
spoor,  which  would  be  pointed  out  to  him  by  John  Jacobs.  He  was 
then  to  make  every  endeavour  to  overtake  and  capture  the  King  ;  the 
original  instructions  to  disarm  all  armed  natives,  or  to  shoot  them  if 
they  refused  compliance,  were  still  to  be  adhered  to.  Ten  waggons, 
with  220  men,  twelve  days'  rations  for  the  whole  force,  and  reserves  of 
ammunition,  were  sent  to  Shiloh;  and  on  the  25th  of  November  the 
patrol,  reconstituted  and  re-equipped,  made  a  second  advance  from  that 
place.  The  force,  as  rearranged,  consisted  of  about  165  mounted  and 
105  dismounted  men,  four  Maxims,  and  the  Hotchkiss,  and  five 
waggons  carrying  reserves  of  ammunition,  and  sixteen  days'  short 
rations  (i.e.,  half  ration  of  meal) ;  the  balance  of  the   force,   280   men, 

204  The  Dozvufall  of  Lobcngula, 

partly  mounted,  five  waggons,  and  the  seven -pounder,  returned  to 
Buluwayo.  By  this  time  heavy  rains  had  set  in,  making  the  veld  very 
bad  travelling  for  both  waggons  and  horses  ;  and  during  the  next  few 
days  the  Patrol  made  such  poor  progress  that  on  the  29th  Major  Forbes 
decided  to  push  on  without  waggons.  He  accordingly  again  subdivided 
his  force,  taking  on  with  him  only  165  mounted  men,  spare  and  pack 
horses,  two  Maxims,  ten  days'  rations,  and  20,000  rounds  of  ammuni- 
tion, leaving  Captain  Delamere  with  instructions  to  proceed  with 
the  remainder  of  the  men  and  the  waggons  to  Umhlangeni, 

Up  to  the  3rd  of  December  the  progress  of  the  patrol  was  without 
incident.  All  natives  met  appeared  to  be  friendly,  with  the  exception 
that  two  scouts,  on  the  2nd  of  December,  were  surrounded  by  some 
twenty  Matabeli,  who  told  them  they  intended  to  take  them  to  Gambo, 
their  induna  ;  the  scouts,  however,  escaped  from  them.  All  native 
reports  induced  Major  Forbes  to  consider  that  there  were  only  a  few 
men  actually  with  the  King,  and  that  he  would  meet  with  little,  if  any, 
opposition.  On  the  3rd  a  point  on  the  Shangani  was  reached,  a  distance 
of  eighty-four  miles  N.N.W.  of  Shiloh  ;  here  the  King's  latest  scherm 
was  found,  and  in  it  a  Matabeli  boy  and  a  young  Maholi  were  captured, 
from  whom  it  was  ascertained  that  the  King  had  only  left  that  morning 
on  the  news  of  the  near  approach  of  the  white  men,  that  his  waggons 
had  experienced  much  difficulty  in  crossing  the  river,  and  that  an  impi 
had  been  sent  back  to  attack  the  patrol  in  the  thick  bush,  through 
which  it  had  just  passed  ;  if  it  failed  to  do  this,  that  the  impi  was  to 
follow  it  up  and  attack  it  wherever  it  was.  Major  Wilson  and  eighteen 
men  were  sent  forward  in  the  afternoon  to  reconnoitre  along  the  King's 
spoor,  with  instructions  to  be  back  by  sun- down.  He  however  did  not 

Captain  Napier  and  two  others  returned  about  midnight  to  inform 
Major  Forbes  that  the  King  was  some  five  or  six  miles  ahead,  and  that 
Major  Wilson  was  close  to  him  ;  that  there  were  more  natives  with 
him  than  was  expected  (Captain  Napier  described  their  passing  in  the 
dark  through  a  number  of  scherms,  some  of  them  of  great  size),  and 
that  it  would  be  advisable  for  the  whole  force  and  Maxims  (on  packs) 
to  come  on  at  once.  As  it  was  a  dark  night  and  the  horses  were  knocked 
up,  and  as  he  thought  he  was  at  the  time  surrounded  by  an  impi  and  that 

The  Close  of  the  Campaign. 

he  might  be  attacked  at  any  moment,  Major 
Forbes  thought  it  unsafe  to  take  on  the  whole 
force  (150  men),  but  he  sent  on  Captain  Borrow 
and  twenty  men  without  any  Maxims,  and 
decided  to  move  on  himself  at  daylight.  The 
main  body,  it  would  appear,  however,  did  not 
make  a  move  till  nearly  one  hour  after  daylight, 
and  some  time  before  it  started  heavy  firing  was 
heard  in  the  direction  of  Major  Wilson's  party. 
Soon  after  making  a  move  the  main  body  was 
attacked  on  its  way  along  the  river  down  to- 
wards the  drift  where  the  King  had  crossed.  The  enemy 
opened  fire  from  the  bush  about  250  to  300  yards  away  to 
the  left  of  the  force,  which  thereupon  formed  up  in  the  open, 
where  it  remained  for  one  hour  until  the  enemy's  fire  was 
silenced.  During  the  whole  of  the  engagement  the  natives 
kept  well  under  cover  in  the  bush,  a  very  few  showing 
themselves,  and  it  was  impossible  to  ascertain  their  numbers. 
It  was  not  till  the  enemy's  fire  was  silenced  that  the  force 
at  length  retreated  to  a  better  position.  The  casualties  of 
the  patrol  were,  five  men  wounded,  sixteen  horses  and  two  mules  killed. 
About  8  a.m.  Messrs.  Burnham,  Ingram,  and  Gooding  came  back  from 
Major  Wilson's  party.  They  reported  that  they  had  all  ridden  up  at 
daylight  to  the  King's  scherms  and  called  to  him  to  come  out,  upon  which 
about  100  natives  ran  out  and  opened  fire,  killing  or  wounding  two  horses. 
The  fire  was  returned,  and  the  party  then  retreated  600  yards,  where  it  was 
again  attacked.  The  three  above-mentioned  were  then  ordered  to  return 
to  hurry  on  the  main  body,  and  on  the  way  were  met  by  a  large  body  of 
Matabeli,  who  pursued  them  and  drove  them  off  to  the  left  and  up  the 
river.  They  succeeded  in  effecting  their  escape,  but  on  reaching  the 
river,  found  it  had  come  down,  and  had  to  swim  across  it.  The  main 
body,  still  thinking  it  was  surrounded,  formed  a  strong  scherm,  and  it 
was  decided  to  await  the  return  of  Major  Wilson  till  the  next  morning, 
it  being  considered  impossible  to  go  to  his  assistance  on  account  of  the 
river  having  risen.  Natives  were  seen  and  heard  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  river  during  the  day.     From  subsequent  information  obtained  from 

Matabeli   Scouts 

ON  THE  Banks  of 

THE  Shangani. 

2o6  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcngula, 

natives  who  were  on  the  spot,  /and  whom  I  have  personally  cross- 
examined,  it  seems  that  Major  Wilson  momentarily  repulsed  the  men 
actually  round  the  waggons  ;  but  the  King  had  fled  on  horseback  with 
the  indunas  Bosumwan,  Magwegwe,  and  one  other,  the  previous 
afternoon.  On  Major  Wilson  retreating  while  pursued  by  the  enemy, 
he  encountered  and  was  surrounded  by  the  larger  portion  of  the  impi 
that  had  been  sent  on  December  2nd  under  Mjan  (commander-in-chief), 
Manondwan,  and  Manyou,  to  waylay  the  patrol  in  the  thick  bush.  This 
impi  consisted  of  a  mixed  lot  from  the  Insuka,  Umbezu,  Ingubu,  Inhlati, 
Mclecho  and  Umhlahlangela  regiments,  and  people  from  the  towns  of 
Induba  and  others,  the  King  being  left  with  the  Buluwayo  people, 
Mabambani  and  part  of  the  Icapa  (Gambo's  division).  When  this  impi 
failed  to  catch  the  patrol  and  found  it  encamped  in  the  open  on  the 
river,  Mjan  decided  to  take  back  the  Umbezu  and  Ingubu  across  the 
river  to  guard  the  King,  leaving  orders  for  part  of  the  Insuka,  Isezeba, 
Mclecho,  Inhlati  and  Umhlahlangela  to  cross  the  river  at  once,  and  lie 
in  ambush  near  the  drift,  and  the  remainder  to  stay  on  the  left  bank. 
These  orders  were  disobeyed  on  account  of  the  night  being  very  wet  and 
dark ;  and  the  force  that  was  to  have  crossed  the  river  did  not  do  so  till 
next  morning  after  daylight,  and  then,  hearing  the  firing  at  the  King's 
waggons,  it  rushed  on  and  intercepted  Major  Wilson's  party  while 

On  the  night  of  the  3rd,  Mjan,  with  the  Umbezu  and  Ingubu, 
reached  the  King's  waggons  after  Major  Wilson  had  ridden  up  to  them, 
and  had  then  retreated  into  the  bush.  The  people  at  the  waggons,  in  the 
absence  of  any  induna,  had  not  known  quite  what  to  do,  and  had  been 
at  first  inclined  to  open  fire  on  the  party,  but  were  stopped  by  Major 
Wilson  telling  them  not  to  do  so,  as  he  had  not  come  to  fight,  but  only 
to  talk  to  the  King,  and  asking  where  he  was,  they  replied  "  that  he  had 
gone."  On  Mjan's  arrival,  finding  the  King  had  disappeared,  and  that 
no  one  knew  where  he  or  Major  Wilson's  party  were,  Mjan  said,  "  We 
can  do  nothing  in  the  dark,  so  we  will  sleep  round  the  waggons,  and  see 
what  happens  in  the  morning."  When  Major  Wilson  and  his  party 
again  rode  up  in  the  morning  he  was  at  once  attacked  by  this  force,  and 
Mjan's  son  was  one  of  the  first  killed,  two  of  the  horses  of  the  party 
being   also    shot.     While    retreating,    Major   Wilson    sent    off  Messrs. 

The  Close  of  the   Campaign.  207 

Burnham,  Ingram,  and  Gooding.  These,  as  before  narrated,  effected 
their  escape,  soon  after  which  Major  Wilson's  party  encountered  all  those 
portions  of  the  regiments  which  Mjan  had  detailed  to  cross  the  river  the 
previous  night,  and  who  were  hurrying  up  to  reinforce  the  party  round 
the  King's  waggons.  He  was  then  completely  surrounded  by  these, 
though  he  tried  on  every  side  at  first  to  get  out,  and  finding  this  impos- 
sible, he  formed  a  ring  of  his  horses  and  made  his  last  stand  on  the 
King's  waggon  spoor.  Here  he  and  his  party  fought  for  several  hours. 
As  the  horses  dropped  shot  they  formed  a  barricade  of  their  dead 
bodies.  They  twice  drove  the  enemy  off,  and  but  for  their  ammunition 
running  short  would  probably  have  beaten  him  off  altogether, 
as,  after  their  experience  of  Shangani  and  Imbembesi,  the  Matabeli 
were  disinclined  to  expose  themselves  in  a  rush.  As  it  was,  how- 
ever, it  was  the  continuous  stream  of  reinforcements  coming  in  on 
all  sides  that  overwhelmed  them.  All  died  game  to  the  last.  One 
man  was  especially  mentioned,  for  when  all  the  others  were  shot  down 
and  more  or  less  wounded,  and  though  himself  wounded  in  several 
places,  he  collected  some  rifles  and  revolvers  and  made  a  stand  on  a 
neighbouring  ant-heap,  keeping  the  enemy  at  bay.  For  a  long  time  the 
enemy  could  not  kill  him,  and  he  shot  down  at  least  eight  or  ten  before 
he  was  eventually  shot  dead  himself,  and  on  running  in  at  last  they 
found  him  with  six  or  eight  wounds  on  his  body.  Nearly  every  man  of 
the  party  received  four  or  five  wounds  ;  the  party  killed  at  least  ten  men 
for  every  one  of  its  own,  and  there  was  literally  a  fence  of  dead  bodies 
piled  one  upon  the  other  around  it.  The  bodies  were  all  stripped,  but 
not  mutilated  ;  and  at  first  Major  Wilson's  was  left  untouched  out  of 
respect,  though  it  was  afterwards  stripped  like  the  rest.  The  natives 
were  especially  struck  with  admiration  at  the  way  in  which  all  died, 
when  they  could  fight  no  longer,  without  a  struggle  or  a  murmur,  and 
secondly,  for  the  way  in  which  they  fought  on  when  wounded,  and  the 
coolness  with  which  one  would  take  off  his  shirt  while  under  fire,  tear  it 
into  strips  and  bind  up  the  wounds  of  a  comrade,  who  would  then 
resume  the  fight.  Though  all  Englishmen  cannot  but  deplore  the 
circumstances  that  led  to  the  heroic  death  of  this  gallant  band,  they 
must  all  feel  proud  of  these  their  countrymen,  who  have  achieved  a 
record   of  heroism    worthy    to  be    placed  amongst   the  highest  in   the 

2o8  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

annals  of  the  race.  It  is  men  such  as  these  who  have  made  our  country 

The  Matabeli,  after  burying  a  portion  of  their  dead,  retired  in  the 
afternoon  with  the  idea  of  attacking  the  main  body  of  the  Patrol,  but  the 
river  had  risen  too  high  to  permit  of  crossing,  and  no  doubt,  after  their 
experience  of  the  morning,  they  were  probably  not  too  keen  to  do  so  if 
they  had  been  able.  When  the  Patrol  retreated  up  the  river  the  follow- 
ing morning,  the  enemy  followed  all  day  on  the  opposite  side  ;  but  then, 
being  still  unable  to  cross,  returned  to  the  drift,  and  there  crossed  and 
followed  in  rear  for  a  few  days.  The  enemy  then  returned  to  the  drift  and 
encamped  there,  and  a  week  later,  received  orders  from  the  King  to  dis- 
perse and  collect  women  and  cattle  and  return  to  him.  This  was  done 
in  some  cases,  but  the  majority  gave  up  all  idea  of  returning,  and  have 
since  submitted. 

Major  Forbes  on  the  night  of  the  4th  sent  two  mounted 
messengers  back  to  Buluwayo  to  inform  Dr.  Jameson  of  what  had 
happened,  and  asking  for  reinforcements  and  supplies,  especially  ammu- 
nition, to  be  sent  him  ;  "  that  he  intended,  if  possible,  to  effect  his  retreat 
up  the  Shangani  River ;  as  he  thought  it  very  possible  that  these  mes- 
sengers would  not  get  through  he  would  not  put  any  details  in  writing." 
The  messengers  reached  Buluwayo  on  the  seventh,  having  met  with  no 
hostile  natives.  Dr.  Jameson  and  myself  started  next  day  with  a  party, 
under  Captain  Heany,  of  119  men,  partly  mounted  and  partly  dis- 
mounted, 250  Mashona  Contingent,  and  waggons  carrying  food  supplies 
and  ammunition,  for  Umhlangeni  (Inyati),  which  place  we  reached  on  the 
loth.  Here  we  fully  expected  to  find  further  news  as  to  Major  Forbes' 
movements  awaiting  us,  and  failing  such,  we  were  for  the  moment  at  a 
loss  what  to  do,  as  the  Patrol  might  take  any  one  of  four  routes,  viz., 
the  long  roundabout  one  along  the  Shangani  to  the  Hartley  Hill  Road, 
and  by  that  road  to  Umhlangeni  ;  up  the  Shangani  to  the  junction 
with  it  of  the  Longwe,  and  then  up  that  river  to  the  Hartley  Hill 
Road  and  thence  to  Umhlangeni  ;  along  the  Inyoka  road  across 
the  veld,  the  most  direct  route  of  all ;  or  back  along  the  King's 
waggon  spoor  to  Shiloh.  In  the  state  the  veld  was  in,  after 
the  continuous  heavy  rains,  it  appeared  unwise  to  start  a  force  to 
the    Shangani,    with   the   prospect  of  intervening  rivers  rising,  and  so 

The  Close  of  the  Campaign.  209 

preventing  its  return  in  case  the  Patrol  had  gone  some  other  way.     It  was 
therefore  decided  to  await  more  definite  news,   and  in   the  meantime 
strong  patrols  were  sent  out  in  all  directions  to  try  and  obtain  information 
from  the  natives,  while  Messrs.  Graham  and  Schulz,   who  volunteered 
for  the  purpose,  rode  down  some  thirty  miles  below  the  junction  of  the 
Longwe  and  Shangani,  a  distance  of  over  fifty  miles  from  Umhlangeni. 
These  latter  returned  in  four  days'  time,  havmg  actually  passed  the  Patrol 
without  knowing  it.     They  met  'vith  no  resistance  and  disarmed  several 
natives,  but  in  the  meantime,  and  before  they  returned,  a  colonial  native 
came  through  to   Umhlangeni  on  the  night  of  the   13th  with  messages 
from  the  Patrol  to  say  that  it  was  fifteen  miles  below  the  junction  of  the 
Longwe  on    the    12th,    which  place  it  would    reach  on  the   14th.     On 
receipt  of  this  news  two  Scotch  carts  and  one  light  ambulance  waggon 
were  loaded  up  at  once  during  the  night  with  supplies  and  ammunition, 
and  at  daylight  next  morning  we  started,  with  100  mounted  and  fifty 
dismounted  men,  to  the  relief  of  the  Patrol,  reaching  to  within  three  miles 
of  the  junction — a  distance  of  twenty-four  miles — before  dark  the  same 
day.      The  march  was  without  incident,  the  few  armed  natives  being 
encountered  being  promptly  disarmed  without  any  show  of  resistance. 
Messrs.  Selous  and   Acutt  then    rode  on  to   the  junction   and   met  the 
Patrol,  which  then  came  on  and  joined  the  relief  column.     The  whole 
party,  including  the  few  wounded,  five  in  number,  had  had  a  very  severe 
time  of  it ;    the  men  had  undergone  considerable  hardships  from  their 
clothes  and  boots  being  worn   out  with  the  rough  wear,  and  from  want 
of  food,  the  last  few  days,  having  had  to  eat  some  of  their  horses.     One 
more  slight  attack  from  natives  of  a  cattle  post  was  experienced  on  the 
morning  of  the   12th.     The  total  casualties  of   the  Patrol  throughout, 
exclusive  of   Major  Wilson's  party,  were    one    man    killed    and  seven 
wounded,   including  Serjeant  Pike  and  one  native  driver.     Twenty-eight 
horses  and  two  mules  were  shot,  but  the   Patrol  had   left  behind  (aban- 
doned) nearly  100  horses  (some  of  these  have  since  been  recovered  from 
the  natives).       I   have  been  unable  to  ascertain   the  actual   amount  of 
ammunition   expended  by  the  Patrol,  as  no    record  was  kept,   but  the 
expenditure  must  have  been  about  8,000  rounds,  and  the  Patrol  returned 
with  considerably   more  than  half  the  ammunition  it  started  with.     I 
should  mention  that  Mr.  Rhodes  and  Major  Sawyer,  Military  Secretary 


2IO  The  Downfall  of  Lohengula. 

to  His  Excellency  the  High  Commissioner,  who  had  followed  us  to 
Umhlangeni,  accompanied  the  relief  force  that  went  to  meet  the  Patrol 
on  the  Longwe  River. 

On  the  15th  December,  the  Patrol  returned  to  Umhlangeni,  and  the 
whole  force  left  for  Buluwayo  the  following  day,  with  the  exception  of 
118  men  left  to  garrison  Umhlangeni,  where  it  had  been  decided  to  keep 
a  strong  post  during  the  remainder  of  the  rainy  season. 

On  our  first  arrival  at  Umhlangeni  it  was  found  that  a  large  number 
of  natives  in  the  neighbourhood  had  already  tendered  their  submission, 
but  they  were  still  in  possession  of  their  arms.  Dr.  Jameson  immediately 
ordered  all  arms  to  be  brought  in,  and  during  the  five  days  we  were  there 
over  1,000  assegais  and  100  guns,  including  some  Martini,  had  been  given 
up.  The  numerous  herds  of  the  king's  cattle  found  in  possession  of  the 
natives  were  left  with  them  to  be  taken  care  of,  and  also  the  cattle  actually 
brought  in  by  natives  to  be  given  up  were  returned  to  them  to  be  taken 
care  of  pending  the  settlement  of  the  country.  The  same  proceedings 
had  already  been  instituted  at  Buluwayo,  Umpandine  (a  post  temporarily 
occupied  by  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  on  the  edge  of  the  Matopo 
hills),  Mangwe,  and  the  Nek ;  and  subsequently  at  Shiloh,  where  another 
post  of  British  South  Africa  Company  Police  was  afterwards  established, 
and  also  at  Umhlangeni.  The  satisfactory  result  was  that  by  the  end  of 
December  large  numbers  of  natives,  including  many  of  the  principal 
indunas,  had  already  submitted,  were  settling  down  at  their  kraals,  and 
had  commenced  ploughing  their  lands;  and  about  10,000  assegais  and 
over  1,000  guns  and  rifles  had  been  given  up. 

On  his  return  to  Buluwayo,  Dr.  Jameson  at  once  commenced 
preparations  for  the  disbandment  of  the  Volunteer  Forces  and  the 
organisation  of  a  civil  Police  Force,  and  on  December  23rd  the  whole 
of  the  Volunteer  Force  was  disbanded.  Those  volunteers  wishing  to 
leave  the  country  were  started  off  with  necessary  food  and  waggons  (at 
the  expense  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company)  to  take  them  to 
their  various  destinations — Salisbury,  Victoria,  Tuli,  and  Johannesburg. 
From  the  450  who  elected  to  remain  in  the  country,  a  civil  Police 
Force  of  150  men,  under  Inspector  Bodle,  was  formed,  the  remainder 
being  enrolled  as  Burghers  ready  to  be  called  up  in  case  of  necessity. 
Lieut. -Colonel    Goold-Adams    at   the   same  time  decided  to  keep  420 

The  Close  of  the  Campaign.  211 

men  of  the  Bechuatialand  Border  Police  in  the  country  during  the  rainy 
season,  merely  for  the  purpose  of  doing  garrison  work,  and  sixty  men 
distributed  along  the  southern  line  of  communication  at  Mangvve,  the 
Nek,   and    Tati  ;    the  remainder   of  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police, 
including  the  reinforcements  under  Major  Grey  that  had  been  sent  up 
to  be  ready  in  case  of  our  expedition  meeting  with  any  serious  reverse, 
being  stationed  at  Macloutsie.     It  was  first  intended    for   the   British 
South  Africa  Company  to  take  over  thirty-five  of  the  Cape  Mounted 
Rifles,  who  had  formed  Mr.  Rhodes'  escort  on  his  journey  to  Buluwayo ; 
but  these  were  subsequently  sent  back   to  the  Colony  at  their  own 
request,  as  they  were  anxious  to  be  back  to  take  part  in  any  operations 
in   Pondoland,  rumours   of  the  possibility   of  such    being   undertaken 
having  reached  them.     The  arrangement  with   Colonel   Goold-Adams 
was  that,  acting  on  the  High  Commissioner's  instruction,  his  force  of 
240  men  in  the  country  were  to  garrison  Buluwayo  only,  and  that  the 
British  South  Africa  Company  Police  were  to  do  all  patrols  ;  but  as  he 
wished  himself  to   undertake  the  Patrol   in  force  down   the   Shangani 
River,  which  Dr.  Jameson  was  anxious  to  send  immediately  in  search  of 
Major  Wilson's  party,  in  order  that  he  might  himself  recover  his  Maxim 
gun  carriages  abandoned  by  the  Patrol  during  its  retreat  up  that  river, 
it  was  arranged  that  he  should  take  his  whole  force  to  Umhlangeni  and 
garrison    that   place    until    this    patrol    should  be   accomplished.     The 
British   South  Africa  Company   Police  therefore  garrisoned   Buluwayo 
and  the  stations  at  Mapondein  and  Shiloh. 

The  rains  prevalent  in  November  and  December  ceased  towards 
the  end  of  the  latter  month,  and  an  uninterrupted  spell  of  fine  weather 
ensued  throughout  the  greater  portion  of  January.  Unfortunately 
Colonel  Goold-Adams  was  delayed,  partly  by  the  time  the  making  of 
the  above  arrangements  took,  and  also  because  of  the  communications 
necessary  between  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  and  the  authorities. 
Another  factor  in  this  delay  was  the  difficulty  of  getting  reliable 
information  of  the  movements  of  the  King  or  his  exact  whereabouts. 
When  at  last  all  arrangements  were  complete  and  Colonel  Goold-Adams 
was  able  to  make  a  start,  wet  weather  again  set  in,  rendering  the  pro 
gress  of  a  large  patrol  difficult. 

Dr.  Jameson,  in  the  meantime,  had  been  making  every  endeavour 

P  2 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobcngula. 

to  open  up  communication  with  the  King  and  to  send  him  the  High 
Commissioner's  message,  with  a  view  to  getting  him  to  submit  and  so 
avoid  the  necessity  of  any  further  hostilities.  For  a  long  time  none  of 
the  old  white  residents  at  Buluwayo  would  hear  of  going  on  this 
mission,  and  of  the  natives  asked  to  go  most  refused,  the  few  who 
assented  invariably  returning  after  they  had  gone  a  short  distance. 

At  length  Messrs.  Tainton,  Riley,  and  Dawson,  volunteered  to  go, 
provided  that  indunas  could  be  found  willing  to  accompany  them. 
This  latter  condition  was  a  serious  difficulty,  as  all  the  indunas  who  had 
submitted,  having  once  left  the  King,  were  afraid  to  go  back  to  him. 

At  last,  however,  after  much  negotiation,  one  named  Malibamba 
undertook  to  accompany  Messrs.  James  Dawson  and  Patrick  Riley, 
and  this  mission  started  from  Buluwayo  for  Umhlangeni  on 
February  the  2nd.  The  above  mission  was  all  the  more 
expedient,  because,  from  the  most  reliable  information 
hitherto  obtained,  the  King  and  his  following  of  young- 
men  were  by  now  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Zambesi, 
and  therefore  too  far  off  to  be  reached  by  any 
military  operations  until  the  rains  were  over. 
Dr.  Jameson  and  myself  awaited  the 
return  of  this  mission  at  Umhlangeni.  The 
mission  was  much  delayed  by  the  heavy  rains,  and 
did  not  return  to  Umhlangeni  till  the  first  week  in 
March.  Messrs.  Dawson  and  Riley  brought  back 
with  them  authentic  news  of  Lobengula's  death, 
concerning  which  we  had  already  heard  many 
rumours.  They  had  found  a  large  number  of 
natives  still  encamped  on  the  Shangani 
River,  near  the  furthest  point  reached  by 
the  patrol  under  Major  Forbes ;  these  at 
first  appeared  distrustful,  and  inclined  to  be 
hostile,  assuming  that  they  were  but  the 
advance  party  of  a  second  attacking  force.  However,  on  hearing 
the  object  of  the  party,  the  natives  all  gladly  promised  submission, 
and  many  forthwith  started  for  their  homes.  They  were  found 
to  be    in    a    very   wretched    plight  ;    what    with    fever    and    small-pox 


The  Close  of  the  Campaign.  213 

and  the   result    of  a    long    course   of  meat  diet,  numbers  had  already- 

Messrs.  Dawson  and  Riley,  with  the  assistance  of  the  natives,  had 
found  the  remainder  of  Major  Wilson's  party,  and  had  temporarily 
buried  them  on  the  spot.  On  their  return  they  volunteered  to  go  back 
a  second  time  to  bring  the  remains  into  Buluwayo,  and  also  to  take 
waggons  with  food  and  medicines  to  help  bring  in  the  principal 
indunas  and  Lobengula's  queens  and  children. 

While  this  was  being  done,  Gambo,  the  head  Induna  of  the  Tcapa 
Division  (comprising  the  Southern  portion  of  the  Matabeli  nation), 
who,  next  to  Mjan,  was  the  most  powerful  chief  in  the  country,  came 
in  with  all  his  indunas  to  tender  his  submission,  and  at  length,  in  the 
beginning  of  April,  all  those  chiefs  who  had  hitherto  been  holding  cut 
faithful  to  Lobengula,  including  Mjan  (the  commander-in-chief  of  the 
Matabeli  armies),  Manondwan,  the  commander  of  the  Insukameni,  and 
many  others,  arrived  with  Messrs.  Dawson  and  Riley  at  Buluwayo. 

From  Mjan  we  received  confirmation  of  Lobengula's  death,  which 
occurred  within  forty  miles  of  the  Zambesi.  The  Induna  Bosamwan  was 
the  only  one  present  with  him  at  the  time,  and  had  at  once  sent  for 
Mjan,  who  thereupon  had  hastened  to  the  spot  and  had  himself  interred 
the  body. 

To  sum  up  :  at  the  time  of  the  disbandment  of  the  volunteer  forces, 
Matabeliland  was  already  practically  pacified,  with  the  exception  of  that 
portion  of  the  nation  then  following  the  King  in  his  flight.  This  portion 
consisted  of  a  few  of  the  older  men  who  still  remained  faithful  to  him, 
and  a  large  sprinkling  of  the  younger  and  more  enterprising  men  of  the 
nation  who  still  clung  to  him  in  the  hopes  that  he  would  lead  them 
across  the  Zambesi,  when  circumstances  should  permit,  to  start  a  new 
dominion  on  the  other  side. 

The  death  of  Lobengula  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  closing  event  of 
the  campaign  ;  although  the  possibility  that  any  further  opposition 
would  have  occurred  on  his  part,  had  he  lived,  is  clearly  disproved  by 
the  fact  recently  brought  to  light,  and  since  investigated,  viz.,  that  when 
Lobengula  became  convinced  that  Major  Forbes'  Patrol  was  following 
him  up  in  earnest,  he  at  once  sent  messengers  to  negotiate  terms  of 
peace,  with  a  large  sum  of  money  :  the  surest  test  that  a  Kaffir  can  give 

2 1 4  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

of  his  desire  to  submit.  This,  as  stated  by  Mjan,  was  accompanied  by 
a  message,  that  he  was  prepared  to  come  in  and  talk  matters  over  with 
Dr.  Jameson  at  Buluwayo,  merely  asking  to  be  assured  of  his  own 
personal  safety. 

It  may  appear  to  many  rather  an  anomaly  that  it  should  have 
been  considered  safe  to  disband  the  volunteer  force  immediately  on 
the  return  of  Major  Forbes'  Patrol ;  but  the  gallant  and  heroic  conduct 
of  Major  Wilson  and  his  small  party,  and  the  fact  that  a  handful  of  whites 
should  have  fought  to  the  last  under  adverse  circumstances,  surrounded 
in  thick  bush,  and  without  any  machine  guns  to  support  it,  should  have 
killed  at  least  ten  times  its  own  number  before  being  finally  over- 
whelmed— these,  I  contend,  had  as  much  to  do  with  showing  the  Matabeli 
the  hopelessness  of  any  further  resistance,  as  had  any  of  our  previous 

Dr.  Jameson  was  correct  in  his  estimate  of  the  final  situation,  and 
as  a  result,  at  a  final  interview  with  him  on  April  the  nth,  Mjan  and 
all  the  head  indunas  were  definitely  informed  of  the  conditions  of  their 
submission,  and  the  settlement  of  the  Native  and  land  questions  was 

All  commissariat  arrangements  for  large  food  supplies  to  follow  in 
rear  of  both  the  Mashonaland  and  Southern  columns  turned  out  most 
satisfactorily.  Waggons  from  the  south  came  in  within  a  fortnight  of  our 
arrival  at  Buluwayo,  and  the  first  convoy  from  Mashonaland  arrived  at 
the  end  of  November.  But  for  the  heavy  rains  the  latter  would  have 
arrived  much  sooner.  It  is  a  curious  fact  that,  once  the  expedition  had 
made  the  road,  it  was  perfectly  safe  for  small  parties  ;  for,  as  the  expedi- 
tion advanced,  the  fighting  portion  of  the  Matabeli  nation  receded  in 
front  of  it ;  and  none  ever  seem  to  have  thought  of  harassing  us  by 
molesting  those  who  soon  followed  in  on  our  tracks  in  small  parties. 
There  was  some  little  difficulty,  at  first,  in  persuading  transport  riders 
that  the  Tati  road  was  perfectly  safe,  and  it  was  not  till  this  had  been 
proved  by  Dr.  Jameson  sending  our  own  oxen  and  drivers  down  to  Tati 
that  independent  transport  riders  would  bring  their  waggons  on  to 
Buluwayo.  During  the  month  of  December  waggons  kept  on  arriving 
almost  daily,  and  by  January,  1894,  there  was  eight  months'  reserve  of 
rations  at  Buluwayo  for  all  those  who  were  remaining  in  the  country. 

Photo  by  IV.  &r  D.  Do'Mtuy,  Ebiiry  Street,  S.W.\ 


{Commanding  the  Beckuanaland  Border  Police  and  the  Southern  Column  into  Mataheliland. 



The  diversion  of  a  part  of  Lobengula's  army — 8,000  men  under  Gambo  sent  to  intercept 
Colonel  Goold-Adams — Mr.  Dawson's  mission — The  indunas  arrested — Mantuse  and. 
Inqubo,  in  attempting  to  escape,  are  killed-  Major  Sawyer's  enquiry — Commandant  Raaf 
joins  the  Column— Meet  Chief  Khama  at  Shasbi  River — The  plans  of  the  march — 
Scarcity  of  water — The  Matabeli  in  force  in  front — The  waggons  attacked — The 
Matabeli  rush  the  rearmost  waggons — Mr.  Selous  wounded  — Driven  off  by  the  Maxims 
— Small-pox  breaks  out  amongst  Khama's  men — He  decides  to  return  home — Sub- 
mission of  Makalaka  chiefs — News  of  victories  of  Major  Forbes'  Column — At 

As  soon  as  permission  had  been  granted  to  the  Chartered  Company  to 
take  the  field  against  the  Matabeli,  Sir  Henry  Loch  decided  to  move  up 
to  the  front  a  support  consisting  of  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  with 
some  volunteers  from  the  regular  troops  stationed  in  the  Cape  Colony. 
The  advance  was  made  on  the  nth  October,  when  a  junction  was 
effected  with  Commandant  Raaf,  commanding  the  Tuli  Column.  The 
brunt  of  the  fighting  fell,  of  course,  upon  the  columns  commanded  by 
Major  P.  W.  Forbes,  but  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  a  very  important 
diversion  was  effected  by  the  simultaneous  entry  into  Matabeliland  of  a 
body  of  troops  from  the  south.  Of  this  the  net  result  was  the  division 
of  Lobengula's  force  into  two  bodies,  as  it  was  afterwards  found  that  no 
less  than  8,000  men  (from  twenty-three  towns),  under  Gambo,  the  king's 
brother-in-law,  had  been  sent  to  intercept  the  forces  under  Colonel 
Goold-Adams.  It  is  true  that  the  fighting  done  by  the  Southern 
Column  was  not  of  a  very  serious  character,  consisting  as  it  did  in 
repelling  a  half-hearted  attack  made  by  a  force  of  six  or  seven  hundred 
Matabeli ;  but  that  it  did  not  subsequently  meet  with  more  determined 
opposition  was  due  to  the  fact  that  Gambo  and  his  men  had  been  dis- 
heartened by  intelligence  of  the  reverses  incurred  by  the  other  half  of 
Lobengula's  army  on  the  Shangani  and  Imbembesi  Rivers,  and  decided 

2i6  The  Downfall  of  Lohengiila. 

i-o  retreat,  as  Colonel  Goold-Adams  explains  in  his  report.  The  successful 
action  fought  with  Gambo  enabled  Colonel  Goold-Adams  to  supply 
food  to  the  Company's  forces,  which,  on  their  arrival  at  Buluwayo, 
were  reduced  to  three  or  four  days'  rations.  Subsequently  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  pursuit  of 
Lobengula,  and  generally  did  their  utmost  to  assist  the  Chartered 
Company  in  the  conduct  of  the  campaign. 

Upon  reaching  Tati  the  Southern  Column  was  met  by  a  mission 
consisting  of  Mr.  Dawson  (a  white  trader  at  Buluwayo)  and  three 
indunas :  Ingubogubo  (a  half-brother  of  Lobengula),  Mantuse  and 
Inqubo.  Unfortunately  the  indunas  were  killed  in  ignorance  of  their 
character.  Nobody  seems  to  have  been  to  blame  in  particular,  and  in  fact 
the  whole  unfortunate  affair  consisted  of  a  series  of  misconceptions  on  the 
])art  of  the  indunas  and  the  whites  concerned.  On  arriving  at  the  camp 
Mr.  Dawson,  who  did  not  expect  to  find  white  troops  there,  went  off  with 
Mr,  Selous  to  get  some  refreshment,  being  considerably  exhausted  with 
his  long  ride  under  the  hot  sun,  while  an  employe  of  the  Tati  Company 
went  off  with  the  envoys  to  find  accommodation  for  them  and  their  horses. 
Just  then  the  interpreter  of  the  forces  came  to  Colonel  Goold-Adams 
with  the  news  that  the  indunas  were  meditating  an  escape.  At  this 
Colonel  Goold-Adams,  who  was  entirely  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  they 
were  envoys  from  Lobengula,  and  merely  supposed  them  to  be  natives 
who  had  escaped  with  Dawson  out  of  Buluwayo,  instantly  ordered  their 
arrest,  but  at  the  same  time  assured  them  that  they  had  nothing  to 
fear.  They  became  however  thoroughly  alarmed,  and  Mantuse,  snatching 
a  bayonet  from  one  of  the  troopers,  stabbed  two  of  his  guards  and  was 
shot  while  endeavouring  to  escape.  The  second  induna,  Inqubo,  making 
a  like  attempt,  was  also  killed.  The  third,  Ingubogubo,  offering  no 
resistance,  was  simply  secured  and  placed  under  arrest.  Meantime  Mr. 
Dawson,  after  having  had  a  meal,  was  making  his  way  to  the  Colonel's 
tent  in  order  to  report  the  object  of  his  mission  when  he  received  the 
first  intimation  of  the  incident. 

The  matter  was  promptly  seized  upon  by  a  few  newspapers  hostile 
to  the  Chartered  Company,  and  was  made  the  subject  of  a  good  deal  of 
gross  misrepresentation.  As  a  consequence  Major  W.  H.  Sawyer,  the 
High  Commissioner's  Military  Secretary,  was  despatched  to  institute  a 

Wiik  the  Southern  Column.  217 

complete  inquiry  into  the  circumstances  on  the  spot.  Major  Sawyer 
completely  exonerated  the  officers  and  men  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border 
Police,  and  delivered  it  as  his  opinion  that  the  death  of  the  indunas 
might  clearly  be  traced  to  a  series  of  extraordinary  mischances,  and  to 
the  fact  that  the  indunas  themselves  also  refrained  from  giving  any 
intelligible  indication  of  their  character  as  envoys.  Mr.  Dawson's 
omission  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  camp  was  situated  some  distance 
away  from  the  Tati  Company's  settlement,  and  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river,  and  to  the  fact  that  being  considerably  fatigued  with  his  journey,  he 
thought  that  the  business  might  stand  over  until  he  had  had  some 
refreshment.  On  the  other  hand,  Major  Sawyer's  report  stated  that  the 
evidence  he  had  collected  showed  that  the  indunas  had  made  a  violent 
and  determined  effort  to  escape.  The  success  of  the  expedition 
depended  in  great  measure  upon  the  maintenance  of  secrecy  as  to  its 
existence  and  movements,  and  it  was  the  obvious  duty  of  the  guards  to 
prevent  the  evasion  of  any  natives  likely  to  carry  news  to  the  enemy. 

The  following  is  Lieut.-Col.  Goold-Adams'  report,  dated  November 
2 1st,  1893  : — 

'•  Under  instructions  from  his  Excellency,  after  leaving  sufficent  men 
to  garrison  Macloutsie,  I  started  from  that  place  with  225  officers  and 
men,  210  horses,  four  Maxim  guns,  two  seven-pounder  guns,  fourteen 
waggons,  and  fifty  native  drivers.  I  was  joined  on  the  morning  of 
nth  October  by  Commandant  Raaf,  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  with  225  officers  and  men,  191  horses,  one  Maxim  gun,  and 
eleven  waggons,  with  their  complement  of  drivers.  Since  I  considered 
it  expedient  to  occupy  Tati  Settlement  as  soon  as  possible,  I  pushed 
forward  with  145  mounted  men  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  and 
seventy  mounted  men  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  the 
waggons  being  pushed  on  as  rapidly  as  possible  after  us.  I  reached  the 
Shashi  River  [3th  October,  and  here  I  met  the  Chief  Khama  with  130 
mounted  men,  and  between  1,700  and  1,800  dismounted  men,  about 
half  of  whom  were  armed  with  Martini-Henri  rifles.  He  also  had  with 
him  about  thirty  waggons  and  a  number  of  pack  horses.  Having 
ascertained  that  water  was  very  scarce  at  Tati,  I  pushed  on  with  my 
mounted  men  only,  and  left  Khama  and  his  people  on  the  Shashi 
River.     Our  waggon  train  arrived  at  Shashi  River  i8th  October,  and 

2i8  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

on  the  19th  I  made  a  move  from  Tati,  being  joined  by  the  waggons 
that  evening. 

"  The  force  leaving  Tati  numbered  about  440  Europeans  and  about 
2,000  natives,  520  horses,  and  about  2,000  head  of  oxen.  The  proposed 
route  was  to  the  Monarch  Mine,  thence  to  the  Ramokabane  River,  up 
that  river  to  its  source,  across  to  the  upper  waters  of  the  Mitangwe  River, 
and  along  the  high  veld  to  the  eastward,  striking  the  main  road  about 
the  Fig  Tree.  The  first  move  was  made  by  sending  Commandant  Raaf 
with  100  of  his  mounted  men  and  100  of  Khama's  mounted  men  up  the 
main  road  towards  Makkobis,  intended  as  a  feint  to  cover  the  flank 
movement  to  the  Monarch  Mine  with  the  waggon  train.  So  far  no 
Matabeli  had  actually  been  seen,  but  the  spoor  of  their  scouting  parties 
had  often  been  cut  by  ours.  A  party  of  scouts  under  Mr.  Selous 
proceeded  up  the  Ramokabane  River  to  ascertain  whether  it  was 
practicable  to  take  the  column  that  way.  He  returned  with  the 
information  that  it  was  absolutely  impossible,  there  being  great  scarcity 
of  water,  not  nearly  enough  for  our  great  numbers  of  men  and  animals. 
I  then  decided  to  push  forward  on  to  the  Mpakwe  River,  to  try  to  get 
round  the  point  of  the  hills  by  moving  to  the  head  waters  of  the 
Mpakwe  or  Nguisi  Rivers. 

"  Considering  it  impracticable  to  take  the  whole  of  my  waggon  train, 
I  pushed  on  with  only  190  mounted  men  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border 
Police,  200  mounted  men  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  twelve 
waggons,  three  Maxim  guns,  and  two  seven-pounder  guns,  leaving 
Khama  and  his  men  and  the  remainder  of  my  force  in  laager  at  the 
Ramokabane.  I  arrived  at  the  Singuesi  River,  a  tributary  of  the  Mpakwe, 
29th  October,  without  meeting  with  any  resistance.  From  Makalaka 
we  captured  we  learnt  that  the  Matabeli  had  been  down  and  gathered 
in  the  whole  of  their  cattle,  and  had  taken  them  up  to  the  hills  ;  that  the 
Matabeli  were  in  force  in  our  immediate  front,  divided  into  two  large 
impis,  one  at  or  near  the  Semokwe  Poort,  and  the  other  at  a  town  called 
Khosingnana,  at  the  north-eastern  extremity  of  the  hills.  Further,  we 
learnt  that  there  was  no  water  to  be  depended  upon  even  for  our  force, 
should  we  succeed  in  getting  round  the  hills  to  the  northward.  My  only 
alternative  then  was  to  send  back  for  Khama  and  the  men  left  behind 
at  Ramokabane  to  join  me  without  delay,  and  to  push  on  to  the  foot  of 

With  the  S 021  them  Column.  219 

the  hills  with  the  whole  force  and  try  to  get  the  Matabeli  to  attack  us, 
and  if  not,  to  actually  storm  their  position  and  drive  them  before  us. 
Orders  were  sent  to  this  effect  on  30th  October.  Meanwhile  I  laagered  as 
strong  as  possible  close  to  water.  The  position  was  not  a  good  one,  but 
was  the  best  that  could  be  found  within  reach  of  the  water.  There  were 
high  kopjes  of  from  150  to  300  feet  about  1,000  yards  to  the  south  and 
south-east  of  the  laager,  and  rising  ground  to  the  north  from  the  bank 
of  the  river. 

"On  the  afternoon  of  ist  November,  the  Chief  Khama  with  his 
people  and  waggons  arrived,  and  drew  up  about  200  yards  to  the  east 
of  my  laager.  At  about  7  p.m.  I  received  a  message  from  Captain 
Tancred,  who  was  in  command  of  the  party  I  had  left  at  the  Ramoka- 
bane,  to  the  effect  that  his  oxen  were  knocked  up  for  want  of  water  ; 
that  he  had  outspanned  them  about  three  miles  from  my  laager, 
and  had  sent  them  on  to  the  water.  It  being  dark,  it  was  im- 
possible to  send  the  cattle  back  that  evening,  and  orders  were  given 
that  they  should  start  at  sunrise  next  morning,  and  bring  the  waggons 
on  without  delay.  In  accordance  with  this  order,  the  oxen  started 
shortly  after  daylight,  and  from  the  report  furnished  by  Captain 
Tancred,  it  appeared  that  some  of  the  spans  arrived  some  time  before 
others,  and  that  these  were  inspanned  and  started  immediately.  When 
these  waggons  were  within  about  a  mile  and  a-half  of  the  laager,  they 
were  attacked  from  the  rear  by  a  force  of  about  600  or  700  Matabeli. 
Immediately  the  sound  of  firing  was  heard  from  the  laager,  mounted 
men  were  sent  out  to  assist  in  getting  in  the  waggons.  Mr.  Selous, 
who  had  his  horse  close  to  him  when  the  firing  commenced,  arrived 
first  at  the  waggons,  and  in  trying  to  stop  the  rush  of  the  Matabeli  had 
already  been  wounded  when  the  mounted  men  arrived.  But  by  this 
time  the  rearmost  of  the  waggons  had  been  rushed.  Corporal  Mundy 
and  a  native  driver  who  were  with  it  being  both  assegaied,  the  waggon 
fired,  its  contents,  principally  quartermaster's  stores,  destroyed,  and  the 
oxen  taken  away.  Our  mounted  men  covered  the-  movement  of  the 
waggons  to  the  laager,  and  fell  back  with  them,  the  Matabeli  following 
them  up  through  the  bush,  eventually  getting  to  within  150  yards  of  the 
laager,  when  the  Maxim  guns  opened  fire,  and  they  at  once  turned. 
The  Matabeli  then   retired   into  the  hills   to  the  southward.      I   then 

2  20  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

ordered  our  mounted  men  out  after  them,  and  Khama's  men  to  storm 
the  hills,  our  men  going  round  the  base  of  the  hills  to  prevent  the 
Matabeli,  as  much  as  possible,  from  getting  out.  Firing  was  kept  up 
on  the  hills  for  about  an  hour,  when  nothing  more  could  be  seen 
of  the  Matabeli,  We  afterwards  ascertained  that  they  must  have 
remained  in  hiding  in  the  caves  and  rocks  until  nightfall,  when  they 
made  their  way  back  to  the  Motopo  Mountains.  Over  sixty  dead 
bodies  were  counted,  and  a  great  number  must  have  gone  away 
wounded.  Sergeant  Dahm  (British  South  Africa  Company)  was  shot 
through  the  head  during  the  attack  on  the  hills,  three  of  Khama's  men 
were  killed,  and  six  or  seven  wounded.  Mr.  Selous,  Sergeant-Major 
Codrington,  and  Corporal  Ransome  (Bechuanaland  Border  Police)  were 
slightly  wounded,  and  Sergeant-Major  Robertson  and  Sergeant  Dempsey 
(British  South  Africa  Company)  were  also  wounded,  but  not  seriously. 
Two  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  horses  and  two  British  South  Africa 
Company  horses  were  shot. 

"  On  3rd  November  I  moved  on  to  a  good  site,  close  to  Umpandine 
Kraal.  On  5th  November,  just  as  I  was  inspanning  preparatory  to 
moving  on  towards  Mangwe,  the  Chief  Khama  informed  me  that 
neither  he  nor  his  people  could  go  on  any  farther,  that  small-pox  had 
broken  out  among  his  people,  and  that  unlesr  he  could  get  back  to 
his  own  country  his  people  would  be  dying  in  the  veld.  I  asked  him  if 
he  did  not  understand  that  he  had  already  agreed  with  his  Excellency  to 
place  1 ,000  of  his  men  under  my  immediate  orders,  which  men  were  to 
receive  is.  a  day,  and  had  been  rationed  by  me  since  the  date  of 
their  leaving  Palapye.  He  replied  that  he  quite  understood  that,  but 
now  that  small-pox  had  broken  out  he  must  take  them  all  back,  and 
that,  of  course,  he  forfeited  all  claim  to  money.  I  did  my  utmost  to 
persuade  him  to  lend  me  a  few  waggons  and  oxen  to  assist  me  in 
getting  forward  to  a  position  nearer  the  hills,  from  whence  I  should  be 
within  striking  distance  of  the  Matabeli.  This  he  refused  to  do.  I 
then  asked  him  to  remain  in  laager  where  he  was,  until  I  could  get 
forward  to  a  new  position,  for  I  did  not  want  the  Matabeli  to  see  that 
he  was  leaving  me  and  going  home.  This  he  at  first  said  he  would  do. 
Within  half  an  hour,  however,  he  sent  me  a  message  to  say  that  he 
must  go  at  once.     I  again    saw  him    and    asked  him  whether  he  was 

With  the  Southern  Column.  221 

going  home  in  consequence  of  any  action  of  mine.  He  assured  me 
positively  that  it  was  only  on  account  of  the  small-pox  having  broken 
out  among  his  people.  My  oxen  being  in  very  poor  condition,  I  had 
lightened  my  waggons  by  putting  some  of  the  loads  on  Khama's 
waggons.  This  stuff  he  off-loaded  and  trekked  away.  I  was  thus  left 
with  a  very  large  quantity  of  stuff,  with  which,  with  the  waggons  and 
oxen  at  my  disposal,  I  could  scarcely  get  forward. 

"  Within  a  few  hours  of  Khama's  leaving,  I  received  a  deputation 
from  the  Makalaka  Chiefs  Malaba  and  Manyami,  stating  that  they 
Avanted  protection  for  their  people.  They  also  informed  me  that  the 
Column  from  Mashonaland  had  had  a  battle  near  Buluwayo,  that  the 
Matabeli  had  been  beaten,  and  that  King  Lobengula  had  fled.  They 
also  stated  that  the  impis  that  had  been  in  our  immediate  front,  on 
hearing  the  news  from  Buluwayo,  had  fled  in  the  direction  of  the  Gwai 
River.  On  6th  November  I  received  a  message  from  Dr.  Jameson  con- 
firming these  reports.  I  immediately  despatched  100  mounted  men  up 
the  main  road  to  Buluwayo  to  see  if  the  road  was  clear,  and  leaving  a 
party  of  fifty  men  with  two  Maxim  guns  at  Umpadine,  under  Lieutenant 
Munro,  I  started  with  the  remainder  of  my  force  to  Mangwe,  and  thence 
by  the  main  road  to  Buluwayo,  which  I  reached  15th  November  travel- 
ling by  easy  stages.*.'/ 

As  the  representative  of  Her  Majesty's  Government,  Sir 
Henry  Brougham  Loch,  to  whom  reference  is  frequently  made  in 
the  preceding  and  following  pages,  exercised  an  important  influence 
over  the  campaign.  His  action  has  been  sufficiently  recorded  in  the 
Blue  Books,  and  in  Sir  John  Willoughby's  chapter  bearing  upon  the 
causes  of  the  war.  Suffice  it  to  say,  therefore,  that  when  Sir  Henry  had 
satisfied  himself  that  war  was  unavoidable,  he  gave  the  fullest  possible 
discretion  to  the  Administrator,  and  heartily  supported  the  advance  by 
ordering  up  Lieut. -Colonel  Goold-Adams  with  the  Bechuanaland 
Border  Police  and  a  contingent  of  Khama's  levies.  Sir  H.  B,  Loch, 
G.C.M.G.,  K.C.B.,  Governor  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Cape 
Colony,  and  Her  Majesty's  High  Commissioner  for  South  Africa, 
commenced  his  varied  and  distinguished  public  career  in  the  Royal 
Navy,  but  relinquished  that  service  for  the  Bengal  Light  Cavalry, 
acting  as  A.D.C.  to  Lord  Gough  during  the  Sutlej  Campaign.     He  was 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengiila. 

sent  by  the  War  Office  in  1854  to  assist  in  organising  the  Turkish 
troops,  and  crossed  from  Varna  to  the  Crimea.  In  1857  he  accom- 
panied Lord  Elgin's  special  mission  to  China.  In  1858  he  accompanied 
Lord  Elgin's  second  embassy,  and  in  the  subsequent  war  was  captured 
by   the  Chinese    and    subjected    to     indignity   and   torture.       He  was 

Sir   Henry  Brougham   Loch,   G.C.M.G.,   K.C.B. 

Gai'ernor  of  the  Cape  Colony,  and  Her  Afajesty's  High  Commissioner  /o>-  South  Africa. 

afterwards  private  secretary  to  Sir  George  Grey,  then  Home  Secretary, 
and  in  1863  became  Governor  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  for  which  he  secured 
a  new  constitution.  In  1882  he  was  appointed  Commissioner  of  Woods 
and  Forests,  and  in  1884  Governor  of  Victoria,  Australia.  Five  years 
later  he  succeeded    Sir   Hercules    Robinson  as  Governor  off  the    Cape, 

With  the  Southern   Cohiuni. 


where  he  rendered  a  great  pubHc  service  by  his  firmness  and  promptitude 
on  the  occasion  of  the  great  Boer  Trek,  which  was  turned  back  by 
Dr.  Jameson  and  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  Troopers  at  the 
Limpopo.  Sir  Henry  has  recently  returned  from  the  Transvaal,  where  he 
has  successfully  arranged  what  promised  to  be  a  very  serious  difficulty 
between  the  Boers  and  "  uitlanders  "  in  respect  to  the  "  commandeering  " 
question.  In  a  country  proverbially  the  grave  of  reputations,  Sir  Henry 
Loch  has  made  no  very  material  mistakes,  is  generally  respected  and 
admired,  and  is  personally  very  much  liked. 

The  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  formed  a  considerable  portion  ot 
the  flying  patrol  sent  after  Lobengula,  and  though  in  point  of  fact  their 
assistance  was  never  needed,  it  was  at  all  times  available  ;  and,  had  the 
campaign  been  less  ably  conducted,  there  is  no  doubt  but  that  their 
support  would  have  been  absolutely  necessary  to  the  Rhodesian 
forces.  Their  commander.  Lieutenant  -  Colonel  Goold  -  Adams,  is 
a  son  of  the  late  Mr.  Richard  Wallis  Goold-Adams,  of  Jamesbrook, 
Cloyne,  Co.  Cork,  Ireland,  and  a  cousin  of  the  first  Earl  of  Bantry. 
His  mother  was  a  daughter  of  Sir  William  Wrixon  Becher,  of 
Ballygiblin,  Mallow,  who  married  Miss  O'Neil,  the  famous  actress.  He 
was  originally  intended  for  the  navy,  and  after  failing  for  the  entrance  to 
the  "Britannia,"  went  to  the  "Conway"  training  ship  in  the  Mersey. 
After  completing  his  training  there,  he  was  apprenticed  to  a 
sailing  ship,  and  started  on  a  voyage  to  Australia,  but  the  vessel  was 
nearly  lost  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay.  The  crew  only  just  managed  to  get 
back  to  Falmouth,  where  most  of  them,  including  Mr.  Goold-Adams, 
concluded  that  the  charms  of  a  sea-going  life  were  somewhat  over- 
rated. He  returned  home  in  such  a  miserable  plight  that  his  parents 
decided  to  buy  him  out,  and  to  let  him  enter  the  army,  which  his  other 
brothers  intended  making  their  profession.  He  therefore  went  to 
Eastman's  Royal  Naval  Academy  at  Southsea,  and  thence  to  Mr. 
Wolfram's  at  Blackheath.  In  1878  he  passed  into  the  Royal  Military 
College;  ultimately  joining  the  "Royal  Scots  ^'  in  Malta,  and  proceeding 
to  India  on  promotion  to  the  other  battalion,  with  which  he  returned  to 
this  country  in  1881.  After  remaining  in  Ireland  for  a  year  or  two  with 
his  regiment,  he  exchanged  to  the  battalion  stationed  in  Malta, 
subsequently  proceeding  with  it  to  the  West  Indies,  and  thence  on  to 

224  ^-^^  Dow7ifall  of  Lobengula. 

the  Cape.  There  he  joined  Sir  Charles  Warren's  Expedition  into 
Bechuanaland,  serving  with  the  mounted  infantry  troop  of  his  regiment. 
Subsequently  he  exchanged  into  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  and 
on  the  retirement  of  Sir  Frederick  Carrington  succeeded  to  the  supreme 
command.  Colonel  Goold-Adams'  services  were  recognised  by  his  being 
appointed  C.M.G.  on  Her  Majesty's  last  birthday. 

Among  his  earlier  work  with  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police 
Colonel  Goold-Adams  personally  commanded  a  punitive  expedition 
against  Lehutetu,  a  Bushman  village  in  the  Kalahari  Desert,  and  was  in 
command  of  the  escort  which  accompanied  Sir  Sidney  Shippard  to  the 
frontier  on  the  occasion  of  the  "  Grobelaar  incident,"  and  thence  to  Bulu- 
wayo.  Here  the  whole  party  was  in  very  serious  danger,  as  the  Matabeli 
nation  was  in  a  very  excited  state  at  the  time,  "dancing  "  before  Loben- 
gula for  several  days,  and  demanding  permission  to  attack  the  white 
strangers.  It  was  only  owing  to  the  King's  firmness  that  the  party  got 
away  safely,  Lobengula  very  chivalrously  ordering  his  people,  if  they  really 
wanted  to  fight,  to  go  down  to  Kimberley  and  attack  the  whites  there ; 
not  to  attempt  to  harm  a  small  party  who  were  his  guests.  Colonel 
Goold-Adams  is  spoken  of  by  those  who  know  him  as  a  sound,  well- 
grounded,  and  accomplished  officer,  with  plenty  of  tact,  and  he  is  very 

Raaf's  Rangers,  which  formed  part  of  the  Southern  Column,  were 
placed  under  the  command  of  Commandant  Raaf,  whose  senior  officer 
was  Captain  Hermann  Melville  Heyman.  He  is  son  of  an 
artillery  officer  holding  a  command  at  Woolwich,  and  has  also  a  brother 
in  the  Royal  Artillery.  He  came  out  to  South  Africa  to  join  the  Cape 
Mounted  Rifles,  in  which  he  became  captain,  resigning  in  order  to  go 
up  to  the  Johannesburg  Goldfields,  He  has  taken  part  in  all  the  recent 
down-country  wars  since  and  including  the  Basuto  Campaign,  and 
bears  the  reputation  of  being  cool  in  action  and  an  energetic  and 
useful  officer.  Captain  Heyman  is  especially  good  as  an  artillerist,  and 
has  gone  through  a  special  course  of  gunnery.  He  also  at  one  time  held  a 
commission  in  the  Cape  Field  Artillery.  He  entered  Mashonaland  as  a 
captain  in  the  British  South  Africa  Police,  on  whose  disbandment  he 
received  a  magistracy  in  the  Company's  service.  Subsequently  he 
was  the  hero  of  the  Massi  Kessi  incident,  when,  with  thirty  troopers,  he 

With  the  Southern   Cohinin.  225 

utterly  routed  and  drove  away  500  Portuguese  soldiers.  After  this  he 
was  appointed  resident  magistrate  at  Umtali.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
war  he  was  requested  by  Dr.  Jameson  to  join  Commandant  Raaf  as 
senior  officer  under  him.  He  was  the  first  of  the  Southern  Column  to 
reach  Buluwayo,  where  he  remained  as  commandant  while  Major 
Forbes  went  forward  with  the  flying  Patrol,  and  now  occupies  the 
important  position  of  chief  magistrate  there.  He  is,  according  to  his 
brother  officers,  courageous  to  a  fault,  tactful,  and  reliable,  and  one  of 
the  Company's  best  officers. 

It  would  not  be  fair  to  record  the  events  of  the  brief  campaign  in 
Matabeliland  without  reference  to  the  share — small  though  it  was — 
taken  therein  by  Khama,  paramount  chief  of  the  Bamangwatos.  Khama 
stands  easily  in  front  of  all  other  South  African  chiefs,  either  as  a  loyal 
subject  of  the  Queen,  or  as  an  enlightened  and  able  ruler  of  his  numerous 
people.  From  the  time  when  he  first  voluntarily  placed  himself  under 
British  protection  he  has  been  a  potent  influence  for  good  in  the  north- 
western regions  of  our  South  African  empire.  It  was  his  action,  by 
inviting  Sir  Charles  Warren's  mission  and  by  loyally  supporting  him 
in  everyway,  which  led  to  the  establishment  of  our  protectorate  over  those 
vast  territories,  and  which  was  an  important  step  towards  the  subsequent 
acquisition  of  Mashonaland,  Matabeliland,  Barotsiland,  and  the  adjacent 
countries.  He  is  a  straightforward  Kaffir  chieftain,  and  was  highly 
spoken  of  by  Livingstone;  is  uniformly  courteous  and  generously 
hospitable  to  white  traders  or  travellers,  and  under  his  wise  rule  the 
Bamangwato  nation  is  flourishing  like  the  green  bay  tree. 

He  discourages  polygamy,  and  is  a  rigid  teetotaler,  the  sale  of 
alcoholic  liquor  being  absolutely  forbidden,  either  by  whites  or  blacks, 
throughout  his  dominions.  As  to  the  wisdom  of  this  course — among 
natives — there  is  no  question  ;  it  is  the  only  thing  which  can  save  the 
South  African  races  from  degradation.  He  even  discourages  the  use  of 
Kaffir  beer  and  tobacco,  but  at  the  same  time  is  by  no  means  puritanical. 
Since  Khama  became  paramount  chief  there  has  been  only  one  or  two 
executions  in  his  dominions  ;  he  is  beloved  by  all  his  subjects,  and  is  in 
every  way  a  striking  contrast  to  his  hereditary  foe,  the  late  King 
Lobengula.  He  has  been  educated — reading  and  writing  Sechuana — 
by  the  missionaries,  who,  however,  neglected  to  teach  him  English.    He 



The  Dozunfall  of  Lobengula. 

is  an  excellent  shot  and  a  keen  sportsman  ;  and  though  sixty  years  of  age 
is  active  and  for  all  purposes  a  vigorous  young  man  still.  He  is  an 
extraordinary  character — exceedingly  able  and  conscientious.  When 
the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  were  ordered  to  the  front,  Sir  Henry 
Loch  requested  that  Khama  should  march  against  Lobengula 
with  1,000  men.  The  old  king  promptly  took  the  field,  but  the 
Bamangwatos  are  not  of  good  fighting  stuff,  besides  which  the  crops 
wanted  reaping,  and  small-pox  broke  out  among  his  men.  Khama's  force 
soon  turned  back — a  proceeding  which  naturally  gave  a  great  deal  of 
annoyance,  but  which  was  readily  understood  and  condoned  by  those 
who  knew  the  Bamangwatos. 

The  Waggons  arriving  at  Buluwayo. 


By  H.  Rider  Haggard. 

{Being  a  Note  on  the  circumstances  attending  the  Deaths  of  Captain  R.  Robert 

Patterson,  Mr.  J.  Sargeaunt,  and  Mr.  Thomas  in  Matabelilaud  in 

September,  1878.) 

I  HAVE  been  asked  by  the  Editors  of  this  book  to  place  on  record  briefly 
such  facts  as  are  within  my  knowledge  concerning  the  unhappy  deaths 
of  my  late  friends,  Captain  Robert  Patterson  and  Mr.  John  Sargeaunt, 
who  together  with  a  certain  Mr.  Thomas,  the  young  son  of  a  missionary 
in  the  Amandabeli  country,  came  to  their  ends  while  on  a  journey  from 
the  kraal  of  Lobengula,  then  King  of  the  Matabeli,  to  the  Falls  of  the 
Zambesi.  The  task  is  not  altogether  an  easy  one,  seeing  that  the 
evidence  obtainable  is  necessarily  of  a  hearsay  character  ;  that  many 
years  have  gone  by  since  the  tragedy  occurred,  and  that  it  was  imprac- 
ticable to  investigate  its  circumstances  upon  the  spot.  Still,  a  residuum 
remains  which  may  fairly  be  accepted  as  fact,  and  that  is  perhaps  worthy 
of  preservation. 

Captain  Patterson,  when  I  became  acquainted  with  him,  was  a  man  in 
early  middle  life,  florid  in  appearance,  and  rather  stout  in  person,  of  an 
open  manner  and  a  genial  disposition.  Being,  I  believe,  the  possessor  of 
considerable  means,  in  an  ill-omened  moment  a  desire  entered  into  him  to 
visit  what  were  then  the  less  explored  districts  of  South  Africa.  The  evi! 
opportunity  was  not  lacking.  At  that  time,  namely  in  1878,  the  late  Sir 
William,  then  Mr.  Sargeaunt,  was  commissioned  by  the  Colonial  Office  to 
proceed  to  Africa  and  report  upon  the  financial  condition  of  the  Transvaal, 
which  had  recently  been  annexed  to  the  British  Empire.  Being  on  terms 
of  intimacy  with  Sir  William,  Captain  Patterson  arranged  to  join  his  expe- 
dition in  an   unofficial  capacity.     With   them   went  also   Sir  William's 

Q  2 

2  28  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

young  son,  Mr.  John  Sargeaunt,  a  gentleman  of  about  twenty  years  of 
age,  and  my  friend,  Mr.  Arthur  Henry  Douglas  Cochrane,  who  is  to-day 
the  sole  survivor  of  that  party. 

On  arriving  in  the  Transvaal,  Captain  Patterson  and  Mr.  John 
Sargeaunt  took  journeys  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Secoeconi's  country 
and  elsewhere  for  the  purpose  of  shooting  game.  Captain  Patterson's 
appetite  for  travel  in  the  veldt  being  whetted  by  these  pleasant  and 
successful  excursions,  he  determined,  before  returning  to  England,  to 
journey  further  afield  and  to  visit  the  famous  Falls  of  the  Zambesi. 
About  this  time  Sir  William  Sargeaunt  went  home,  the  object  of  his 
mission  being  accomplished;  but  unfortunately  enough  he  assented  to 
the  wish  of  his  son,  Mr.  John  Sargeaunt,  and  allowed  him  to  become  a 
member  of  Captain  Patterson's  expedition  northwards.  As  it  chanced 
at  this  juncture,  Sir  Bartle  Frere,  the  High  Commissioner  for  the  Cape, 
was  anxious  to  send  a  friendly  mission  to  Lobengula,  the  King  of  the 
Matabeli.  This  chief  had  been  making  himself  obnoxious  by  allowing 
white  traders  in  his  country  to  be  molested,  and  as  Captain  Patterson 
proposed  to  visit  the  district,  it  occurred  to  the  authorities  that  here 
was  a  cheap  and  favourable  opportunity  of  opening  negotiations  with 
him.  Accordingly  Captain  Patterson  was  asked  to  combine  business 
with  pleasure  and  undertake  the  affair,  which  he  readily  agreed  to  do. 
Sir  Bartle  Frere's  choice  was  in  one  way  ill-considered,  as  its  terrible 
issue  proved,  seeing  that  his  envoy  had  little  experience  of  natives  of 
Zulu  blood  and  none  of  dealing  with  them  diplomatically. 

The  party  at  its  start  consisted  of  Captain  Patterson,  Mr.  J.  Sar- 
geaunt, Mr.  Gray  Palmer,  the  interpreter,  a  hunter  and  guide  of  experi- 
ence, two  of  my  own  and  Mr.  Cochrane's  servants,  named  Khiva,  a  Zulu 
boy  who  spoke  English  perfectly,  and  Vent-vogel  or  Wind  Bird,  a  clever 
Hottentot  driver,  together  with  a  it\y!  other  natives.  That  Mr. 
Cochrane  and  I  did  not  accompany  it  was  owing  only  to  our  being  unable 
to  obtain  leave  from  the  Government  of  the  Transvaal,  which  we  both  of 
us  served  in  different  capacities. 

I  remember  well  that  after  the  waggon  had  started,  together  with 
Mr.  Cochrane  I  rode  out  from  Pretoria  to  the  place  of  the  first  outspan, 
where  we  bade  our  friends  good-bye — for  ever. 

The  mission  reached  Lobengula's  kraal  in  safety.     At  first — so  we 

The  Patterson  Embassy  to  Lobengula.  229 

gathered  from  information  and  letters  received — the  King  did  not  greet 
them  well,  for  when  Mr.  Sargeaunt  went  forward  to  see  him,  he  asked 
rudely  how  it  came  about  that  the  Government  at  the  Cape  sent  a 
beardless  boy  to  talk  to  him  ?  Captain  Patterson,  however,  opened  his 
business,  and  finding  that  Lobengula's  attitude  remained  unfriendly,  it 
would  seem  that  at  a  certain  point  in  the  negotiations  he  made  a  great 
mistake  which  was  to  cost  him  and  his  companions  their  lives,  though 
whether  he  did  this  by  accident,  or  by  design  in  his  ignorance  of  the 
character  and  habits  of  native  tyrants,  will  never  now  be  known. 

In  those  days  a  pretender  to  the  throne  of  Matabeliland  named 
Kruman,  or  Korooman,  by  many  believed  to  be  its  rightful  heir,  was 
living  in  Natal,  whither  he  had  fled  to  escape  the  assegai.  I  have  a 
recollection  of  hearing  the  late  Sir  Theophilus  Shepstone  tell  Captain 
Patterson  the  story  of  this  Kruman,  who  I  think  was  at  one  time  in  his 
employ  as  a  gardener,  but  of  whose  rights  to  the  chieftainship  of  the 
nation  a  section  of  the  Matabeli  people  were  advocates.  Of  the  existence 
of  this  rival  Captain  Patterson  is  believed  to  have  been  so  unfortunate 
as  to  remind  the  King,  either  by  way  of  a  hint  which  that  potentate  was 
not  slov/  to  take,  or  perhaps  incidentally  in  the  course  of  general 
conversation.  At  any  rate  the  effect  seems  to  have  been  startling,  for 
from  that  moment  Lobengula,  to  whom  the  name  of  Kruman  was  as  a 
writing  on  the  wall,  became  profusely  civil  to  the  envoys,  and  from  that 
moment,  as  I  believe,  he  doomed  them  to  a  sudden  and  cruel  death. 

The  political  object  of  their  journey  being  to  all  appearance 
accomplished  satisfactorily.  Captain  Patterson  told  the  King  that  before 
returning  to  the  Transvaal  he  was  anxious  to  visit  the  Zambesi  Falls. 
Lobengula  readily  gave  the  required  permission ;  but  when  he  was  asked 
to  allow  young  Mr.  Thomas,  the  son  of  a  missionary  of  that  name,  to 
accompany  him,  he  at  first  refused,  nor  would  he  alter  his  decision 
until  considerable  pressure  had  been  brought  to  bear  upon  him.  The 
reason  of  this  attitude  was  doubtless  that  he  entertained  kindly  feelings 
towards  the  lad,  and  did  not  wish  to  include  him  in  a  slaughter  which 
was  already  planned. 

At  length,  all  having  been  arranged.  Captain  Patterson,  Messrs. 
Sargeaunt  and  Thomas,  Khiva,  Vent-vogel,  and  twenty  bearers 
furnished   by   Lobengula,  started    on    foot   to    make  the  twelve  days' 

230  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengitla. 

journe}'  to  the  Falls.  The  waggon,  with  the  interpreter,  Mr.  Gray 
Palmer,  and  the  other  native  servants,  remained  at  the  King's  kraal  to 
await  their  return.  The  next  thing  we  at  Pretoria  heard  of  the  progress 
of  the  party  was  from  the  lips  of  messengers  sent  by  Lobengula,  who 
announced  that  the  bearers  had  returned  to  the  King's  kraal,  but  that 
the  three  white  men  and  their  two  servants  had  died  of  drinking 
poisoned  water.  The  manner  of  their  deaths  was  given  in  great  detail, 
Mr.  Sargeaunt,  I  remember,  being  represented  as  having  lived  the 
longest  because  he  was  '•  very  strong." 

In  the  first  shock  and  confusion  of  such  news  it  was  not  very 
closely  scrutinised — at  any  rate,  by  the  friends  of  the  dead  men  ;  but 
on  reflection  there  were  several  things  about  it  that  struck  us  as  strange. 
For  instance,  we  knew  well  that  however  thirsty  he  might  be,  Captain 
Patterson  was  in  the  habit  when  travelling  of  never  drinking  water 
until  it  had  been  boiled  to  destroy  impurities.  It  seemed  odd  that  on 
this  one  occasion  he  should  have  neglected  an  invariable  precaution. 
Also  it  was  curious  that  while  Lobengula's  bearers  appeared  to  have 
escaped,  the  white  men  and  their  two  servants  had  perished  without 
exception.  Lastly,  even  in  that  district  it  is  not  usual  to  find  water  so 
virulent  that  it  will  kill  as  rapidly  as  it  was  reported  to  have  done  in  this 
instance,  unless  indeed  it  had  been  poisoned  designedly.  Such  were  the 
doubts  which  assailed  us — doubts  that  on  the  return  of  the  waggon  in 
the  charge  of  the  interpreter,  who  brought  with  him  most  of  the  effects 
of  the  deceased  men,  resolved  themselves  into  something  like  certainty. 
Then,  by  putting  two  and  two  together,  we  were  able  to  piece  out  the 
real  history  of  the  diabolical  plot  whereof  I  believe  that  our  poor 
friends  were  the  victims.  It  was  a  terrible  story,  and  one  which  shows 
to  what  depths  of  wickedness  and  treachery  the  savage  will  sink  who 
thinks  that  his  place  and  interests  are  threatened. 

Among  the  articles  taken  from  the  bodies  and  brought  to  Pretoria 
by  Mr.  Gray  Palmer,  was  a  rough  diary  consisting  of  some  sheets  of 
paper  fastened  together  with  string.  This  diary  belonged  to  Captain 
Patterson,  who  was  an  extremely  methodical  man  and  had  the  habit  of 
making  notes  of  all  that  he  did.  In  it  we  found  entries  of  his  prepara- 
tions for  a  trip  to  the  Falls,  and  among  them  the  number  and  names  of 
the    bearers  provided  by   Lobengula,  with,  if  my  memory  serves  me,  a 

The  Patterson  Embassy  to  Lobengula.  231 

list  of  the  goods  entrusted  to  each  man.  There  also  we  found  a  brief 
chronicle  of  the  first  three  days'  journey  and  that  of  the  morning  of  the 
fourth  day.  Then  the  record  stopped  abruptly.  It  seems  probable  that 
the  last  entry  was  made  a  few  minutes  before  Captain  Patterson  was 
killed.  One  striking  omission  is  to  be  noted  in  this  diary.  It  makes 
no  mention  of  the  fact  of  the  party  having  passed  several  days  without 
water,  as  was  stated  by  the  messengers  to  be  the  case,  and  of  the  ultimate 
discovery  of  the  poisoned  spring.  Also,  although  the  story  of  the 
messengers  was  to  the  effect  that  some  of  the  party  lingered  a  long 
while,  no  single  line  appeared  to  indicate  that  this  was  so.  Had  their 
tale  been  true,  would  not  Captain  Patterson  or  one  of  his  companions 
have  made  shift  to  scrawl  some  few  words  of  explanation  and  farewell  ? 

These  coincidences  and  omissions  taken  by  themselves,  however, 
would  not  have  amounted  to  anything  worthy  of  the  name  of  evidence. 
But  now  comes  the  curious  part  of  the  story,  which  exemplifies  in  a 
striking  manner  the  truth  of  the  old  saw — "  Murder  will  out."  On  the 
arrival  of  the  waggon  at  Pretoria  we  learned  from  the  interpreter,  Mr 
Gray  Palmer,  and  the  native  servants  that  on  their  return  journey,  while 
they  were  outspanned  one  day  beyond  the  borders  of  Lobengula's  country, 
some  Kafiirs — Bechuanas  I  think — arrived  and  fell  into  conversation  with 
the  driver,  remarking  that  he  had  come  up  country  with  a  full  waggon 
and  that  now  he  went  down  with  an  empty  one.  The  driver  replied 
with  lamentations  over  the  death  of  his  masters  from  drinking  poisoned 
water,  whereupon  the  head  man  of  the  Bechuanas,  who  was  wearing 
a  shooting  coat  made  of  a  yellowish  cloth  of  the  nature  of  "  kharkee," 
which  was  recognised  as  having  belonged  to  Captain  Patterson,  told 
him  the  following  story  :  He  said  that  a  while  back  a  brother  of 
his  was  out  hunting  in  the  desert  for  ostriches  in  the  company  of 
other  natives,  when  hearing  shots  fired  some  way  off  they  followed 
the  sound,  thinking  that  white  men  were  shooting  game  and  that 
they  would  be  able  to  beg  meat.  On  reaching  a  spot  by  a  pool  of 
water  they  were  horrified  to  see  the  bodies  of  three  white  men  lying 
on  the  ground,  and  with  them  those  of  a  Hottentot  and  a  Kaffir, 
surrounded  by  a  number  of  armed  Matabeli.  They  asked  the  Matabeli 
what  they  had  been  doing — killing  the  white  men  ?  and  were  told  to 
"  be  still,"  for  the  deed  was  done  by  "  order  of  the  King,"  who  killed 

232  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

whom    he    chose.       Then    they   learned    the   story    of  this    treacherous 

It  appeared  that  the  white  men  had  made  a  midday  halt  by  the 
pool,  where  Captain  Patterson  sat  down  under  a  tree,  at  a  little  distance, 
and  entered  in  his  diary  the  last  words  that  he  was  destined  to  write  on 
earth.  Presently  one  of  the  bearers,  following  a  pre-arranged  plan,  went 
to  the  edge  of  the  pool  and  called  suddenly  to  the  white  men  to  come 
and  see,  for  there  was  "  a  great  snake  in  the  water  "  Captain  Patterson, 
who  was  devoted  to  natural  history,  at  once  ran  up,  and  as  he  leaned 
over  the  edge  of  the  pool,  his  neck  was  broken  by  a  blow  from  his  own 
axe.  The  others  were  then  shot  and  assegaied,  Mr.  Sargeaunt  making 
a  desperate  resistance  and  being  the  last  to  fall  Vent-vogel,  the 
Hottentot,  almost  effected  his  escape,  for  with  the  cunning  of  his  race 
he  sprang  from  side  to  side  as  he  ran,  disconcerting  the  aim  of  the 
murderers.  At  last,  however,  when  he  had  covered  about  a  hundred 
and  fifty  yards  of  ground,  a  bullet  "  winged  with  fate  "  broke  his  back 
and  he  died.  The  Bechuana  further  described  the  clothes  that  his 
brother  had  seen  upon  the  bodies,  and  also  some  articles  belonging  to 
the  white  men  that  had  been  given  to  members  of  his  party  by  the 
Matabeli  soldiers.  His  description  was  so  accurate  that,  when  considered 
in  conjunction  with  the  fact  that  he  was  wearing  Captain  Patterson's  coat, 
which  he  had  obtained  from  his  brother,  it  left  little  doubt  as  to  the 
truth  of  his  story. 

In  confirmation  of  this  version  of  the  facts,  I  may  mention 
two  things  :  first  that  Mr.  F.  C.  Selous,  who  has  travelled  a  great  deal 
in  Matabeliland,  informed  me  recently,  that  as  a  result  of  inquiries 
carried  out  on  the  spot  he  had  no  doubt  but  that  Patterson  and  his  party 
were  murdered.  Secondly,  when  the  articles  belonging  to  the  ill-fated 
expedition  were  sold  by  public  auction  at  Pretoria,  I  purchased  Mr. 
Sargeaunt's  double-barrelled  breach-loading  gun.  On  examination  it 
was  found  to  show  traces  of  violence  and  struggle,  the  breach  being 
choked  with  mud  and  the  locks  strained.  Moreover,  Sir  Theophilus 
Shepstone,  who  knew  natives  and  their  temper  better  perhaps  than  any 
white  man  who  has  ever  lived,  told  me  that  he  was  convinced  that  the 
party  came  to  their  end  by  foul  means.  In  this  connection  also  it  may 
be  well  to  quote  a  foot-note  to  a  paper  by  the  late   Captain   Patterson, 

The  Patterson  Embassy  to  Lobengida.  233 

which  was  communicated  by  the  Colonial  Office  and  read  before  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society,  on  Feb.  lOth,  1879.     It  runs  thus  :  — 

According  to  a  letter  since  received  from  Sir  Bartle  Frere,  statements  have 
been  subsequently  made  to  Sir  Theophilus  Shepstone  which  throw  doubt  upon 
Lobengula's  story,  and  afford  but  too  much  reason  for  suspecting  that  the 
unfortunate  explorers  were  the  victims  of  a  foul  conspiracy. 

No  public  notice  was  taken  of  the  matter,  for  the  obvious  reason 
that  without  enormous  expense  and  the  undertaking  of  war  upon  a  large 
scale,  it  was  impossible  to  get  at  Lobengula  to  punish  him.  Nor  indeed 
would  it  have  been  easy  to  come  by  legal  evidence  to  disprove  that 
chief's  ingenious  story  of  the  death  of  the  party  through  the  accidental 
drinking  of  poisoned  water,  since  anybody  trying  to  reach  the  spot  of 
the  massacre,  and  there  to  investigate  the  facts,  would  very  probably  have 
fallen  a  victim  to  some  similar  unlucky  chance  before  he  returned  with 
his  proofs. 

Such  is  the  brief  account  of  the  fate  of  Sir  Bartle  Frere's  ill-starred 
embassy  to  Lobengula  in  the  year  1878.  If,  as  I  believe  to  be  the  case, 
it  is  indeed  true  that  the  King  did  plan  and  execute  this  most  wicked 
murder,  his  subsequent  history  and  end  may  give  food  for  reflection  to 
those  who  hold  that  such  crimes  meet  with  a  just  reward  at  the  hand  of 
Providence.  Perhaps  as  he  lay  dying,  a  hunted  fugitive  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  Shangani  River,  Lobengula  may  have  remembered 
the  innocent  white  men  whom  he  butchered  nearly  twenty  years  before. 
Perhaps,  on  the  other  hand,  in  the  river  of  blood  which  he  had  shed,  to 
his  hardened  sense  theirs  would  have  seemed  of  small  account.  However 
these  things  may  be,  it  has  seemed  to  the  writer  of  this  note  that  the  story 
of  the  tragic  and  mysterious  end  of  his  friends,  as  far  as  it  can  be  pieced 
together  after  the  lapse  of  so  long  a  time,  may  prove  an  incident  of 
interest,  worthy  of  record  in  the  annals  of  the  early  history  of  Mata- 
beliland  ;  one,  moreover,  which  will  be  remembered  in  after  genera- 
tions, when  that  country  is  the  prosperous  home  of  tens  of  thousands  of 
white  men. 



The  effect  of  the  war— Its  causes— The  vassals  of  the  Matabeli— The  cost  of  the  campaign— 
A  story  of  heroes — The  last  stand— A  hallowed  circle— The  national  regret— The 
memorials  at  Buluwayo  and  Zimbabye — The  conduct  of  the  expedition — Major  Allan 
Wilson— Commandant  P.  J.  Raaf,  C.M.G.— Captain  H.  J.  Borrow— Captain  A.  L. 
Campbell— Captain  F.  Fitzgerald— Captain  Greenfield— Captain  Judd— Captain  A.  B. 
Kirton— Captain  C.  F.  Lendy,  R. A.— Captain  O.  G.  Williams,   and  the  others. 

Almost  every  page  of  South  African  history  is  stained  with  the 
blood  shed  in  a  long  series  of  wars  undertaken  to  establish  the  supremacy 
of  the  white  races,  and — it  sounds  paradoxical,  but  is  none  the  less 
true — to  secure  that  "  pax  Britannica  "  which  is  our  proud  tradition- 
It  is  therefore  no  small  thing  to  say  that  it  seems  quite  possible  that 
the  war  lately  concluded  has  finally  removed  the  need  for  another. 
The  Matabeli  nation  constituted  the  last  unbroken  military  power  which 
menaced  the  general  peace  of  South  Africa ;  and,  as  we  had  already 
found  before  in  that  country,  so  it  proved  to  be  now  :  a  trial  of  strength 
was  inevitable.  Apart  altogether  from  Matabeliland,  the  moral  effect  of 
the  object  lesson  among  the  other  native  races  has  been  striking  : 
witness  the  case  of  Pondoland — till  lately  the  scene  of  the  most  horrible 
forms  of  savage  cruelty — which  has  been  reclaimed  to  civilisation  without 
firing  a  single  shot. 

The  whole  story  of  the  country,  which,  as  "  Rhodesia,"  is  named  after 
the  man  who  brilliantly  conceived  and  ably  carried  out  the  scheme  of 
its  acquisition  in  British  interests,  savours  strongly  of  old-time  romance. 
It  carries  us  back  to  the  far-off  days  when  Elizabethan  adventurers 
roamed  the  globe  in  search  of  new  worlds  ;  a  race  of  merchant-soldiers 
of  whom  Mr.  Rhodes  seems  to  be  a  latter-day  survival.  So  in  this  last 
of  our  "  little  wars."  Even  the  most  cynical  cannot  honestly  deny  that 
it  has  achieved  much  in  the  general  interests  of  mankind,  and  that  it 

Photo  hy  Harry   Walter,  Strand.'\ 


{Coiiimaiiding  the  Victoria  Coin  inn.) 
lioRN  1S5S.     Killed  at  Shangani,  Decemijer  4111,   1893. 

In  Mevioriam.  235 

has  brought  in  another  fair  inheritance  which  South  Africa  will 
bequeath  to  her  children ;  another  area  of  expansion  for  those  over- 
crowded populations  which  struggle  for  survival  in  these  our  islands. 
From  every  point  of  view  the  war  was  inevitable,  necessary,  and 
advisable,  and  its  causes  and  conduct  were  alike  creditable  to  the 
colonists  upon  whom  it  was  forced.  It  originated  in  the  manful 
determination  to  deliver  at  all  costs  the  Mashonas,  over  whom  the 
white  man's  protecting  arm  had  been  extended,  from  the  assegai  of  the 
Matabeli  majagha ;  and  it  was  absolutely  necessary  for  the  well-being 
of  the  settlers,  for  the  protection  of  their  hard-won  interests,  for  their 
very  safety. 

If  the  campaign  recently  closed  illustrates  one  thing  more  than 
another,  it  is  the  self-reliant  spirit  of  the  Englishmen  dwelling  on  the 
fringe  of  barbarism  in  South  Central  Africa.  With  plans  hastily,  though 
well-matured — the  .season  of  the  summer  rains  was  drawing  dangerously 
near — with  all  arrangements  for  commissariat  and  equipment  made  in  a 
few  anxious  weeks,  they  fearlessly  ignored  the  prophets  of  disaster, 
marched  out  to  grapple  with  a  foe  whose  strength  they  knew  not,  in  a 
comparatively  unknown  land,  and  succeeded  in  dispelling  the  thunder- 
cloud which  had  long  darkened  the  South  African  sky.  It  is  not  necessary 
to  attempt  to  forecast  here  the  ultimate  and  important  results  of  the  final 
settlement  of  the  Zambesi  regions.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  the  chief  and 
most  immediate  effect  has  been  the  liberation  of  the  subject  races  of 
Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland  from  the  terrible  thrall  under  which  they 
had  groaned  in  helpless  and  hopeless  misery  for  the  last  half-century. 
Every  hunter,  trader,  or  traveller  who  had  visited  those  countries  agreed 
that  the  cruelty  and  ferocity  of  the  Matabeli  towards  their  vassal  tribes 
knew  no  limits.  Old  men  and  boys,  mothers  and  the  babes  at  their 
breasts,  were  alike  sacrificed  to  crimson  the  virgin  assegai,  or  driven  off 
into  a  slavery  more  ruthless  than  death  itself;  and  the  most  competent 
authorities  have  estimated  the  Matabeli  "  butcher's  bill "  at  some  two 
thousand  men,  women,  and  children  slaughtered  yearly.  The  "raids" 
were  no  mere  looting  forays  ;  they  were  organised  plans  of  wholesale  and 
periodical  carnage,  which,  however,  were  looked  upon  by  the  Matabeli 
very  much  as  an  Englishman  might  view  the  annual  training  of  a 
militia  battalion,  or  his  yearly  "  shoot  "  on   the   moors.     No ;  whether 


6  T/ie  Downfall  of  Lobengitla. 

we  consider  the  causes  of  the  war,  its  conduct,  or  its  most  probable 
effects,  the  South  African  people  have  every  claim  to  be  congratulated  ; 
and  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how  any  right-minded  man  can  deny 
that  it  is  one  of  the  most  creditable  enterprise's  to  which  they  have 
set  their  hands ;  or  can  fail  to  feel  proud  of  the  way  in  which  the 
frontier  forces,  from  the  commanding  officer  to  the  last  trooper,  have 
carried  out  this  bold  and  honourable  enterprise. 

But, the  cost.     We  shrink  from  considering  the  price  at  which 

peace  and  security  have  been  purchased,  when  lives  of  gallant  men  form 
the  currency.  Nevertheless,  the  bond  had  to  be  redeemed.  Let  it  be 
some  assuagement  of  the  grief  of  the  friends  and  countrymen  of  those 
who  fell  in  Matabeliland,  in  the  cause  of  humanity  and  for  their  country's 
credit,  to  know  that  the  sacrifice  was  not  in  vain.  The  story  of  the  last 
heroic  episode  of  the  war  is  one  which  has  reached  us  in  fragments, 
and  we  have  chiefly  to  thank  Mr.  Selous  and  a  few  others  for  scanty 
records — sifted  from  Matabeli  sources — of  that  last  desperate  struggle 
on  the  Shangani  River.  Those  records,  however,  very  materially  supple- 
ment the  plain  and  accurate  statements  set  forth  by  Majors  Forbes  and 
Sir  John  Willoughby.  They  enable  us  to  say  with  confidence  that  few 
of  the  splendid  military  legends  which  have  ennobled  the  pages  of  British 
history  since  the  days  of  Boadicea  are  more  creditable  to  the  nation, 
more  worthy  of  its  high  traditions,  than  that  which  tells  how  a  handful 
of  civilians  met  a  soldier's  death  on  our  African  frontier.  And  of  those 
immortal  tales,  few  perhaps  prove  more  completely  that  the  devotion  to 
duty  and  a  cause,  displayed  when  the  Saxons  died  round  Harold  at 
Hastings,  or  when  the  Scots  fell  round  James  on  Flodden  Field,  is  still, 
in  times  of  difficulty  and  danger,  conspicuous  in  their  descendants* 
We  learn  once  more  that  the  latter-day  civilisation  has  not  fined  down 
all  the  noblest  instincts  of  the  race  to  the  vanishing  point,  and  that 
courage  and  fidelity  may  still  be  counted  among  its  surviving  virtues. 

Picking  up  the  threads  of  the  grim  story,  we  are  told  by  Majors 
Forbes  and  Sir  John  Willoughby  that,  after  crossing  the  river  and 
following  the  king's  spoor,  Major  Wilson  and  his  men  reached  a 
series  of  scherms,  or  temporary  encampments  protected  by  felled  bush 
or  trees.  These  scherms  were  filled  with  Matabeli,  who,  however, 
offered  no  resistance,  probably  because  they  did  not  know  the  strength 

In  Memoriam.  237 

of  the  whites,  or  believed  them  to  be  but  the  advance  guard  of  a 
larger  body.  So  the  Patrol  rode  on  till  they  reached  the  royal  scherm, 
within  which  the  king's  waggons  were  dimly  visible  in  the  gathering 
gloom.  Here  a  halt  was  called,  and  Lobengula  summoned  to 
surrender.  The  reply  was  an  ominous  rattle  of  arms  within  the 
reed  fence,  while  parties  of  Matabeli,  rifle  in  hand,  came  hurrying  up 
from  the  rear.  With  so  small  a  force  nothing  could  be  done,  and 
the  Patrol  withdrew  into  the  bush,  Captain  Napier  and  Troopers 
Robertson  and  Mayne  being  sent  for  reinforcements.  These  in  due 
time  appeared  in  the  form  of  Captain  Borrow  with  eighteen  mounted 
men.  A  miserable  night  was  passed  under  arms  in  the  drenching  rain, 
and  when  day  at  length  dawned.  Major  Wilson  decided  to  make  one 
more  dash  for  the  king,  with  the  tragic  result  which  will  not  soon  be 
forgotten  in  South  Africa.  From  the  start  the  Patrol  was  outnumbered, 
and  almost  as  soon  as  the  attack  began,  Ingram,  Burnham,  and 
Gooding  had  to  be  sent  to  cross  the  river,  if  that  were  possible, 
to  ask  for  further  support.  That  support,  however,  never  arrived, 
and  Burnham's  first  breathless  remark  to  Major  Forbes,  after  reaching 
the  main  body,  was,  "  I  think  I  may  say  we  are  the  sole  survivors 
of  that  party."  The  Shangani  had  risen  in  flood,  added  to  which 
Major  Forbes  was  himself  attacked  in  force  on  the  way  down  to 
the  river.  Either  of  these  circumstances  was  enough  to  prevent  the 
arrival  of  succour  in  time  to  save  the  doomed  men,  to  whom  the 
last  chance  of  escape  was  lost.  To  the  end,  however,  there  was  no 
thought  of  surrender,  no  request  for  quarter.  They  resolved  to  show 
the  Matabeli  that  the  white  man  could  play  a  losing  as  well  as  a  winning 
•game.  Taking  cover  behind  the  dead  bodies  of  their  horses,  with 
an  iron  calmness  they  fought  on  for  two  long  hours,  pouring  a 
destructive  fire  into  their  encircling  foes,  and  coolly  singling  out  the 
Indunas  for  their  aim.  One  by  one,  however,  they  sank  under  the 
heavy  fire  from  the  bush,  but  many  of  the  wounded  continued,  so  the 
natives  say,  to  re-load  and  pass  their  rifles  to  their  uninjured 
comrades.  Again  and  again  the  Matabeli  would  issue  from  their  cover 
to  attempt  a  conclusive  charge,  but  again  and  again  were  repulsed 
with  a  well-directed  fire ;  upon  which  Wilson  and  his  men  would  wake 
the  echoes  with  an  undismayed,  defiant  cheer.    But  at  last  the  end  came. 

2  7,S  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Of  the  thirty-four  vaUant  men  whose  hearts  beat  high  with  hope  and 
courage  as  they  rode  behind  their  leader  in  the  early  dawn  that  morning, 
only  one  remained  erect ;  the  rest  lay  prone,  dead  or  dying,  upon  that 
"  field  of  honour."  The  name  of  the  one  man  who  stood  at  bay  against 
an  army  of  Matabeli  will  never  be  known  ;  his  remains  could  not  be 
identified.  But  the  natives  tell  that,  picking  up  several  rifles  and 
bandoliers,  this  hero  amongst  heroes  made  his  way  to  an  ant-heap  some 
twenty  yards  from  where  the  rest  lay  stretched  upon  the  earth.  From 
that  point  of  vantage  he  checked,  single-handed,  several  rushes  of  the 
Matabeli  with  a  cool  and  deadly  fire.  At  length,  shot  through  the  hips, 
he  sank  on  his  knees,  but  continued  to  load  and  fire  until  he  succumbed 
to  his  wounds.  Then,  and  not  till  then,  the  Matabeli  came  out 
from  the  bush,  but  on  reaching  the  hallowed  circle  where  the  Patrol 
lay  side  by  side,  were  fired  upon  by  several  of  the  unconquerable 
wounded  who  were  still  alive.  So  great  had  been  the  terror  and 
demoralisation  inspired  by  the  desperate  bravery  of  the  Patrol,  that 
when  the  revolvers  rang  out  the  natives  turned  and  fled  precipitately 
into  the  bush;  and  it  was  not  till  several  hours  later — "when  the 
sun  was  right  overhead,"  as  the  Matabeli  tell  the  tale — that  they  again 
ventured  to  leave  their  cover.  But  by  this  time  death  had  mercifully 
come  to  the  wounded,  and  as  the  native  warriors  gazed  upon  the  forms 
of  their  fallen  foes  there  was  silence. 

For  some  weeks  afterwards  the  comrades  of  these  brave  men  had 
hoped  against  hope  that  even  one  of  the  Patrol  might  have  escaped  down 
the  Shangani  River,  although,  as  Ingram,  the  American  scout,  had 
explained,  "Two  of  the  men  were  dismounted,  and  many  of  the 
horses    were    completely    done    up.      Some    of    those    with    the    best 

mounts   might    have  got    away,  but,  well,  they  were  not  the  sort 

of  men  to  leave  their  chums."  He  added,  "  No ;  I  guess  they 
fought  it  out  right  there — where  they  stood."  Thus  it  was  ;  for  when 
Dawson  crossed  the  river  some  weeks  afterwards,  the  bones  of  thirty- 
three  of  Wilson's  heroic  band  were  found  laying  close  together,  even 
as  they  had  stood  at  the  last  supreme  moment.  Those  of  the  dauntless 
man  who  had  faced  the  Matabeli  alone  lay  apart. 

Thus  they  died.  Youths  fresh  from  our  schools  and  universities, 
older  men  who  looked  back  upon  a  useful  span  of  life  spent  upon  the 

In  Meuioriani.  239 

frontiers  of  our  great  African  empire,  they  were  alike  stout-hearted 
and  loyal  Britons,  who  had  deliberately  chosen  death  rather  than  desert 
their  comrades  in  that  last  dark  hour.  We  live  in  an  age  when  sentiment 
is  out  of  fashion  and  cynicism  the  vogue.  The  Little-Englanders  may 
say  that  the  men  who  fell  on  the  Shangani  were  adventurers  who 
entered  Matabeliland  to  kill  or  be  killed.  But  let  us  hope  that 
even  the  thin  stream  which  flows  through  the  veins  of  such  may 
course  a  little  faster  when  they  remember  that  "  some  of  them  might 
have  got  away,  but  they  weren't  the  sort  of  men  to  leave  their 
chums."  Those  who  knew  Wilson  and  Borrow  and  their  comrades 
knew  them  to  be  courageous  and  high-minded  men  who  would  have 
reflected  credit  upon  any  community;  who  were  representative  of  the 
best  types  of  Englishmen.  Their  glorious  end  forms  the  most  stirring 
incident  in  the  history  of  South  Africa,  where  their  m.emory  will  always 
be  cherished  in  proud  regret.  No  fitter  memorial  could  have  been 
suggested  than  the  hospital  which  is  to  be  reared  at  Buluwayo  by  their 
friends  and  countrymen  ;  no  fitter  place  of  sepulture  than  Zimbabye, 
where  the  monuments  of  a  pre-historic  cultivation  look  down  upon  a  land 
consecrated  by  the  blood  of  the  advance  guard  of  modern  civilisation ; 
where  a  simple  obelisk  of  granite,  the  tribute  of  another  Englishman, 
will  rise  to  mark  the  resting-place  of  the  lion-hearted  dead. 

Major  Allan  Wilson  is  one  of  the  heroic  figures  of  the 
campaign  ;  a  type  of  the  hardy  race  of  British  colonists  whom  no 
dangers  can  daunt,  whose  bold  spirit  no  hardships  can  tame. 
His  repeated  attack  on  Lobengula's  encampment,  held  by  such  a 
large  force  of  Matabeli,  has  occasionally  been  adversely  criticised  ; 
but  it  must  always  be  borne  in  mind  that  if  the  brave  men  who 
fought  and  conquered  Lobengula  had  stayed  to  weigh  risks  too 
minutely  they  would  never  have  entered  xMatabeliland  at  all,  and  that 
chief  would  still  be  cutting  throats  throughout  Mashonaland  to-day. 
And  even  granting  that  the  deed  was  daring  for  a  commercial  age,  the 
nation  which  remembers  the  exploits  of  its  Elizabethan  forefathers,  of 
Robert  Clive  and  Warren  Hastings,  and  the  Charge  at  Balaclava,  will 
not  think  coldly  of  Allan  Wilson  and  the  gallant  men  who  fell  with 
him  on  the  Shangani  River.  Major  Wilson  was  a  Scotchman,  the  son 
of  Mr.    Robert    Wilson,  a  railway   and  road   contractor,  and  was  born 

240  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

in  Ross-shire  in  the  year  1856.  He  was  educated  at  the  Grammar 
School  at  Kirkwall,  Orkney,  and  Milne's  Institution,  Fochabers, 
Morayshire.  An  old  school-fellow  of  Major  Wilson's,  writing  to 
the  "  Westminster  Budget,"  gives  us  an  interesting  glimpse  of  his 
earlier  life. 

"  Poor  Allan  Wilson  !  "  will  be  the  audible  or  inaudible  exclamation  of 
everyone  who,  having  known  him,  now  knows  that  he  can  see  him  no  more. 
The  world  can  ill  want  such  a  type,  for  a  type  he  was.  I  can  speak  of  him  from 
the  days  of  his  rough  boyhood.  And  yet  he  was  not  rough,  for  he  was,  with  all 
his  superior  strength  of  frame,  gentle  and  kindly.  Wilson  was  a  good-hearted 
fellow,  no  more  clever  at  books  than  Clive,  equally  larksome,  popular  with  every- 
one, and  ready  to  lead  anyone  to  do  or  to  dare.  A  poor  cricketer  himself,  he 
was  captain  of  the  school  eleven,  and  a  nod  or  a  gesture  from  Wilson  behind  the 
wicket  arranged  the  manoeuvres  of  every  over.  No  one  would  have  dreamed  of 
doubting  his  judgment  or  decision  in  any  situation.  There  was  the  spirit  of 
decision  and  dictation  behind  that  physical  prowess  which  we  all  used  so  much 
to  admire.  He  had  an  unconscious  pride  in  his  herculean  build,  and  in  all  feats 
of  manly  strength  and  vigour  he  not  only  excelled,  but  inspired  others  to  take  part 
in.  He  came  of  a  "large"  family  (his  father  being  a  contractor  for  the  building  of 
railways,  bridges,  and  roads),  and  the  whole  family  seem  to  have  inherited  a  spirit 
of  enterprise  and  adventure.  It  was  not  unnatural  that  three  years'  experience 
of  life  as  a  bank  clerk  turned  all  the  tastes  of  Allan  Wilson  away  from  sedentary 
life.  All  the  while  in  his  northern  home  at  Fochabers,  under  the  shadow  of 
Gordon  Castle,  he  was  organising  "  Highland  Gatherings,"  so  called,  to  which  the 
tossing  of  the  caber,  the  putting  of  the  stone,  the  tug  of  war,  the  playing  of  the 
bagpipes,  and  the  dancing  of  the  sword-dance,  attracted  hundreds.  These  Spey 
side  gatherings  were  a  great  impetus  to  local  athletics. 

But  the  fire  of  venture  was  in  his  veins;  he  could  be  no  home-keeping  youth. 
He  joined  the  ranks  of  the  Cape  Mounted  Police,  and  it  did  not  take  his 
superiors  long  to  find  out  that  Trooper  Wilson  was  a  man  to  lead  and  command, 
and  not  always  to  follow  and  obey.  The  events  of  the  last  few  months  have  done 
no  more  than  to  show  forth  more  widely  his  superior  qualities  as  a  man  and  a 
soldier.  The  word  "  fear  "  was  not  in  his  vocabulary.  He  was  intrepid,  cool, 
resolute,  decisive,  and  determined;  honest  as  truth  itself,  and  freely  frank  as  the 
pure  light  of  the  sun.  The  opportunities  for  martial  heroism  now  are  infrequent, 
but  we  may  yet  expect  to  hear  some  true  tribute  to  Major  Wilson  as  one  of  the 
staunchest  guiding  spirits  of  the  recent  campaign. 

After  leaving  the   Cape  Mounted   Rifles,  Allan  Wilson  received  a 

Ill  Moiioriani. 


lieutenant's  commission  in  the  Basuto  Police.  This  he  afterwards 
relinquished  for  the  service  of  the  Bechuanaland  Exploration  Company. 
Before  the  war  he  was  senior  officer  in  the  Victoria  Volunteer  Force 
(Mounted  Infantry).  When  the  war  broke  out  he  at  once  volunteered, 
and  was  appointed  Major  in  command  of  the  Victoria  Column,  ren- 
dering signal  service  until  killed  at  the  Shangani.  He  was  wonderfully 
popular  among  all  classes,  and  it  is  said  of  him  that  he  had  not 
an  enemy  or  an  ill-wisher  in  the  world.  Speaking  of  him  as  the 
commanding  officer  of  the  Victoria  Rangers,  Major  Forbes  says,  "No 
better  man  could  possibly  have  been  found."  He  was  famous  for  the 
power  that  he  possessed  over  his  officers  and  men.  Nine  of  the  former 
fell  during  the  campaign— six  by  his  side  on  the  Shangani. 

The  late  Commandant  Pieter 
Johannes  Raaf,  C.M.G.,  was  a  well- 
known  figure  throughout  South  Africa* 
in  \\hose  wars  he  had  served  with  bravery 
and  distinction — notably  in  the  Zulu  War 
in  1879,  in  which  he  organised  and  com- 
manded Raaf's  Rangers,  being  created 
C.M.G.  for  his  services.  He  was  also 
offered,  in  recognition  of  his  work,  a 
junior  commission  in  one  of  the  Native 
East  Indian  Regiments.  This,  however 
he  declined.  At  the  close  of  the  Zulu  war 
Commandant  Raaf  returned  to  Pretoria, 
where  he  was  in  the  British  service. 
Sir  Owen  Lanyon  being  Administrator. 
When  the  war  with  the  Boers  began, 
Raaf  went  down  to  Potchefstroom,  where 
he  organised  a  second  "Raaf's  Rangers"  among  the  loyal  residents 
of  the  place,  and  ably  assisted  Sir  Marshall  Clarke  in  the  work  of 
defence.  He  was  for  some  time  subsequently  engaged  in  pro.specting 
for  gold  in  the  Transvaal,  but  ultimately  went  up  to  Mashonaland, 
and  was  appointed  Resident  Magistrate  at  Fort  Tuli.  On  the 
outbreak  of  the  Matabeli  war  he  was  commissioned  to  raise  a  corps 
of  250    mounted    men    in    the    Transvaal.      Thus   for   the   third    time 

COMMAN'DA.NT    P.    J-    RaAK,    C.M.G. 

242  The  Do'W7iJall  of  Lobengula. 

Raaf's  Rangers  came  into  existence,  recruited  mostly  from  the  mining 
population  of  Johannesburg.  During  the  war  Raaf's  Rangers  were 
placed  under  the  supreme  command  of  Lieutenant- Colonel  Goold- 
Adams,  and  formed  part  of  the  Southern  Column.  After  the  occupation 
of  Buluwayo  Commandant  Raaf  went  forward  with  ninety  men  of  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  in  the  patrol  sent  to  attempt  the  capture 
of  Lobengula,  and  survived  all  the  perils  and  hardships  of  the  campaign, 
including  the  retreat  from  the  Shangani,  only  to  fall  a  victim  to  inflam- 
mation of  the  bowels  at  Buluwa}'o  after  its  close,  on  January  26th, 
1894.  H^s  ^^'^s  o^s  of  the  best  known  among  the  frontier  soldiers  so 
numerous  throughout  South  /\frica,  and  his  death  was  greatly  deplored 
by  a  large  number  of  old  comrades  and  friends,  and  especially  by  the 
burgher  population,  among  whom  Commandant  Raaf  had  great 
influence.  There  are  innumerable  stories  told  of  Commandant  Raaf 
which  are  "  ben  trovato,"  even  if  not  true.  The  Boers  themselves 
recount  that  before  Majuba,  Raaf  used  to  say,  "  Never  mind  the  Boers  ; 
if  you  drum  upon  an  old  kettle  they  will  run."    He  was  wrong,  however. 

One  of  the  most  prominent  men  in  Mashonaland,  and  one  of  the  most 
popular  in  that  new  community,  was  Captain  Henry  John  Borrow, 
the  second  in  rank  of  the  ill-fated  Wilson  Patrol.  One  of  the  very 
earliest  pioneers  in  British  Zambesia,  he  had  taken  a  leading  share  in 
the  arduous  work  of  developing  the  mineral  resources  of  the  country, 
where  his  loss  has  been  severely  felt. 

Captain  Borrow  was  the  eldest  son  of  the  Rev.  H.  J.  Borrow,  for- 
merly rector  of  Lanivet,  Cornwall,  and  now  residing  at  the  Old  Palace, 
Bekesbourne,  Canterbury,  and  was  the  grand-nephew  of  George  Borrow, 
the  author.  He  was  born  on  March  17th,  1865,  and  educated  (with 
Captain  Greenfield,  of  the  Victoria  Rangers,  who  met  his  death  at  the 
same  time)  at  Tavistock  Grammar  School,  and  at  Sherborne. 

Accompanied  by  his  father,  he  went  out  to  the  Cape  Colony  in 
1882,  and  passed  three  years  in  ostrich  farming  with  Mr.  Hilton  Barber 
near  Cradock.  The  life  was  not  much  to  his  liking,  and  about  Christ- 
mas, 1884,  he  joined  the  Second  Mounted  Rifles  (Carrington's  Horse), 
under  command  of  Colonel  Sir  Frederick  Carrington,  and  with  his 
■corps  accompanied  the  Warren  rLxpeditiori.  After  the  disbandment  of 
the  expedition  he  joined  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  also  under  Sir 

Photo  by  Lo>:rfoH  Stereosco/'ic  Company,  Kegnit  Street.] 


(Coiiiinandiiii^  B  Troop,   Salisbury  Horse.) 
UoRN   17111   March,   1S65.     Killed  at  Shangani,  Decemuer  4rH,   1S93. 

In  Memoriani.  243 

Frederick  Carrington,  and  received  promotion  while  serving  with  that 
force.  In  March,  1887,  he  left  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  and 
joined  his  friends,  Frank  Johnson  and  Maurice  Heany,  in  an  expedition 
to  Matabeliland  ;  this  expedition  ultimately  resulted  in  the  forma- 
tion of  the  Bechuanaland  Exploration  Company,  Limited,  of  which 
Captain  Borrow  became  Assistant- Superintendent.  It  was  in  this 
capacity  he  first  became  acquainted  with  the  late  Major  Allan  Wilson, 
who  had  been  sent  up  country  as  an  employe  of  his  Company.  Also 
while  with  the  Bechuanaland  Company,  Captain  Borrow  escorted  to 
Buluwayo  the  Queen's  messengers.  Captain  Fergusson,  Surgeon-Major 
Melladew,  and  Major  Gascoigne,  who  were  the  bearers  of  Her  Majesty's 
first  letter  to  Lobengula. 

When  Mr.  Rhodes  decided  upon  the  effective  occupation  of 
Mashonaland,  Captain  Borrow  was  a  party  to  the  contract,  together 
with  his  old  Bechuanaland  companions,  Major  Johnson  and  Captain 
Heany.  They  at  once  proceeded  to  raise  and  equip  the  now  famous 
Mashonaland  Pioneers,  in  which  corps  d'elite  Captain  Borrow  held  the 
rank  of  lieutenant  and  adjutant.  When  the  Pioneers  were  disbanded, 
the  three  friends  formed  themselves  into  the  firm  of  Johnson,  Heany,  and 
Borrow.  They  did  wonders  in  the  way  of  opening  up  the  gold  districts 
and  the  country  generally,  and  in  arranging  communication  with  the 
East  Coast,  and  ultimately  became  merged  into  Frank  Johnson  and  Co. 
Limited,  of  which  company  Captain  Borrow  became  one  of  the 
Local  Managing  Directors  at  Salisbury.  After  several  years  of  the 
severest  labour  and  almost  uninterrupted  hardships,  during  which,  by 
his  kindness  and  generosity,  he  endeared  himself  to  the  whole 
community,  he  returned  to  England  in  February,  1893,  and  floated  an 
offshoot  of  his  company,  viz.,  the  Mashonaland  Central  Gold  Mining 
Company,  of  which  also  he  became  a  Director. 

At  length  the  war  broke  out,  and  Captain  Borrow  threw 
himself  heart  and  soul  into  the  task  of  organising  the  forces,  in  which 
work  the  influence  of  his  firm  as  large  employers  of  labour  was  very 
strong.  He  had  commanded  a  troop  of  the  Local  Volunteer  Force  fthe 
Mashonaland  Horse),  and  when  the  Salisbury  Horse  was  enrolled  he 
was  appointed  Captain  in  command  of  "  B  "  Troop.  Throughout  the 
campaign   he  took   prominent   part   in   all  the    engagements  and    was 

R  2 

2^4  T^^^  Dozvnfa/i  of  Lobcugula. 

always  to  the  fore  in  times  of  danger  and  emergency.  At  the  battle  of 
the  Imbembesi,  his  troop  being  on  the  inner  face  of  the  laager  and  not 
very  actively  engaged,  Captain  Borrow  was  among  the  first  to  observe 
the  threatened  loss  of  all  the  horses  of  the  command,  and  with  Sir  John 
Willoughby  took  the  initiative  in  preventing  their  capture  by  the  enemy. 
Rushing  to  the  centre  of  the  laager  he  sprang  upon  one  of  the  few 
horses  which  happened  to  be  within  the  lines,  and  galloped  off  to  the 
rescue  of  the  others,  thus  exposing  himself  to  a  heavy  fire  from  the 
enemy  at  close  quarters,  and  only  accomplished  his  object  at  very 
imminent  risk. 

The  day  preceding  the  fight  at  Shangani,  he  was  out  with  his 
Troop  collecting  cattle  and  burning  kraals,  and  only  returned  to  the 
laager,  with  many  hundreds  of  head  of  cattle,  long  after  dark.  The  day 
after  the  loss  of  Captain  Gwynyth  Williams,  no  information  relative  to 
him  having  been  received,  Captain  Borrow  with  fifteen  men  scouted  the 
country  for  many  miles  in  rear  of  the  Column  searching  for  the  spoor  of 
the  missing  officer's  horse,  and  only  returned  to  the  laager  late  at  night. 
This  was  a  service  of  great  risk,  and  was  very  ably  performed.  He  was, 
moreover,  the  first  man  of  the  united  Columns  to  enter  Buluwayo, 
having  been  sent  forward  with  twenty  men  to  take  possession  the  day 
before  the  main  body  arrived. 

During  the  campaign  he  acted  as  special  correspondent  of  the 
Times,  and  sent  home  several  interesting  accounts,  notably  Mr.  James 
Fairbairn's  diary  of  events  in  Buluwayo  prior  to  its  occupation.  He  was 
a  splendid  horseman  and  a  keen  sportsman,  being  passionately  fond  of 
shooting,  hunting,  and  racing.  He  was  a  good  all-round  athlete,  and 
one  of  the  very  best  shots  in  a  country  where  good  shots  abound,  big 
game  of  all  sorts  having  fallen  to  his  rifle.  He  stood  over  six  feet,  and 
was  finely  built  and  very  handsome,  modest,  unconscious  of  his  gifts, 
and  thoroughly  kind-hearted.  Despite  his  numerous  occupations  he 
was  a  great  reader  and  a  deep  student  of  mining  and  all  that  went  with 
it,  and  there  was  probably  no  better  or  more  practical  judge  of  a  gold 
reef  in  Mashonaland.  Captain  Borrow  had  very  many  warm  friends  in 
South  Africa,  where  his  straightforward,  manly,  and  energetic  character 
made  him  universally  respected  and  admired.  Fairly  launched  as  he 
was  in  his  career,  no  man  in  the  country  had  brighter  prospects  than  he 

lu  Menioriani, 


when  he  went  cheerfully  to  meet  his  death  by  the  Shangani  River  on 
that  morning  of  the  5th  of  December,  1893. 

The  late  Captain  John  Alex- 
_^-^  ANDER    Livingstone   Campbell. 

C^^^^I(K  R.A.,  who   was  the    first    to  fall  in 

^'^^  the  campaign,  was  born  on  the  6th 

^E  of  January,  1856.     He  entered  the 

f|g^    ^r  Royal  Artillery  on  the  2nd  of  Feb- 

ruary, i^jG,  after  passing  through 
Woolwich,  and  received  his  captaincy 
on  January  loth,  1885.  In  1888 
he  left  the  service,  and  four  years 
afterwards  went  out  to  South  Africa, 
entering  a  year  later  the  service  of 
the  British  South  Africa  Company. 
He  became  a  magistrate  in  Mashona- 
land,  and  at  the  outbreak  of  the 
war  volunteered  for  active  service 
with  the  Salisbury  Horse,  being 
attached  to  the  staff  of  Major  Forbes. 
He  was  shot  in  the  hip-joint  by 
a  native  from  behind  a  rock,  while  driving  in  some  captured  cattle  on  15th 
October,  1893,  and  died  the  following  day  at  Iron  Mine  Hill.  Captain 
Campbell  was  exceedingly  popular  among  the  members  of  the  Char- 
tered Company's  forces,  and  his  loss  was  deeply  regretted.  On  the  day 
on  which  the  Victoria  Column  arrived,  Captain  Campbell  was  buried 
with  full  military  honours  at  dusk  in  the  evening.  As  he  was  an  ex- 
Artillery  officer,  the  Artillery  volunteered  to  furnish  the  carrying  party, 
and  "A"  Troop  furnished  the  firing  party.  All  the  Salisbury  and  a  great 
many  of  the  Victoria  Column  attended  the  funeral,  and  the  service  was 
conducted  by  the  Bishop.  "  I  think  there  were  a  good  many  standing 
round  the  grave  that  evening,"  says  Major  Forbes,  "  who  realised  for 
the  first  time  that  what  we  had  undertaken  was  no  child's  play,  but 
stern  reality,  and  that  poor  Campbell's  fate  might  at  any  time  be  the 
fate  of  one  or  all  of  us  ;  but  there  could  be  no  turning  back.  We  had 
undertaken  the  work,  and  had  to  go  through  with  it." 

Captain  J.  A.  L.  Campbell. 

246  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Captain  Frederick  Fitzgerald,  commanding  No.  i  Troop  of 
the  Victoria  Rangers,  and  killed  with  Major  Wilson,  was  an  ex- 
ceedingly popular  officer,  who  had  done  excellent  work  throughout  the 
campaign,  being  several  times  mentioned  by  Major  Forbes  for  special 
services.  Before  the  war  broke  out  he  was  Sub-Inspector  of  the  British 
South  Africa  Company's  Police  at  Victoria,  and  after  the  Victoria 
incident  took  a  prominent  share  in  the  organisation  of  the  Victoria 
Rangers,  receiving  the  command  of  the  senior  Troop.  He  had  a  high 
character  and  an  amiable  disposition,  and  had  the  power  of  keeping  his 
men  well  in  hand. 

Also    among   those    who    died    with    Wilson    and    Borrow   on   the 
Shangani  was  CAPTAIN  Harry  GREENFIELD,  son  of  Mr.  T.  W.  Green- 
field, of  Tavistock,  Devon,  where  he  was  born,  being  thirty-two  years  of 
age    at    the    time   of  his    death      He    was    educated    at    the  Tavistock 
Grammar     School,    and    the     Independent    College,     Taunton.       Like 
Major    Wilson,    he    commenced    life    in    the    office    of    a    bank,     and 
obtained,    after  several  years  spent    in    this    kind    of    occupation,    the 
chance    of  going    abroad    as    a    member  of  the    staff  of  the  National 
Bank    of   the     Orange    Free    State.       Subsequently    he    migrated    to 
Kimberley,   where   he   became  overseer  at  one  of  the  mines.    Captain 
Greenfield    appears    to    have    had    a    full    share    of   the    roving    and 
adventurous  disposition  for  which  the  men  of  Devon  have  always  been 
famous,  and   after   the    occupation  of  Mashonaland,  made  his  way  to 
that  country  in  charge  of  stores  for  one  of  the  leading  South  African 
merchant  firms.     On  war  being  declared  against  the  Matabeli,  Captain 
Greenfield,    like    all    the    pick    of    the    white    men    in    Mashonaland, 
volunteered  his  services,  and  was  appointed  quartermaster  and   subse- 
quently captain  of  the  Victoria  Rangers.     He  still  is  well  remembered 
in  Tavistock  as  a  genial  and  high-spirited  boy,  and  leaves,  it  is  sad  to 
say,  a  widow  and  two  children,  who  are  now  at  Salisbury,  Mashonaland. 
Captain    Greenfield,   who    possessed    considerable    literary    taste,    occa- 
sionally amused  himself  by  v/riting  descriptive  accounts  of  his  travels 
for  the  newspapers.     His  last  letter  to  his  father,  in  which,  amid  much 
lighter  references,  he  hazards  the  suggestion  that  the  lines  may  come  to 
be  looked  upon  as  '•'  touches  of  a  vanished  hand,"  has  been  reproduced 
in  nearly  every  journal  in  the  kingdom,  and  was  made  the  subject  of  a 


{QuarUrmasler  10  the  Victoria  Colu,nu.) 
BOKX  iS6i.     K,:.u.:o  at  bHANCANr,  Decembek  ^n^,  ,893. 

In  Mciuoi'iani,  247 

stirring  picture  in  the  "Graphic"  by  Mr.  John  Charlton.  It  bears 
important  and  independent  witness  to  the  causes  of  the  war  with 
Lobengula.     The  following  is  the  letter  in  question  : — 

Mv  De.\rest  Father,— By  the  time  this  reaches  you  I  shall  be— well,  I 
don't  exactly  know  where,  but  not  in  Mashonaland,  You  have,  of  course, 
heard  in  the  English  papers  of  the  trouble  we  have  had  with  our  beloved  next 
door  neighbour,  Lobengula.  Not  content  with  the  snug  annuity  the  Chartered 
Company  has  been  paying  him  (^1,200)  for  some  years  past,  he  must  needs 
kick  up  his  heels,  and  allow  his  warriors  to  approach  our  very  towns  in  pursuit 
of  the  helpless,  and  likewise  worthless  Mashonas.  An  Englishman  can,  and 
does,'  stand  a  lot  of  cheek  from  a  nigger,  but  when  it  comes  to  killing  our  own 
native  servants  in  the  precincts  of  the  town — even  we,  who  take  our  pleasures 
sadly  and  our  cheek  soberly,  had  to  rise  in  our  wrath,  and  chastise  our  dusky 
brethren.  Of  course,  according  to  the  gospels  of  "  St.  Labby  "  and  Exeter  Hall, 
we  should  not  have  done  this,  but  let  them  gang  their  ain  gait  until  the  wet 
season  had  properly  set  in — those  of  us  who  had  not  the  sense  or  means  to  go 
down  country,  being  all  more  or  less  down  with  fever,  the  full  rivers  forbidding 
relief  columns  or  more  provisions ;  and  then  they  would  have  swooped  down  in 
their  tens  of  thousands,  and  butchered  man,  woman,  and  child.  This  is  the 
programme  Exeter  Hall  would  have  liked  us  to  follow,  rather  than  injure  a  few 
of  their  petted  heathen,  who,  by-the-bye,  would  have  as  much  pleasure  in 
slitting  a  few  of  the  above-named  trageophilists,  as  those  of  their  Mashona 
vassals.  Being,  however,  men  who  live  among  the  black  devils,  and  know  their 
ways,  we  are  taking  the  bull  by  the  horns  and  are  going  to  make  a  bold  push  for 
Buluwayo,  the  head-quarters  of  this  savage  potentate.  Remember,  I  am  in  no 
way  a  servant  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  and  in  many  ways  I  have 
despised  their  ways  and  their  policy,  so  that  you  may  regard  me  as  a  perfectly 
unbiassed  witness  in  the  matter.  That  being  so,  I  say,  without  the  slightest  fear 
of  contradiction,  that  the  Company  has  been  forced  into  any  action  they  have 
taken  by  Lobengula  himself;  for  at  the  time  the  disturbance  took  place  they 
had  neithei  the  means  nor  inclination  to  commence  what  may  eventuate 
into  a  big  war.  As  to  the  inuendos  in  several  of  the  English  papers  about 
a  hankering  after  Matabeliland  by  the  Company,  that's  all  bosh  ;  but  what 
would  have  happened  had  they  not  taken  the  stand  they  have  done,  would 
have  been  a  slaughter  of  almost  every  white  person  in  Mashonaland,  and 
the  Company  would  have  lost  what  they  have  already  got,  and  paid  so 
dear  for — Mashonaland.  Had  the  affairs  been  in  less  capable  hands  than 
those  of  our  Administrator,  Dr.  Jameson,  I  dread  to  think  what  would  have 

248  The  Dowiifall  of  Lobengiila. 

happened  ;  but  on  the  occasion  there  arose  a  man  to  cope  with  it ;  and  if 
the  expedition  is  successful,  as  it  must  be,  the  Chartered  Comitany  ought 
to  recognise  that  in  ])r.  Jameson  they  have  a  man  second  in  abihty  only 
to  Cecil  Rhodes  himself 

I  have  been  wandering  away  from  what  I  intended  to  say  at  the  outset,  that 
one  of  the  three  columns  about  to  invade  Matabeliland  is  starting  from  this 
place,  and  that  I  am  going  with  it.  You  know  of  old  my  wandering  and  erratic 
spirit,  and  will  not,  therefore,  be  astonished  at  my  going.  I  have  got  a  captaincy 
in  the  Victoria  column,  and  hope  I  shall  do  nothing  that  would  in  any  way  be  a 
discredit  to  yourself  or  the  place  I  come  from.  Of  course,  the  odds  against  us 
will  be  very  great.  The  Matabeli  number  about  25,000  ;  we  shall  scarcely 
muster  1,000  all  told  ;  but  then  we  are  all  accustomed  to  horse  and  rifle,  both  of 
which  the  Matabeli  know  nothing  or  little  of;  and  in  addition  to  that  we  have 
seven  Maxim  quick-firing  guns,  with  deadly  hail  of  about  500  bullets  per  minute. 
This  is  the  first  time  for  the  Maxim  gun  to  be  used  in  actual  warfare,  so  that  our 
movements,  for  that  reason  alone,  will  be  watched  with  great  interest  by  the 
outside  world.  It  is  a  great  piece  of  work — equipping,  clothing,  arming,  and 
rationing  300  men  in  an  out-of-the-way  place  like  this— and,  being  quartermaster, 
a  lot  of  work  falls  on  me  ;  but  we  shall  start  in  a  few  days,  and  then  most  of  the 
heavy  work  will  be  over ;  after  which  plenty  of  fighting  and  hardships  for  the 
next  six  months  ;  but,  as  I  said  before,  better  that  than  stay  here  to  be  killed 
like  rats  in  a  hole. 

Our  column  will  consist  of  about  300,  man  and  horse,  16  waggons  (each 
drawn  by  16  oxen),  containing  rations  and  ammunition,  three  ^Maxim  guns  drawn 
by  horses,  one  Hotchkiss  shell  gun,  and  one  7-pounder,  in  addition  to  which  we 
shall  secure  about  60  niggers  of  all  sorts,  mostly  colonial  natives.  The  Salisbur)- 
column  will  consist  of  about  an  equal  number,  and  the  Tuli  column  about  50 
less.  Of  course,  we  gain  greatly  by  having  three  distinct  columns,  small  though 
they  may  be,  for  each  is,  so  to  say,  a  separate  army  perfectly  independent  of 
each  other,  and  the  three  can  combine  or  not  just  as  may  be  found  advisable. 
The  English  Government  has,  so  far,  not  recognised  our  claim  as  British  subjects, 
but  from  latest  advices  we  hear  that  John  Bull  has  at  last  aroused  from  his 
lethargy,  and  is  going  to  send  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police— a  fine  regiment 
about  600  strong — to  assist  us  on  the  south,  and  has  also  removed  his  veto  from 
his  vassal  Khama,  the  chief  of  the  Bamangwatos,  who  will  put  about  1,000 
trained  warriors  into  the  field.  If  this  is  a  fact,  the  power  of  Lobengula  is 
doomed,  and  the  whole  campaign  will  be  at  an  end  in  a  few  months.  Of  course, 
in  the  coming  struggle  a  good  many  of  our  horses  will  lose  their  riders,  and  a 

In  Menioriani.  249 

good  many  of  us  will  be  spoken  of  in  the  past  tense  as  "Poor  old  So-and-so," 
but  in  this  case,  unquestionably,  le  jeu  vaut  la  chandelle,  and  as  nothing  worth 
having  is  acquired  without  danger,  we  must  take  things  as  they  come,  and  if  you 
have  afterwards  to  regard  this  letter  as  "  touches  of  a  vanished  hand,"  you  and 
others— amongst  whom  I  hope  will  not  be  any  long-suffering  creditors— will  be 
sorry  for  one  that  is  gone.  Anyhow,  I  know  that  from  all  my  old  friends  in 
Tavistock  I  shall  receive  a  hearty  God  speed,  and  when  I  see  you  all,  which  I 
hope  to  do  within  the  next  year  or  so,  we  will  crack  a  bottle  of  the  very  best  for 
"  Auld  Lang  Syne." 

By  Major  Wilson's  side  also  died  Captain  WiLLlAM  JOSEPH 
JUDD,  commanding  No.  4  Troop  of  the  Victoria  Rangers.  He  was 
originally  a  farmer  in  the  Cape  Colony,  but  sold  his  farm  for  the 
purpose  of  joining  the  Pioneer  Force,  in  which  he  was  a  trooper.  After 
the  Occupation  of  Mashonaland  he  became  engaged  in  transport 
riding,  making  his  head-quarters  at  Victoria,  where  he  was  elected 
Commandant  of  the  local  Burghers.  When  the  war  broke  out  he 
volunteered,  and  received  the  command  of  a  troop  in  the  Victoria 
Rangers,  which  many  of  the  more  prominent  burghers  joined.  He 
rendered  excellent  service  througliout  the  war,  being  quick  and  ready 
as  an  officer,  and  to  be  absolutely  relied  upon  in  any  emergency. 
Personally  he  was  exceedingly  popular  with  the  forces,  and  was  well 
known  as  an  expert  shot  with  gun  and  rifle. 

Yet  another  of  the  officers  of  the  expedition  killed  on  the  Shangani 
among  the  Wilson  Patrol  was  Captain  Argent  Blundell  Kirton, 
who  was  born  on  February  6th,  1857.  He  was  the  son  of  Major  Edward 
B.  Kirton,  formerly  attached  to  the  Admiralty,  but  subsequently  to  the 
Royal  Engineering  Department,  War  Office.  Major  Kirton  served  for 
some  years  at  the  Cape,  and  was  a  great  friend  of  Sir  Harry  Smith. 
Argent  Kirton  was  born  at  Portsmouth,  and  was  educated  at  the  St. 
Paul's  Grammar  School,  Cosham.  He  left  for  South  Africa  at  the  age  of 
sixteen  to  join  his  two  brothers,  who  were  already  established  there : 
Joseph  Kirton,  C.E.,  who  subsequently  died  of  fever  ;  and  George 
Kirton,  who  was  killed  by  a  fall  from  his  horse.  Among  Argent 
Kirton's  earlier  exploits,  it  may  be  mentioned  that,  at  imminent 
risk,  he  carried  despatches  through  the  Boer  lines  during  the  war, 
for  which    he    was    complimented    by  Lord    Wolseley.       He    lived    on 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengitla. 

Captain  A.  B.  Kirton. 

his  own  farm  in  the  bush-veld, 
about  thirty  miles  from  Zeerust, 
and  was  already  familiar  with 
Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland 
through  successive  trips  to  those 
countries,  prior  to  the  advent  of  the 
Chartered  Company.  For  many 
years  he  was  on  terms  of  intimacy 
with  Lobengula,  At  the  time  that 
hostilities  broke  out,  he  was  acting 
for  Sir  John  Willoughby,  at  Vic- 
toria, on  behalf  of  an  English 
syndicate  which  had  acquired  farms 
in  Mashonaland,  and  immediately 
volunteered  for  service.  He  was 
placed  in  charge  of  the  Transport 
Department,  with  the  local  rank  of 
captain  of  the  Victoria  Rangers, 
and  was  present  at  every  battle  with  the  Matabeli.  On  the  arrival 
of  the  column  at  Buluwayo,  he  volunteered  for  service  with  Major 
Forbes'  Patrol,  and  was  killed  with  Major  Wilson.  A  pluckier  man 
never  wore  shoe  leather,  and  he  was  popular  throughout  the  country. 
His  motto.  "  Fortis  voluntas  vincit,"  was  characteristic  of  the  man. 
He  married,  in  1S87,  Katherine,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Thomas,  a 
missionary  in  Matabeliland,  one  of  whose  sons  was  murdered  by 
Lobengula  at  the  time  Captain  Patterson  was  treacherously  done  to  death 
by  the  Matabeli.      Captain  Kirton  leaves  a  widow  and  three  children. 

Another  general  favourite  among  the  officers  who  died  during  the 
campaign  was  the  late  Captain  Charles  Frederick  Lendy,  who  was 
born  at  Sunbury  House,  Sunbury-on-Thames,  on  the  7th  of  January, 
1863.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of  the  late  Major  A.  F.  Lendy,  F.L.S., 
F.G.S.,  etc.,  formerly  Captain  on  the  French  Staff,  who  came  to  England 
in  1850,  and  became,  after  eleven  years,  a  naturalised  English  subject, 
joining  the  4th  Middlesex  Militia  (7th  Fusiliers),  Pie  was  one  of  the 
first  to  start  a  practical  and  military  college,  in  1855,  at  Sunbury-on- 
Thames,  where  he  lived  for  thirty-four  years,  and  died   October    loth, 


Pkoto  by  litest  d-  Son.   Go.port:, 


[Commanding  the  Artillery  of  the  Victoria   Column.) 
HoKN  7rH  jA.UA.v,   .863.     Die..  BLauwAvo,  isth  Januarv,   1S94. 

In  Me7noriaiu.  251 

1889.  He  was  of  French-Swiss  extraction,  his  father,  Colonel  Lendy, 
being  aide-de-camp  to  the  Due  de  Nemours,  and  Commandant  of  the 
Military  School  at  Metz. 

Captain   C.  F.  Lendy    was    educated    in    Paris  (at   the   Lycee  St. 
Louis),   Germany,  and    Harrow,   and    passed  sixth    into   Woolwich   in 
February,    i88r.     On    leaving    he   went    through   the    Long  Course   at 
Shoeburyness,  and  from  thence  to  Gibraltar  in  1883,  and  afterwards  to 
Bermuda,     On  his  return  to  England  in    1886,  he  went  to  the   Isle  of 
Wight  and   Hurst  Castle,  during  which  time  he  passed  as  interpreter 
both  in  French  and    German.      He  next  went   to   Gosport   and   Wey- 
mouth, where  he  was  stationed  when  seconded   from  the  Artillery  to 
take  command  of  the   Maxim  guns  for  the  British  South  Africa  Com- 
pany.    He   sailed   from    England    May    17th,    1890,  delighted  with  the 
prospect  of  an   adventurous   life.     From  a  very  early  age    he  evinced 
great  aptitude  for   science  :    chemistry,   geolog)%   and   botany,  and   was 
also  a   keen   spoitsman,    being    particularly    devoted    to   shooting    and 
fishing.     He  was  a  very  powerful   man,  being  able  to  lift  very  heavy 
weights    and   perform    many   unusual    feats   of  strength.      He    always 
travelled  about  with  very  heavy  dumb-bells  (20  lbs.  each),  which  he  used 
night  and  morning   with  unfailing   regularity\     These   he   carried  in   a 
small    portmanteau,  besides    shots    of   30  lbs.   and    16  lbs.  weight,  for 
"putting  the  weight,"  a  branch  of  sport  in  which  he  excelled,  and  which 
finally  caused  his  sad  end.     Bad  luck  alone  prevented  him  from  being 
amongst  the  list  of  amateur  champions,  as  the  only  summer  he  was  in 
England  of  late  years  found  him  at  Gosport,  and  on  the  morning  of  the 
Championship  Meeting  at  Stamford  Bridge  he,  unfortunately  (after  a 
long,  tiring  night  spent  in  signalling),  missed  the  only  train  which  would 
have  got  him  to  London  in  time  to  compete.      The  same  afternoon, 
before  his  brother  officers,  he  covered  just  over  forty  feet   with   more 
than  one   "  put,"  whereas  the  winner  of  the  Championship  "  put "  only 
over  thirty-eight  feet.     Just  before  going  to  Africa,  while  stationed  at 
Weymouth,  he  went  in  zealously  for  sculling,  and  it  was  his  intention 
to  have  tried  for  the  Diamond  Sculls  at  Henley,  for  which  many  good 
judges  thought    he   held   a   very  good  chance,   in    spite  of  his  having 
taken  to  it    so  recently;  he  had  also  been  very   successful    in  various 
punting  competitions  on  the  Thames. 


The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengnla. 

Captain  Lendy  was  at  first  stationed  at  Fort  Charter,  but  subse- 
quently at  Fort  Victoria,  where  he  was  appointed  magistrate.  On 
one  occasion,  which  Mr.  Labouchere  has  made  famous  in  this  country. 
Captain  Lendy  was  sent  to  suppress  a  disturbance  at  the  kraal  of 
'Ngomo,  a  Mashona  chief  who  had  defied  the  authorities.  It  was 
found  necessary  to  employ  force,  and,  of  course,  several  natives  were 
killed.  Captain  Lendy  was  thereupon  held  up  to  the  execration  of 
mankind  in  Mr.  Labouchere's  highly-coloured  but  ineffective  manner. 
This,  however,  is  what  Mr.  Selous  has  to  say  on  the  subject  : — 

There  is  not  an  Englishman  in  Mashonaland  who  does  not  deprecate  the 
cruel  aspersions  which  have  been  cast  upon  the  character  of  Captain  Lendy — 
aspersions  which,  in  spite  of  all  the  testimony  as  to  the  honourable  career  of  that 
unfortunate  young  officer,  his  detractors  have  not  sufficient  generosity  of 
character  to  withdraw,  but  still  allow  to  blacken  his  memory. 

Captain  Lendy  died  after  the  campaign  was  over 
in  consequence  of  a  strain  brought  about  while  pur- 
suing his  hobby  of  "putting  the  shot," 
being,  unknown  to  himself  no  doubt, 
considerably  weakened  by  the  hard- 
ships gone  through.  He  was  attended 
to  the  last  by  Dr.  Jameson  and  Dr. 
Hogg,  the  date  of  his  death  being 
the  13th  of  January.  He  was  brother 
to  Captain  E.  A.  \V.  Lendy,  D.S.O., 
the  gallant  and  promising  officer  who 
was  killed  in  the  Warina  "  blunder  " 
on  the  West  Coast  of  Africa,  Decem- 
ber 23rd,  1893. 

It  is  difficult  to  express  the  deep 
regret  with  which  the  news  that  so  pro- 
mising a  career  had  been  cut  short 
was  received  both  in  South  Africa 
and  England.   The  estimation 
^,  ^^ .  ^_,  -  n  in    which    his    abilities    were 
"--^^^  "-  -"  I  generally  held  is  fully  shown 
The  Lendy   Memorial  at  Sunbury-on-Thames.  by  the  fact   that    he   received 

Ill  Mciuoriam. 


the  command  of  the  artillery  of  the  combined  columns  throughout  the 
campaign.  It  is  understood  too  that  it  was  owing  to  his  advice  that  the 
number  of  the  Maxim  guns  taken  with  the  British  South  Africa  Com- 
pany's forces  were  increased,  and  it  is  only  necessary  to  read  any  account 
of  the  campaign  to  see  how  important  an  influence  this  step  had  upon 
the  result  of  the  war.  All  who  knew  Captain  Lendy  felt  confident  that 
his  would  be  a  most  successful  future;  among  others,  the  Duke  of 
Abercorn,  President  of  the  Chartered  Company,  who,  in  a  letter  to  the 
deceased  officer's  relatives,  spoke  most  highly  of  his  services,  and 
alluded  to  the  severe  loss  which  the  Company  had  sustained  in  his 
untimely  death.  At  Sunbury,  where  their  boyhood  was  spent,  a 
fountain  is  being  erected  by  the  inhabitants  as  a  memorial  of  the  two 
brothers,  who  both  died  in  their  country's  service  within  the  space  of  a 
few  weeks. 

The  third  to  fall  in  the  cam- 
paign was  Captain  Owen  Gwynyth 
St.  George  Williams,  eldest  son  of 
General  Owen  Williams.  He  was  chief 
of  the  Scouts  of  the  Salisbury  Column. 
His  close  friend,  the  late  Captain  H.  J. 
Borrow,  told  the  story  of  his  death 
as  follows  :  "  He  had  been  out  with 
several  others,  and  they  had  been  sur- 
rounded and  very  nearly  entrapped  by 
a  large  body  of  armed  natives.  They 
succeeded  in  getting  through,  however. 
Captain  Williams'  horse  was  fresh,  but 
those  of  the  others  were  comipletely 
knocked  up,  so  that  when  the  party 
came  together  later  on  he  was  missing. 
It  was,  however,  confidently  believed  that  he  was  ahead,  and  would 
turn  up  safely.  As  he  did  not  return  to  laager  that  night,  signal  rockets 
were  discharged,  and  two  of  our  best  native  hunters  were  sent  out  to  take 
up  his  spoor.  This  they  did,  but  could  only  follow  it  a  few  miles,  as  the 
natives  pursued  and  fired  on  them  continually.  They  reported  that,  as 
far  as  they  could  judge,  his  horse,  though  wounded,  was  going  well  and 

Captain  O.  G.  W^illiams. 

254  ^^^^  Dozunfall  of  Lobengitla. 

strong,  and  the  tracks  of  his  pursuers  were  growing  fainter.  I  was  sent 
out  at  once  with  a  party  and  took  up  the  track  from  where  they  had  left 
it,  following  it  for  nearly  ten  miles,  and  not  returning  till  late  at  night. 
My  report  corroborated  that  of  the  native  scouts,  and  the  general 
conclusion  arrived  at  was  that  he  was  heading  for  Hartley  Hills  or 
Salisbury.  He  was  known  to  be  a  good  man  on  the  veld,  well  able  to 
take  care  of  himself,  and  the  anxiety  felt  on  his  account  was  therefore 
lessened.  However,  nothing  more  could  be  done,  for  the  enemy  were 
about  on  all  sides,  and  further  delay  was  out  of  the  question.  We  now 
learn  that  he  was  eventually  overtaken,  and  after  shooting  some  of  his 
pursuers,  sat  down  on  a  rock,  revolver  in  hand,  and  faced  the  rest,  who 
then  retired  about  200  yards  and  fired  upon  him,  and  he  fell,  shot 
through  the  temple.  Thus  amongst  the  officers  of  the  expedition,  has 
another  promising  career  been  prematurely  cut  short."  Captain  Williams 
formerly  held  a  captain's  commission  in  the  Royal  Horse  Guards,  and 
had  first  come  to  Mashonaland  as  a  member  of  Lord  Randolph 
Churchill's  expedition.  Referring  to  his  untimely  death,  Major  Forbes 
says  that  he  was  a  very  great  loss  to  the  expedition.  He  was  most 
popular  wherever  he  was  known,  and  had  been  particularly  useful  both 
on  account  of  his  professional  military  training,  and  by  reason  of  his 
remarkable  natural  grasp  of  locality,  which  stood  him  in  excellent  stead 
as  an  officer  of  scouts. 

This  completes  the  list  of  those  holding  the  military  or  local  rank 
of  captain  who  were  killed  during  the  campaign.  Among  the  junior 
officers  was  LIEUTENANT  Arend  Hermanus  Hofmeyr,  of  the  Victoria 
Rangers,  killed  with  Major  Wilson's  party.  Tiie  only  information  to  hand 
concerning  him  is  that  he  was  the  son  of  a  clergyman  of  the  Dutch 
Reformed  Church  in  the  Cape  Colony,  and  a  connection  of  the  Hon. 
J.  H  Hofmeyr,  the  famous  leader  of  the  Afrikander  party  in  the  Cape 
Parliament.     He  was  second  lieutenant  in  No.  4  Troop. 

Lieutenant  George  Hughes,  one  of  the  Wilson  Patrol,  was  the 
son  of  an  Irish  Methodist  Minister.  He  was  educated  at  the  Methodist 
College,  Belfast,  from  which  he  took  a  mathematical  scholarship  in 
the  Royal  University,  where  he  matriculated  and  passed  his  first  two 
examinations  in  Arts.  Having  a  strong  bent  towards  travel  and 
adventure,  he  quited  college  before  taking  his  degree    and    emigrated 

In  Memoriani. 


Lieutenant  George  Hughes. 

to  America.  He  remained  there  for 
some  months  and  then  went  to  South 
Africa  to  join  an  elder  brother.  He 
joined  the  British  South  Africa  Com- 
pany's Pioneer  Force  ("D"  Troop)  in 
1889,  and  when  it  was  disbanded 
entered  the  service  of  the  Bechuana- 
land  Exploration  Company  as  pros- 
pector. When  the  Matabeli  war  broke 
out  he  at  once  volunteered  and  was 
appointed  lieutenant  in  the  Victoria 
Rangers,  No.  i  Troop. 

Lieutenant  Rixon,  a  popular 
officer  of  the  Victoria  Rangers,  died 
at  Buluwa}'o  on  November  5th  from 
fever.  He  was  English  born,  and  was 
for  some  time  resident  in  Johannes- 
burg.    About  the  time  of  the  occupation  he  went  up  to  Mashonaland, 

where  he  was  engaged  in  storekeeping. 
Another  of  those  killed  with  the 
Wilson  Patrol  was  SERGEANT  WIL- 
LIAM Henry  Birkley,  Salisbury 
Horse,  who  was  born  in  London  and 
educated  at  the  Reading  Grammar 
School.  He  emigrated  to  South  Africa 
in  the  year  1884.  Mr.  Birkley,  who 
claimed  descent  from  King  Robert  H. 
of  Scotland  and  his  Queen  Euphemia, 
went  to  Africa  when  Sir  Hercules 
Robinson  was  Governor,  and  was  for 
some  time  in  the  Cape  Mounted  Rifles, 
but  afterwards  enlisted  into  Colonel 
Carrington's  Horse.  He  volunteered  at 
the  outbreak  of  the  war,  and  joined 
''B"  Troop  of  the  Salisbury  Horse.  Mr. 
Lieutenant  Rixon.  Birkley  from  time  to  time  wrote  home 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengitla. 

Sergeant  W.  H.  Birklry. 

a  number  of  very  interesting  and  amusing 
letters,  some  of  which  now,  however,  read 
rather  pathetically.  One  of  the  last,  dated 
October  the  19th,  from  Matabeliland,  con- 
cludes :  "The  natives  round  here  yesterday 
predicted  that  there  wouldn't  be  a  white 
man  left  in  the  country  by  the  time  the 
sun  goes  down  to-night.  The  Matabeli  will 
have  to  look  pretty  sharp,  as  it  only  wants 
about  an  hour  to  sundown."  He  held  the 
rank  of  sergeant  during  the  campaign,  and 
was  thirty-one  years  of  age  when  killed.  He 
died  a  soldier's  death,  which  has  been  the 
fate  won  in  many  of  his  family,  who  have 
many  records  of  honour  and  glory  of  the 
by-gone    battles    and    campaigns.       Before 

going  out    to    South    Africa,   Mr.   Birkley   was   articled    to    a  solicitor, 

and    was     established    in    business    in 

Salisbury  when  hostilities  commenced. 

He    was    particularly    well-connected, 

as  indeed  were  a  very  large  proportion 

of  the  rank   and    file,  and    possessed 

many  sterling  qualities  which  won  for 

him  the  respect  of  his  comrades  and 

fellow  colonists.     As  a  sergeant  in  the 

Salisbury  Horse  he   spared  no    effort 

for  the  success  of  the  undertaking. 
Sergeant  Clifford  Bradburn, 

killed  with  Major  Wilson's  Patrol,  was 

twenty-five  years  of  age  when  he  died. 

He  was  formerly  in  the  Birmingham 

Bank,  and  after  the  formation  of  the 

British    South   Africa    Company  was 

one  of  the    first  to  join    the    Pioneer 

Force.     About  two  years  ago,  hearing 

that   his    mother  was    dangerously  ill.  Sergeant  C.  Bradburn. 

In  Memoriani. 


he  started  for  England,  but  unfortunately  arrived  too  late.  He  returned 
to  South  Africa,  and  when  the  war  broke  out  volunteered,  being 
appointed  sergeant  in  the  Victoria  Rangers.  On  New  Year's  Day  a 
very  cheering  letter  was  received  by  his  friends,  stating  that  he,  as  one 
of  a  volunteer  patrol,  was  about  to  attempt  a  dangerous  and  difficult 
enterprise — the  capture  of  Lobengula.  He  hoped,  however,  to  be  with 
them  at  home  in  June  next.  Mr.  Bradburn  was  the  son  of  Mr 
Alfred  Bradburn,  of  Edgbaston,  Birmingham.  Before  going  to  Mata- 
beliland  he  was  in  Ihe  Cape  Mounted  Rifles,  from  which  he  resigned  in 
order  to  come  home  on  a  visit.  He  was  born  on  December  17th,  1868, 
at  Moseley,  Birmingham,  was  educated  at  Queen's  College  in  that 
town,  and  went  out  to  South  Africa  in  1890. 

Sergt.  Harold  Alexander 
Brown,  killed  with  Major  Wilson 
on  the  Shangani,  was  sergeant  of  the 
Victoria  Rangers.  He  was  educated  at 
Harrow  and  Exeter  College,  Oxford, 
and  was  exceedingly  fond  of  travel, 
having,  even  before  leaving  Oxford, 
explored  many  out-of-the-way  corners 
of  Europe,  Africa,  and  Asia.  He  pos- 
sessed a  large  share  of  that  daring 
and  adventurous  spirit  characteristic 
of  Englishmen  in  the  frontier 
colonies.  Mr.  R.  Bosworth  Smith,  his 
old  form-master  at  Harrow,  describes 
him  as  quick-tempered,  strong,  and 
active,  and,  when  at  school,  "  fond  of 
escapades,  and  quite  ungovernable  if 
you  got  on  his  wrong  side."  He  could 
not  put  together  two  lines  of  Greek  or  Latin  without  alarming  mis- 
takes, but  possessed,  nevertheless,  great  ability,  with  almost  a  touch  of 
genius.  He  was  exceedingly  well  read,  and  had  gained,  while  in  the 
Fifth  form  at  Harrow,  the  school  prize  for  English  verse — a  feat  not  often 
performed.  His  rough-hewn,  determined,  fearless  character  was  instinct 
with  the  spirit  of  daring  and  the  love  of  travel  and  adventure.     He  had 


Sergeant  H.  A.  Brown. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

wandered,  often  alone,  through  Egypt,  the  interior  of  Asia  Minor  and 
Morocco,  Albania,  Montenegro,  the  Balearic  Islands,  and  left  a  full 
account  of  one  of  his  most  dangerous  journeys  in  the  shape  of  a  volume 
(published  by  Griffith  and  Farran)  entitled,  "A  Winter  in  Albania." 
Mr.  Brown  accompanied  the  Pioneers  to  Salisbury,  and  one  of  his  private 
letters  describing  the  events  of  the  march,  published  anonymously  in  the 
"  Pall  Mall  Gazette,"  so  much  interested  Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes,  that  it  is  said 
he  wrote  to  the  editor  asking  him  to  divulge  the  name  of  the  writer. 

Sergeant  Dahm,  Raafs  Rangers,  was  the  only  one  of  that  force 
killed  during  the  advance  of  the  Southern  Column,  being  shot  through 
the  head  in  attacking  the  Matabeli  in  the  hills  near  the  Singuesi  River 
on  November  2nd.  Unfortunately  no  biographical  information  has 
been  received. 

Armour-Sergeant  D.  W.  Gibson  was  one  of  the  two  white 
men  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Goold-Adams'  forces  killed  during  the  cam- 
paign, meeting  his  death  on  December  lOth  during  the  march  from  the 
Shangani  to  Umhlangeni.  Of  him,  too,  no  biographical  information 
has  been  received  in  time  for  this  edition. 

Troop-Sergeant-Major  Sidney 
Charles  Harding,  Victoria  Rangers, 
killed  wath  Major  Wilson,  was  educated 
at  Felstead  School  and  at  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge.  Developing  a  dis- 
position for  out-door  life  in  preference 
to  sedentary  work,  he  looked  to  South 
Africa  as  an  area  for  the  display  of 
an  active  spirit.  He  resigned  the 
lieutenancy  he  held  in  the  2nd  Cam- 
bridgeshire (University)  Rifle  Volun- 
teers, and  on  his  arrival  at  Capetown 
he  was  offered,  and  accepted,  a  com- 
mission as  lieutenant  in  Dyme's 
Mounted  Rifles.  Before  the  Basuto 
question  was  at  an  end  he  had  seen 
something  of  South  African  warfare. 
This  over  he  went  up  to  Natal,  and  served  under  Colonel  Dartnell,C.M.G., 

Troop-Sergt.-Major  S.  C.  Harding. 

In  Meinoriam. 


in  the  Natal  Mounted  Police.  In  1885  he  returned  to  England,  where 
his  father  hoped  he  would  remain  to  fill  an  appointment  which  he  had 
obtained  for  him,  but  the  fascination  of  colonial  freedom  was  too  strong, 
and  after  a  few  months'  stay  at  home  he  was  reluctantly  parted 
with,  and  returned  to  Natal,  when  he  again  entered  the  Mounted 
Police  service.  Subsequently,  in  1889,  he  joined  the  Bechuanaland  Border 
Police.  From  Fort  Elebe,  in  that  year,  he  wrote  of  Bechuanaland  as 
a  "  grand  country  when  it  is  opened  up."  "  Big  game "  hunting 
while  on  periodical  leave  reconciled  him  to  the  monotony  of  life. 
During  the  four  years  he  served  in  Bechuanaland,  at  Macloutsie  and 
elsewhere,  he  seems  to  have  made  himself  a  general  favourite,  taking 
a  prominent  part  in  the  local  recreative  and  social  movements.  He  was 
a  fine  young  Englishman,  with  a  reputation  for  determination,  energy 
and  pluck.  He  was  born  in  the  old  Court  suburb  of  Kensington  on 
the  loth  December,  1861,  and  was  the  son  of  Colonel  Charles  Harding 
Hon.  Colonel  of  the  4th  V.B.  Queen's  Royal  West  Surrey  Regiment. 

Corporal  Samuel  Calcraft, 
killed  at  the  Imbembesi,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Mr.  Samuel  Calcraft,  of  Camden 
Town.  He  was  born  on  December  22nd, 
1858,  in  the  Parish  of  St.  Pancras, 
London,  and  was  educated  at  the 
Camden  High  Schools.  At  the  age  of 
nineteen  he  went  out  to  South  Africa, 
where  he  was  several  years  Chief  Clerk 
and  Controller  in  the  General  Post 
Office  at  Port  Elizabeth,  under  Sir 
Henry  Wilmot.  He  afterwards  left  for 
the  gold  fields  and  still  later  served  in 
the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  in 
which  he  became  Corporal.  When 
the  Matabeli  War  broke  out  he  volun- 
teered for  active  service  with  the 
Salisbury  Horse  and  was  wounded  in 
the  Battle  of  Imbembesi.  He  died  from  his  wound  on  November 
6th,  1893. 

S  2 

Corporal  Samuel  Calcraft. 

2  6o 

The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 


CoRPL.  Frederick  Crossley 
CoLQUHOUN,  who  was  killed  with  the 
Wilson  Patrol,  was  the  son  of  ]\lr. 
Francis  Crossley  Colquhoun,  Assist- 
ant Commissary-General,  who  served 
throughout  the  Crimean  war.  He 
was  born  in  Edinburgh  in  the  \ear 
1867,  was  educated  at  the  Bedford 
Modern  School,  and  first  went  to  the 
Cape  in  1889,  but  had  previously 
been  for  nearly  two  years  learning 
farming  in  Manitoba.  When  he  first 
went  to  South  Africa  he  was  at  Mr. 
Featherstone's  farm  near  Somerset, 
but  joined  the  Pioneer  Corps  and 
went  with  it  into  Mashonaland. 
After  this  he  went  into  the  British 
South  Africa  Company's  service  at 
Victoria.  On  the  outbreak  of  hostilities  he  at  once  volunteered  for 
service  with  the  Victoria  Rangers.  He  bore  the  character  of  being 
eminently  a  young  fellow  who  could  be  counted  upon  to  always  do  his 
duty,  and  was  very  popular. 

Corporal  Harry  Graham  Kinloch,  who  was  one  of  Major 
Wilson's  party,  was  born  at  Norwood,  Surrey,  in  1863,  and  was  educated 
at  Harrow  and  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  He  entered  Mashonaland 
about  three  years  ago,  and  practised  with  considerable  success  as  a 
solicitor  at  Salisbury.  He  had  also  attained  some  reputation  as  an 
athlete,  was  a  good  cricketer,  and  an  ex-amateur  champion  light-weight 
boxer.  When  war  against  Lobengula  was  declared  he  entered  the 
Salisbury  Horse  as  a  trooper,  and  went  through  the  whole  campaign 
until  killed  on  the  Shangani  River.  No  man  was  more  thoroughly 
popular  in  the  whole  country  than  Mr.  Kinloch,  who  united  quiet 
unassuming  manners  to  considerable  abilities  and  sterling  qualities. 

Lance-Corporal  R.  ^Iundy,  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police, 
was  assegaied  when  the  waggons  were  rushed  by  the  Matabeli  on  the 
Singuesi   River  on  November  2nd,  on  the  occasion  on  which  Mr.  F.  C. 

In   Meuioriani.  261 

Selous  was  wounded.  Unfortunately  no  biographical  information  has 
been  received. 

In  Mr.  Albert  Edward  Burnett,  who  was  mortally  wounded  in 
a  skirmish  at  the  commencement  of  the  campaign,  the  expedition  lost 
one  of  its  best  known,  most  popular,  and  most  trusted  members  He 
had  seen  service  before,  having  passed  through  the  Warren  Expedition 
in  Colonel  Cough's  Regiment  (3rd  Mounted  Kifles).  Afterwards  he 
joined  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  under  Colonel  Sir  F.  Carrington, 
leaving  that  force  to  go  north  with  Messrs.  Johnson,  Heany,  and 
Borrow,  with  whom  he  was  connected  up  to  the  time  of  the  flotation 
of  the  Bechuanaland  Exploration  Company.  After  that  he  was  com- 
missioned to  proceed  with  Mr.  Selous  to  Tette  on  the  Zambesi,  and 
thence  down-country  to  secure  a  concession  of  Mashonaland  from 
the  Mashona  chiefs,  the  attempt  to  obtain  the  concession  of  that 
country  from  Lobengula  having  up  to  that  time  proved  a  failure.  The 
concessions  so  obtained  were  afterwards  ceded  to  Mr.  Rhodes.  Subse- 
quently he  joined  the  Pioneers  as  Captain  in  charge  of  the  Transport 
Department,  and  rendered  signally  good  service  in  road  making  and 
in  other  ways.  After  the  occupation  he  embarked  in  mining  in 
Mashonaland,  and  was  so  engaged  until  the  war  broke  out,  when  he 
volunteered.  On  the  departure  of  the  Salisbury  Horse,  he  remained 
behind  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  on  despatches  from  Mr.  Rhodes- 
No  man  in  the  country  had  a  better  knowledge  of  the  veld 
than  Mr.  Burnett,  who  was  a  perfect  scout.  Mr.  Burnett,  who  was 
killed  while  out  on  scouting  duty,  was  born  in  East  London  (Cape 
Colony),  and  was  at  one  time  engaged  in  diamond  mining  at  Kim- 
berley.  He  was  a  keen  sportsman  and  a  wonderfully  good  shot,  and 
as  already  said,  very  well  known  and  a  general  favourite  in  many  parts 
of  South   Africa. 

Altogether  twenty-eight  troopers  were  killed  or  died  of  sickness 
during  the  campaign,  twenty  of  these  (fifteen  being  Salisbury  and  five 
Victoria  men)  being  among  those  gallant  fellows  who  died  round  Major 
Wilson.  Of  these  one  was  Trooper  William  Abbott,  Salisbury 
Horse,  who  was  the  son  of  Mr.  Joseph  Abbott,  of  High  Hill,  Keswick, 
and  was  born  at  Thornthwaite,  Cumberland.  He  sailed  for  South 
Africa    on  the   21st    May,    1889,   and  after   staying  for  some  time  in 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Trooper  William  Abbott. 

Capetown  and  Kimberley,  went 
into  the  employ  of  the  Bechuana- 
land  Trading  Association,  in  which 
service  he  remained  for  three  years. 
He  afterwards  settled  down  to 
mining  work  in  the  Mazoe  fields, 
Mashonaland,  volunteering  when 
the  Matabeli  War  broke  out. 

Among  the  twenty  men  taken 
by  Captain  Borrow  to  relieve  Major 
Wilson  was  Trooper  William 
Bath,  the  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Job 
Bath.  He  was  born  on  November 
nth,  1856,  in  the  county  of  Mid- 
dlesex, and  was  educated  in  the 
Commercial  Schools,  Clapham. 
He  joined  the  Cape  Mounted 
Rifles  in  October,  1876,  and  went 

through  the  Basuto  Campaign  in  1879,  taking  part  with  Major  Wilson  in 

that  famous  incident   in   Kaffir  warfare, 

the    storming    of    Morosi's    Mountain. 

He     was     promoted     to     Sergeant     in 

1 88 1,   but  subsequently   left   the    Cape 

Mounted    Rifles    and    became   overseer 

of    a    diamond     mine    at     Kimberley. 

Later  on   again,  he  joined    the    British 

Bechuanaland   Border  Police,  which  he 

left  to  come  home   in    1889.     After  re- 
maining in  England  for  two  years  and 

a-half,  he  left  for  Johannesburg  on  April 

2nd,  1892,  and  there  had  charge  of  the         ^ 

battery  at  the   Langlaagte    Estate   and  ,;„>] 

Gold    Mining    Company.     He   went  to 

Mashonaland  on  June  24th,   1893,  and 

volunteered  for  service  in  the  Salisbury 

Horse  when  the  Matabeli  War  broke  out.  Trooper  William  Bath. 

In  Meinoriaiu. 


Trooper  William  Henry 
Britton,  Salisbury  Horse,  who  was 
killed  with  the  Wilson  Patrol,  was  born 
in  1870,  at  Halstead,  Essex,  where  he 
was  educated.  He  was  always  of  an 
adventurous  disposition,  and  on  the 
death  of  his  father  decided  to  try  his 
fortune  in  South  Africa.  He  therefore, 
at  the  age  of  nineteen,  left  Halstead 
for  that  country,  and  finally  settled  at 
Fort  Salisbury.  After  the  Victoria 
incident  he  volunteered  for  service  in 
Matabeliland,  and  went  through  the 
whole  campaign. 

Trooper  Edward  Brock, 
Salisbury  Horse,  formed  one  of  Major 
Wilson's  party.  No  biographical  in- 
formation has  yet  been    received. 

Trooper  W 


Trooper  W.  A,  Gary. 

Trooper  William  Arthur 
Gary,  killed  at  the  battle  of  Imbem- 
besi,  was  born  in  1872,  and  is  the 
fourth  son  of  Colonel  Francis  W. 
Gary,  commanding  the  53rd  Regt. 
District.  He  accompanied  his  father 
to  South  Africa  when  the  latter  com- 
manded the  1st  Battalion  of  the  East 
Yorkshire  Regiment,  in  the  autumn 
of  1888,  and  continued  his  education 
at  the  Diocesan  Gollege,  Rondebosch, 
near  Capetown.  In  May,  1891,  when 
only  nineteen  years  old,  he  joined, 
with  his  brother,  Mr.  Charles  Gary, 
the  British  South  Africa  Company's 
Police.  He  was,  therefore,  only 
twenty-one  years  of  age  when  he  died, 
but  was  a  fine  manly  young   fellow. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

who  is  spoken  of  by  his  comrades  as  possessing  all  the  characteristics 
of  an  honourable  and  upright  English  gentleman.  He  was  devoted 
to  athletic  pursuits,  and  was  notably  a  good  cricketer.  He  was  also 
a  first-rate  shot,  and  in  his  college  cadet  corps  (of  which  he  was 
sergeant-major)  won  the  challenge  cup  for  rifle  shooting  with  the 
highest  score  ever  made  in  South  Africa  by  a  member  of  a  cadet 
corps.  On  the  outbreak  of  the  Matabeli  war  he  volunteered  for  service, 
and  was  attached  to  the  Salisbury  Horse,  Captain  Heany's  Troop.  That 
officer  says  of  him  that  "  he  was  a  general  favourite,  an  adept  at  all 
field  sports,  and  a  clever  lad  all  round ;  and  sincerely  regretted  by  his 
comrades.  He  was  especially  anxious  (being  a  wonderfully  good  shot) 
to  make  good  shooting  at  Imbembesi,  and  it  was  in  eagerly  exposing 
himself  with  that  object  that  he  was  hit  in  the  head  with  a  Martini  bullet." 
Troopers  Philip  Wouter  De  Vos  and  L.  Dewis,  Salisbury  Horse, 
were  killed  with  Major  Wilson.  No  other  information  has  been  received. 
.^  Trooper  Dennis  Michael  Cronly 

Dillon,  son  of  the  late  John  Cronly 
Dillon,  Postmaster  General  of  the  Punjaub, 
was  born  at  Burdwan,  India,  on  April 
20th,  1868.  He  was  sent  to  England  at 
the  age  of  nine  or  ten,  and  was  educated 
at  St.  Edmund's  College,  Hertfordshire, 
from  where  he  took  a  first  class  in  the 
matriculation  examination  at  the  London 
University,  and  also  passed  his  inter- 
mediate Arts  at  the  same  University, 
finishing  his  education  at  Stonyhurst 
College.  Failing  in  the  examination  for 
the  Ceylon  Civil  Service,  he  went  to 
Africa  in  October,  1888,  There  he 
joined  the  "  Pioneer  Force,"  and  had  his 
share  of  the  hard  work  of  opening  up  Mashonaland,  Oh  the  outbreak 
of  the  war  he  joined  the  Victoria  Rangers  and  acted  as  signaller 
until  killed  with  Major  Wilson's  party.  A  clever  scholar  and  good 
athlete,  he  was  at  college  a  general  favourite  both  with  his  pro- 
fessors and  fellow  students,  as  also   among   his  comrades   in    Mashona- 

Mr.  D.  M.  C.  Dillon. 

In  Memoriaiu. 


Trooper  E.  M.  Forbes. 

land.  The  portrait  is  from  a 
photograph  taken  at  the  age  of 

Trooper  Eustace  Mac- 
Leod Forbes,  who  was  drowned 
while  endeavouring  to  cross  the 
Umsingwani  River,  was  a  brother 
of  Major  P.  W.  Forbes,  and  the 
fourth  son  of  Mr.  Alex.  C.  Forbes, 
of  Whitchurch,  Oxon.  He  was 
born  on  21st  November,  1862, 
and  was  educated  at  Repton,  and 
Jesus  College,  Cambridge,  at  both 
of  which  he  took  a  leading  part 
in  cricket  and  football,  being  in 
the  Repton  cricket  and  football 
elevens  for  some  years,  and  Cap- 
tain of  the  Jesus  College  cricket 
eleven.  After  taking  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts  at  Cambridge, 
he  went  through  a  course  of  electric  engineering  at  Messrs.  Crompton's 
Works  at  Colchester,  but  finding  no  opening  in  this  country,  went  out 
to  Mashonaland  in  October,  1891,  to  join  his  brother.  He  was  a  clerk 
in  the  Public  Prosecutor's  Office  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company, 
and  afterwards  in  the  Mines  Office,  and  it  was  while  in  the  latter  that 
he  volunteered  to  join  the  force  going  into  Matabeliland.  He  served 
through  the  war  as  a  Trooper  in  the  Salisbury  Horse,  and  was  wounded 
through  the  left  elbow  at  the  Shangani  fight;  and  it  was  owing  to 
this  wound  that  he  was  drowned  on  nth  February,  1894,  when  trying 
to  cross  the  Umsingwani  River  on  his  way  home.  This  sad  event  was 
the  result  of  Mr.  Forbes'  plucky  endeavour  to  assist  in  finding  a  drift 
across  the  river  for  the  waggons  to  cross  by.  He  had  got  out  of  his 
depth,  and  having  only  the  use  of  one  arm,  was  swept  away  by  the 
current  and  drowned,  despite  the  strenuous  efforts  made  by  several 
friends  who  were  present  to  save  him. 

Trooper  Harold  John   Hellet,  Victoria  Rangers,  was  killed 
with  Major  Wilson;  and  Trooper  Abe  Levy,  Victoria  Rangers,  was 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

wounded  at  the  battle  of  Shangani,  October  25th,  and  died  the  following 
day.     Further  information  as  to  these  two  last  is  still  wanting. 

Among  those  killed  on  the  Shangani  River  was  Trooper  GeorgE 
Sawers  Mackenzie,  who  was  born  at  Murree,  Punjab,  India,  in  i860. 
He  entered  Mashonaland  in  1889  with  the  Pioneer  Force,  and  shortly 
after  it  was  disbanded  went  into  the  service  of  the  Zambesia  Exploration 
Company  as  assayer.  He  held  this  position  until  the  war  broke  out, 
when  he  volunteered  for  service  with  the  Salisbury  Horse. 

Trooper  Matthew  Meiklejohn  (Salisbury  Horse,  killed  with 
Major  Wilson),  whose  family  reside  in  Cape  Town,  was  prior  to  the  war 
in  the  employ  of  Messrs,  Frank  Johnson  and  Co.,  Limited,  by  whom  he 
is  spoken  of  in  high  terms.     He  formerly  resided  in  the  Transvaal. 

Trooper  Harold  Dalton  Watson 
Moore  Money,  who  was  killed  with 
Major  Wilson,  was  a  son  of  Major-General 
R.  C.  Money.  He  went  out  to  Salisbury 
in  company  with  Captain  Borrow.  On 
the  outbreak  of  hostilities  he  volunteered 
to  serve  in  Borrow's  Troop — "B"  Troop 
of  the  Salisbury  Horse — which  he  did 
with  much  credit,  and  was  one  of  the 
twenty  of  his  troop  ordered  out  on  the 
pursuit  of  Lobengula.  Young  Money  was 
of  a  fearless  and  courageous  character,  of 
high  principles,  and  a  great  favourite.  He 
came  from  a  family  of  soldiers,  and  his 
natural  desire  had  been  to  enter  the  army, 
although  he  failed  to  pass  the  Sandhurst 
examinations.  He  was  only  twenty-one 
years  of  age,  having  been  born  on  June  30th,  1872,  at  Tulpigori,  Bengal. 
He  was  educated  at  Wellington  College,  and  went  out  to  South  Africa 
in  May,  1893.  At  the  time  of  the  outbreak  of  the  war  he  had  not  been 
many  weeks  in  Mashonaland,  and  was  a  most  enthusiastic  volunteer.  In 
one  letter  to  his  relatives  he  said  that  though  he  "  could  not  get  into 
Her  Majesty's  Service  at  home,  he  would  win  a  V.  C.  out  here."  He 
was  one  of  the  seven  who  made  up  a  Public   School   Mess  in   Borrow's 

Trooper  II.  D.  W.  M.  Money. 

In  Memoriam. 


troop,  and  all  seven  were  killed  except  Batley,  who  was  stopped  in  Shiloh 
with  rheumatism,  and  Gisborne,  sent  back  with  despatches.  The  five 
killed  were  Watson  and  Money  (Wellington),  Brown  and  Kinloch  (Harrow), 
and  Vogel  (Charterhouse).  As  a  boy  he  was  noted  for  his  good  influence 
over  other  boys.  A  Wellington  master,  writing  of  him,  says  : — "  He  was 
as  good  a  boy  as  ever  lived.  Most  men  would  give  worlds  to  have  had 
as  innocent  and  happy  a  boyhood  as  his.  He  was  as  much  liked  by 
the  boys  as  he  was  by  all  the  masters  who  had  anything  to  do  with 
him,  and  I  could  always  feel  that  there  was  an  influence  for  good  among 
my  boys  when  Harold  was  among  them.  We  feel  that  we  have  lost  a 
Wellingtonian  who  would  always  have  been  an  honour  to  the  school." 
He  was  very  devoted  to  sport  of  every  kind,  especially  riding  and 

Trooper  Edward  Graddon  Morrison,  Salisbury  Horse,  died 
while  on  service  at  Buluwayo,  on  January  15th,  of  sickness.  He  origin- 
ally came  to  the  country  with  young  Mr.  Swinburne,  his  close  friend. 
He  was  educated  at  an  English  public  school,  was  a  splendidly  built  man, 
a  good  all-round  athlete,  and  exceedingly  plucky  ;  and  he  was  much  liked 
and  sincerely  regretted  by  all  his  comrades. 

Trooper  Percy  Crampton 
NUNN  was  born  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds 
in  1855,  and  was  the  son  of  Mr.  Robert 
Nunn,  professor  of  music.  In  1881  he 
left  England  for  the  Cape,  joined  the 
Cape  Mounted  Rifles,  and  afterwards 
the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police.  He 
was  a  trooper  in  the  Salisbury  Horse. 
During  the  march  on  Buluwayo  he 
forwarded  from  time  to  time  to  the 
"  Daily  Graphic "  illustrated  accounts 
of  the  fighting.  His  last  contribution 
appeared  on  December  19th.  He  was 
one  of  the  ill-fated  Wilson  Patrol. 

Troopers  Robert  Oliver  and 
Alexander  Hay  Robertson,  Victoria 
Rangers,  were  killed  with  Major  Wilson.     Other  information  is  wanting. 

Trooper  P.  C.  Nunn. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Trooper  J.   Robertson. 

Trooper  John  Robertson, 
another  of  the  gallant  band  killed  on 
the  Shangani  River,  was  just  twenty-six 
years  of  age.  He  was  the  youngest  son 
of  Mr.  John  Robertson,  of  Auchnahyle, 
Pitlochry,  upon  whose  death  about  six 
years  since  he  decided  to  seek  his 
fortune  abroad.  Young  Robertson  was 
a  fine,  handsome  man,  standing  about 
six  feet  high,  and  was  just  the  sort  to 
volunteer  in  any  hazardous  undertaking, 
and,  as  his  last  few  letters  to  his  people 
have  been  full  of  the  atrocities  of  the 
Matabeli  to  the  Mashonas,  his  friends 
were  not  surprised  to  find  him  in  the 
front  in  the  Victoria  Rangers. 
Trooper    Julius    Siebert,    Salisbury    Horse,    was   dangerously 

wounded  on  November   1st  at  Imbembesi,  and  died  near  Buluwayo  on 

November  3rd.     Other  information  is  wanting. 
Trooper  Frederick  Thompson, 

killed  at  the  battle  of  Imbembesi,  was 

the  son  of  the  late  Mr.  Henry  Thomp- 
son, of    Ballina    House,   Maryborough, 

Queen's  Co.,  Ireland,  and   was  born  in 

1857    at    Ballingarry    Castle,    Co.  Tip- 

perary.     He  was  educated  at  Rockwell 

College,  Tipperary,  and  commenced  life 

in  a  bank,  resigning  after  a  few  years 

to  join  his  brother  in  South  Africa.     He 

first  joined   the   Cape    Mounted    Rifles, 

and   after  spending    four  years   in   that 

service    was  induced  by  his    brother  to 

leave  and  go   to  the  gold   fields,  where 

he  remained  until  the  latter's  death.    He 

then    joined    the   British    South   Africa 

Company's  Police,  and  at  the  expiration  Trooper  Frederick  Thompson. 

In  Meiuoriaiu. 


of  his  period  of  service  went  in  for  prospecting,  in  which  he  was 
engaged  when  the  Matabeli  War  broke  out.  He  at  once  volunteered 
his  services  to  the  British  South  Africa  Company  and  joined  "  C " 
(Captain  Spreckley's)  Troop  of  the  Salisbury  Horse.  He  was  killed  on 
1st  November,  1893,  while  on  picket  duty  in  the  bush  just  before  the 
battle  of  that  date  commenced.  His  commanding  officer,  Captain 
Spreckley,  said  in  a  letter  that  he  would  ask  for  no  better  soldier  to 
stand  by  him.  In  the  end,  when  surprised  on  duty,  he  shot  two  Matabeli 
and  wounded  two  others,  but  the  natives  were  too  many  for  him,  and 
he  was  killed  without  a  chance  of  getting  away. 

Trooper  William  Alex- 
ander Thomson,  killed  with 
Major  Wilson,  was  born  in  Aber- 
deen on  the  8th  of  January,  1871, 
but  a  few  months  afterwards  his 
parents  removed  to  Elgin,  Moray- 
shire (only  eight  miles  from  the 
home  of  Major  Wilson),  so  that 
he  always  looked  on  Elgin  as  his 
native  place.  He  was  educated 
at  the  Elgin  Academy,  but  when 
fifteen  years  old  he  went  to  Aber- 
deen, where  he  lived  for  two  and 
a-half  years.  He  had  always  a 
desire  to  go  abroad,  and  in  May, 
1889,  he  left  for  the  Cape,  where 
he  was  for  two  years  with  Messrs. 
J.  Forrest  and  Co.,  of  Rondebosch, 
near  Cape  Town.  When  the  Vander  Byl  settlement  at  Laurence- 
dale,  Mashonaland,  was  being  organised,  he  applied  for  a  place  in 
the  Expedition  and  obtained  one.  Here  a  knowledge  of  drugs 
stood  him  in  good  stead,  and  proved  of  value  to  the  Expedition. 
He  had  charge  of  the  medicine  chest,  and  was  called  "  The  Doctor  " 
b)-  his  comrades.  Mr.  Thomson  saw  a  good  deal  of  Mashona- 
land, his  knowledge  of  the  country  growing  rapidly,  and  his 
admiration    for    it    growing    with    his    knowledge.      He    always    had 

Trooper  \V.  A.  Thomson. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

great  faith  in  the  future  development  of  Mashonaland,  and  he  expressed 
his  determination  to  stick  to  it  "  through  thick  and  thin."  When  war 
broke  out  with  the  Matabeh,  he  at  once  volunteered  his  services  as 
a  trooper,  and  was  placed  in  "B"  Troop  of  the  Salisbury  Horse, 
under  the  late  Captain  Borrow.  He  served  with  his  troop  through 
the  campaign  until  the  end  and  bore  the  reputation  of  being  energetic 
and  straightforward.  He  was  also  very  popular,  being  genial  and  warm- 
hearted, and  having  many  friends.  He  was  a  good  athlete  and  a  keen 
angler,  and  was  also  a  volunteer  in  the  Cape  Highlanders  during  the 
time  he  lived  at  the  Cape.  Like  many  others  of  those  who  fell  in  the 
war,  he  was  a  mere  boy — scarcely  twenty-three — when  he  died. 

Trooper  Henry  St.  John  Tuck, 
one  of  Wilson's  party  killed  on  the 
Shangani,  was  born  in  1868,  and  was 
the  eldest  son  of  William  Henry  Tuck, 
M.A.  He  was  educated  at  Lancing 
College  and  in  Germany,  and  in  1889 
proceeded  to  South  Africa,  when  he 
enlisted  in  the  Cape  Mounted  Rifles, 
and  subsequently  joined  the  Pioneer 
Force  on  the  occupation  of  Mashona- 
land. For  this  service  he  received,  with 
the  others,  a  grant  of  land.  When  the 
Matabeli  war  broke  out,  however,  he 
volunteered  his  services  and  joined  the 
Salisbury  Horse,  serving  throughout 
the  campaign.  Before  going  to  South 
Africa  Mr.  Tuck,  like  some  of  the  other 
members  of  the  forces,  learned  his  first 
lesson  in  a  volunteer  corps  in  England,  having  been  a  member  of  the 
late  corps  of  Royal  Naval  Artillery  Volunteers. 

Trooper  Frank  Leon  Vogel  was  one  of  the  gallant  men 
forming  Major  Wilson's  heroic  party.  He  was  the  second  son  of  the 
Hon.  Sir  Julius  Vogel,  K.C.M.G.,  and  was  born  on  October  21st,  1870,  at 
Auckland,  New  Zealand.  After  being  educated  at  Charterhouse  he  went, 
in  1890,  into  the  London  OfTfice  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company. 

Trooper  Henry  St.  John  Tuck. 

In  Memoriavi. 


He  left  England  for  South  Africa  on  April  4th,  1891,  and  became  a 
trooper  in  the  Mashonaland  Mounted  Police  at  Tuli.  When  this  force  was 
disbanded,  in  1892,  he  went  into  the  Survey  Department  at  Salisbury, 
and  subsequently  became  Acting  Assistant- 
Secretary  to  Dr.  L.  S.  Jameson.  When 
the  war  broke  out  he  volunteered,  was 
enrolled  in  the  "B"  Troop  of  the  Salis- 
bury Horse  under  Captain  Borrow,  and 
during  the  campaign  served  the  Maxim 
gun  attached  to  his  troop,  under  Lieut. 
Llewellyn.  He  left  Salisbury  with  the 
column,  but  returned  alone  two  or  three 
weeks  afterwards  on  business.  Rejoining 
his  troop  two  or  three  days  after  they  left 
Fort  Charter,  he  marched  with  the  column, 
and  was  in  all  the  engagements  on  the 
way  to  Buluwayo,  serving  the  Maxim  gun, 
besides  volunteering  for  special  scouting 
expeditions.  He  was  one  of  the  small 
party  sent  out   in   search    of  Captain    G. 

Williams,  and  also  one  of  the  expedition  on  which  Captain  Campbell 
was  killed.  He  served  the  Maxim  at  the  engagement  on  the  Shan- 
gani  River  on  the  25th  of  October,  and  also  at  Imbembesi  on  the 
1st  November,  where  he  had  a  narrow  escape,  one  bullet  passing 
through  his  hat.  He  reached  Buluwayo  safe  and  sound  on  November 
4th,  and  on  the  loth  wrote  his  last  letter  to  his  relatives,  being 
then  evidently  in  high  spirits,  and  regarding  the  campaign  as  over. 
He  left  Buluwayo  on  the  14th,  and  remained  with  Major  Forbes 
throughout  the  patrol  which  ended  at  Shiloh ;  thence  again,  as  a 
volunteer,  he  accompanied  the  force  under  Major  Forbes  to  the 
Shangani  River,  where,  under  Captain  Borrow,  he  joined  Major 
Wilson,  with  whom  he  was  killed. 

Trooper  Thomas  Colclough  Watson,  another  of  the  public 
school  men  who  fell  with  the  Wilson  Patrol,  was  a  son  of  Colonel 
Thomas  James  Watson,  a  grandson  of  Colonel  Thomas  Colclough 
Watson,  and  a  great-grandson  of  Colonel  Jonas  Watson,  who  was  killed 

Mr.  F.  L.  Vogel. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Trooper  Thomas  Colclough  Watson. 

in  the  Irish  Rebellion.  After  being 
educated  at  Wellington  College  he 
joined  his  father  in  India.  The  family 
afterwards  went  out  to  Tasmania,  where 
Mr.  Watson  resided  for  three  or  four 
years  ;  subsequently  he  returned  to 
England,  and  finally  went  out  in 
ic^Qi  to  Mashonaland,  volunteering  for 
service  when  the  war  broke  out. 

Trooper  Henry  George 
Watson,  Salisbury  tlorse,  was  killed 
with  Wnison's  party  on  the  Shangani. 
Trooper  Edw^ard  Earle  Welby, 
Victoria  Rangers,  was  also  killed 
with  Major  Wilson.  Trooper  Percy 
Wood,  who  died  almost  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  march  upon  Bulu- 
wayo,  of  fever,  was  in  the  Victoria 
Rangers.  Further  information  is  wanting  as  to  the  last  named 
three  members  of  the  expedition. 

Of  the  several  memorials  of  these  valiant  men,  one  will  take  the 
very  fitting  and  suitable  form  of  a  hospital  at  Buluwayo, — formerly 
"  The  Place  of  Slaughter,"  now  a  place  of  healing  ;  and  a  bronze  tablet, 
whereon  will  be  inscribed  the  names  of  the  dead,  will  be  placed  in  the 
church  at  Salisbury.  The  bones  of  Wilson  and  the  famed  patrol  are 
now  being  removed  from  the  distant  part  of  the  country  where  they  met 
their  death,  to  consecrated  ground  near  the  ruins  of  Zimbabwe.  Here 
a  granite  monolith  will  be  placed  above  their  resting-place  by 
Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes — a  last  honour  to  those  "pickets  of  civilisation," 
whose  noble  deaths  marked  the  downfall  of  a  fierce  and  blood-stained 
barbarism — the  rise  of  a  civilised  era.  But  the  most  eloquent  tribute 
of  all  has  been  the  profound  impression  created,  not  only  among  their 
friends,  relatives,  and  countrymen,  but  among  their  savage  foes,  b)'  the 
splendid  gallantry  of  the  fallen.  Some  of  the  horses  have  lost  their 
riders  ;  too  many  of  the  men  are  spoken  of,  as  Captain  Greenfield 
prophesied,  as  " poor  old   So-and-so."      But  splendid  legacies  remain: 

In  Memoriavt. 


a  fair  country  for  the  expansion  of  the  race  ;  a  high  example  of  duty 
and  devotion.  May  the  remembrance  of  their  heroism  be  ever  green 
among  the  Englishmen  who  keep  watch  and  ward  on  the  frontiers 
of  our  broad  South  African  domains  ;  may  it  ever  be  present  in  their 
minds,  to  nerve  their  arms  and  fire  their  courage  should  the  time  again 
come  to  saddle-up  and  march. 

iiiMiiiiiMmiiT[iinniniiimMlri«ffliiitiwiiiiiiiIfltii|Tniiiriimin[ti[iiiii[niii»[iiir^^  .^n^».:^...^.::..^„T«;^,^,.;,;,T^..'. ^ .N, 

The  Salisbury  Memorial  Tablet. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 



Revised  ajid  Corrected  to   August,    1894. 

Mashonaland  Force.    Total  Strength,  about  672  Europeans,  155  Colonial  Natives. 



Victoria  Rangers 

Salisbury  Horse 


Commanding  Salisbury 

Victoria  Rangers 

Salisbury  Horse 

Victoria  Rangers 
Salisbury  Horse 
Officer  Commanding 
Victoria  Rangers 
Victoria  Rangers 

Trooper  Percy  Wood 
Capt.  John  A.  L.  Campbell 
Mr.  Albert  Edward  Burnett 
Capt.  Owen  Gwynydd  St.  George 

Trooper  Abe  Levy 

,,         Frederick  Thompson   . . 
,,        William  Arthur  Cary  . . 

,,        Julius  Siebert     .. 
Lieut.  Milner  R.  Theodore  Rixon 
Corpl.  Samuel  Calcraft    . . 
Major  Allan  Wilson 

Capt.  Frederick  Fitzgerald 
,,     William  Joseph  Judd 
,,      Harry  Moxon  Greenfield 
,,     Argent  Blundell  Kirton  .. 
Lieut.  George  Hughes    . . 

„  Arend  Hermanus  Hofmeyr 
Sgt.-Mjr.  Sidney  Chas.  Harding 
Sergt.  Harold  Alexander  Brown 

,,      Clifford  Bradburn . . 
Corpl.  Fredk.Crossley  Colquhoun 
Trooper  Edward  Earle  Welby  .. 
,,        John  Robertson 

Alex.  Hay  Robertson  .. 
Harold  John  Hellet      . . 
,,        Denis  Cronly  Dillon     . . 
Capt.  Henry  John  Borrow 
Sergt.  William  Henry  Birkley  .. 
Corpl.  Harry  Graham  Kinloch. . 
Trooper  Harold  Dalton  Watson 
Moore  Money 
,,         Frank  Leon  Vogel 
,,         L.  Dewis. .  .. 

,,        William  Henry  Britton 
,,        Philip  Wouter  De  Vos . . 
,,        Thos.  Colclough  Watson 
,,         Henry  George  Watson . . 
,,        Edward  Brock   .. 
William  Bath     .. 
Percy  Crampton  Nunn 
,,         Henry  St.  John  Tuck  .. 
,,        William  Alex.  Thomson 
„        William  Abbott  . . 
,,         Geo.  Sawers  MacKenzie 
,,        Matthew  Meiklejohn  .. 

Trooper  Robert  Oliver     . .  . .      Victoria  Rangers 

The  following  died  at  the  close  of  the  Campaign  : 
Comdnt.  Pieter  Johannes  Raaf . .     O.  C.  Tuli  Column 

Salisbury  Horse 

Capt.  Charles  Frederick  Lendy 
Trooper  Edwd .  Graddon  Morrison 
„         Eustace  Macleod  Forbes 

Colonial  Native  Contingent 
Mashona  ,, 

Victoria  Rangers 
Salisbury  Horse 


Date  of 

Oct.  i6th 

Oct.  23rd 
Oct.  26th 

Oct.  26th 

Nov.  ist 
Nov.  3rd 

Nov.  5  th 
Nov.  6th 


Iron  Mine  HilL. 

Nr.  Shangani  R. 


Near  Buluwayo 

Dec.  4th       Shangani 



Wounded  Oct.  15th. 
Mortally  wounded. 
Horse  shot.    Cut  off 

when  scouting. 
Wounded  Oct.  25th, 

Battle  Shangani. 

Wounded  Nov.  ist. 
Battle  Imbembesi. 


Battle  Imbembesi. 

Party  surrounded 

and  cut  up. 

Not  known 

Dec.  26th       Buluwayo 

1894.       I 
Jan.  15th  „ 

Feb.  nth    '  Umzingwane 

Oct.  25th    j  „ 

I   On  march 

Died  from  illness. 


///  Alcnioriain. 


Mashonaland  Force. — List  of  Woijnded. 



Trooper  Conrath ;  Victoria  Rangers 

,,        William  Nutt     ..          ..  ;         ,,  ,, 

„        J.  Behrmann      ..          ..      Salisbury  Horse 
Asst. -Conductor  J.  Dunman      ..  ,,  ,, 

Mr.  W.  Quested :  Mashonaland  Cont. 

Trooper  J.  H.  Lucas 

F.  Mack.. 
,,         F.  H.  Crewe 
„         M.  H.  Barnard  . 

Capt.  W.  F.  Moberley    . 

Trooper  F.  Nesbitt 

Colonial  Native  Contingent 

Mashona  Contingent 


Salisbury  Horse 


Date  of 



Oct.  2Sth    I  Shangani 

Oct.  27th       Zinyangene 
Nov.  ist    :  Imbembesi 

Dec.  i2ih 
Nov.  1st 
Oct.  25th 



On  march 



Seveiely  in  attack 

on  the  march. 


Slightly  . 

List  of   Killed,  or   Died  of  Wounds,  of  the  Southern  Force,  445  Europeans,  and 
Khama's  Force,  2,000;    Latter  Retired  on  November  6th. 



L.-Corpl.  R.  Mundy 

Sergt.  Dahm 

Arm.-Sergt.  D.  W.  Gibson 

Coloured  Driver  W.  Le  Fleur 
Khama's  Force 

B.  B.  P 

Raaf  s  Rangers 
B.  B.  P 

Date  of 



Nov.  2nd 

Dec.  loth 

Jan.  2nd 

Nov.  2nd 

Singuesi . . 


Singuesi . . 

wounded  Dec.  4th. 

List  of  Wounded. — Southern  Force. 



Date  of 




Mr.  F.  C.  Selous   . . 
Sergt.-Major  R.  Codrington 
Corpl.  F.  A.  Ransom 
Sergt.  Dempsey      . . 

,,      Robinson 
Farrier  Corpl.  G.  D.  Newton 
L.  Corpl.  W.  Williams     . . 
Trooper  W.  Shannahan   . . 
H.  Middleton     .. 
Sergt.  A.  C.  Pyke . . 
One  Native  Driver 
Khama's  Force 



B.  B.  P 

Raaf 's  Rangers 

B.  B.  p..."  ;.■ 

Nov.  2nd 

Dec.  4th 

Dec.  i2th 
Nov.  2nd 

Singuesi  . . 
Singuesi . . 







Mashonaland  Force. 
Europeans,  killed,  or  died  of  wounds    .. 

„  died  from  other  causes 

Colonial  Native,  killed 
Mashona  Contingent,  killed 

Europeans,  wounded 

Colonial  Natives  or  Coolies,  wounded . . 

Mashona  Contingent  ,, 

Summary  of  Casualties. 

Southern  Force. 
42  Europeans,  killed   . . 

7  Khama's  Force,  killed 

30  Europeans,  wounded 

— 80         Colonial  Native    ,, 
12  Khama's  Force     ,, 

31  Total  casualties  in  both  Forces — officers,  men, 

— 45  and  natives  .. 

A  considerable  number  of  trek  oxen  were  shot  also. 
List  of  horses  killed  and  wounded  : — 

Mashonaland  Force 65  |  Southern  Force,  including  3  mules 

In  addition  to  this  a  large  number  of  horses  had  to  be  left  on  the  road,  owing  to  their  weakness. 

T    2 




The  character  of  the  troops — Their  esprit  de  corps  and  stamina — The  Administrator — The 
Commanding  Officer— Sir  J.  C.  Willoughby,  Bart. — Major  Hamilton  Browne — Captain 
Finch — Captain  Heany — Captain  Spreckley — Captain  Moberley — Captain  Kennedy — 
Adjutant  Kennelly — Captain  Bastard — Captain  Napier — Captain  Delamere — Captain 
Reid — Captain  White — Captain  Donovan — The  other  officers, 

It  is  difficult  to  speak  too  highly  of  the  manner  in  which  the  campaign 
was  conducted  alike  by  officers  and  men.  In  particular  the 
Administrator's  forethought  and  decision  were  admirable.  It  is  easy 
now,  looking  back  upon  a  successful  issue,  to  underrate  his 
difficulties.  Dr.  Jameson  really  felt,  and  a  good  many  others, 
taking  their  tone  from  him,  confidently  expressed,  a  certainty 
of  victory;  but  an  important  and  well-informed  section  of  the 
colonial  press  and  public  were  far  from  sanguine  upon  the  subject. 
The  troops,  few  in  number,  were,  at  the  commencement  of  the  rainy 
season,  advancing  upon  a  savage  foe,  whose  military  strength  was 
known  to  be  formidable,  and  whose  traditional  ferocity  lent  a  terror  to 
their  very  name.  Arms  and  ammunition,  horses,  equipment,  food 
supplies  :  all  had  to  be  procured  at  the  shortest  possible  notice.  But  the 
end  was  success,  and  a  success  unparalleled  in  British  native  wars. 

That  this  was  so  may  be  attributed  not  merely  to  the  ability, 
energy,  and  care  of  the  leading  officers,  but  in  great  measure  also  to  the 
extraordinary  personnel  of  the  whole  of  the  troops.  For  not  only  were 
the  men  who  formed  the  columns  very  considerably  above  the  average 
in  the  accidents  of  birth,  education,  and  physique — they  were  equally 
remarkable  in  point  of  character,  reputation,  and  position.  To  illustrate 
this  statement  it  is  only  necessary  to  note  what  an  exceedingly  large 
proportion  of  the  members  of  the  expedition  had  passed  through  our 
leading  schools  and  universities,  and  what  a  number  of  the  rank  and  file 
held  a  very  considerable  interest  in  the  country.  Equally  conspicuous  were 

TJic  Rhodcsian  Roll  Call.  277 

the  calmness  and  cool  courage  with  which  the  officers  and  troopers — mere 
lads  in  some  cases — faced  fire  for  the  first  time  ;  or,  as  we  have  already 
recounted,  met  death  with  unflinching  firmness.  From  first  to  last  the 
Mashonalanders  showed  that  they  possessed  a  rare  amount  of  that 
pluck  and  spirit  which  has  made  our  nation  great  and  honoured.  That 
is  the  fact,  and  it  can  be  accounted  for.  The  handful  of  men  who 
vanquished  Lobengula  had  overcome  still  more  formidable  enemies 
to  the  development  of  the  country ;  they  were  the  fittest  who  had 
survived  all  the  troubles,  dangers,  and  difficulties  which  had  followed 
close  upon  each  other  since  the  occupation  in  1890.  The  weaklings  had 
succumbed  to  the  hardships  and  privations  endured,  the  faint-hearted 
had  turned  back  from  the  fight  and  gone  back  to  the  creature  comforts  of 
civilized  regions.  Those  who  stayed  to  see  the  end  were  of  strong 
character  and  fine  physique,  men  not  easily  daunted  by  danger  or 
difficulty,  nor  lightly  turned  from  a  set  purpose  ;  whose  stout  frames  and 
stouter  hearts  were  alike  "in  utrumque  paratus." 

The  command  of  this  fine  body  of  irregular  troops  was  offered 
(under  conditions  which  he  himself  recounts  on  other  pages)  to  Major 
P.  W.  Forbes  by  the  Administrator.  The  circumstances  were  unique, 
and  called  for  a  leader  who  possessed  the  knowledge  only  to  be  gained 
in  the  regular  forces,  with  an  adaptability  and  resourcefulness  of  character 
which  could  develop  new  methods  under  new  phases  of  warfare. 
Major  Forbes,  an  officer  in  the  Inniskilling  Dragoons,  was  at  the  time 
filling  a  magisterial  appointment  in  Mashonaland,  and  knew  the  men 
and  the  country.  He  had  also  had  some  experience  of  natives  while 
serving  with  his  regiment  in  Zululand.  Dr.  Jameson's  justification  for 
appointing  him  to  the  chief  command  exists  in  the  signal  success 
which  attended  the  operations  of  the  columns — a  success  which  was 
achieved  in  the  face  of  most  serious  difficulties  and  discouragements, 
which  was  as  finally  effective  as  it  was  rapid,  and  which  has  not  been 
paralleled  in  South  Africa  since  the  defeat  of  Dingaan  and  Umziligazi 
by  the  Dutch  voortrekkers.  Including  even  the  dire  loss  of  Major 
Wilson's  party  on  the  Shangani,  no  South  African  native  war  of  similar 
importance  has  been  concluded  with  such  small  loss  of  life  ;  and  that  this 
was  so  may  be  very  largely  attributed  to  the  commanding  officer's 
painstaking  vigilance  and  unrelaxing  carefulness      The  whole  scheme  of 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengnla, 

the  campaign  was  devised  and  carried  out  with  conspicuous  ability, 
and  Major  Forbes  issues  from  a  severe  ordeal  with  a  distinguished 
record  of  service  under  difficult  and  exceptional  conditions  of  warfare. 

Major  Patrick  William 
Forbes,  Commanding  the  British 
South  Africa  Company's  Forces 
in  Matabeliland  throughout  the 
war,  is  the  son  of  Mr.  Alexander 
Clark  Forbes,  and  was  born  at 
Whitchurch,  Oxon,  on  August  31st, 
1 86 1.  He  was  educated  at  Rugby 
and  Sandhurst,  and  obtained  a 
commission  in  the  Inniskilling 
Dragoons,  in  which  he  now  holds 
the  rank  of  Captain.  He  went  out 
to  South  Africa  in  1880,  and  was 
seconded  for  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  service  in  No- 
vember, 1889.  He  was  second  in 
command  of  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  Police  when  they 
entered  Mashonaland,  and  became 
major  in  the  Police  in  May,  1890,  which  rank  he  has  held  ever  since. 
When  the  advance  into  Matabeliland  was  determined  upon,  he  received 
the  command  of  all  the  Company's  forces.  He  raised  and  commanded 
the  Salisbury  Column,  and  on  their  junction  with  the  Victoria  division 
took  command  of  the  combined  columns.  The  Tuli  force  (Raafs 
Rangers)  would  also  have  been  under  his  control  had  the  w^ar  not  been 
finished  before  the  arrival  of  the  latter  at  Buluwayo.  Before  the  dis- 
bandment  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  Police  Major  Forbes 
secured  Manica  to  the  Company  by  his  action  at  Mutassa's  Kraal  on 
November  15th,  1891.^  He  had  served  for  five  or  six  years  among  the 
Zulus  with  his  regiment,  and  before  the  commencement  of  hostilities  was 
in  command  of  the  volunteers  at  Salisbury  and  resident  magistrate  there. 
He  was  known  to  and  by  almost  everyone  in  the  country,  where  his 
earnestness  and  strength  of  character  had  made  him  universally  respected. 

Major  P.  \V.  Forbes. 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call.  279 

The  post  of  Senior  Military  Adviser  on  the  staff  of  His 
Honour  the  Administrator  is  held  by  Major  Sir  John  CHRISTOPHER 
WiLLOUGHBY,  Bart.,  late  Captain  in  the  Royal  Horse  Guards.  Sir 
John  Willoughby  is  one  of  the  Pioneers  of  British  Zambesia,  having  been 
attached  to  the  staff  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Pennefather,  commanding  the 
Pioneer  Expedition  in  1890.  Since  that  date  he  has  taken  an  active 
and  zealous  interest  in  the  development  of  the  country,  into  which  he 
has  brought  a  large  amount  of  capital,  and  in  whose  prosperity  he 
is  heavily  concerned.  He  has  formed  two  powerful  companies 
(Willoughby's  Expedition  Syndicate  and  the  Mashonaland  Develop- 
ment Company),  both  of  which,  under  his  excellent  management,  are 
flourishing.  Sir  John  Willoughby  went  through  the  campaign  with  the 
Administrator  until  the  occupation  of  Buluv^^ayo,  and  subsequently 
accompanied  the  Column  sent  under  the  command  of  Captain  Heany 
to  relieve  Major  Forbes  after  the  loss  of  Major  Wilson's  party.  He 
holds  the  local  rank  of  Major  in  the  British  South  Africa  Company's 
military  service,  and  in  his  official  capacity  has  done  very  useful  and 
effective  work.  Sir  John  Willoughby,  of  Baldon  House,  near  Oxford, 
Berwick  Lodge,  near  Bristol,  and  Fulmer  Hall,  Slough,  Bucks,  was  born 
in  Westbourne  Terrace,  London,  and  is  the  only  surviving  son  of  the 
late  Sir  John  Pollard  Willoughby,  Bart.  He  was  educated  at  Eton, 
where  he  evinced  a  special  taste  for  modern  languages,  winning  prizes 
for  proficiency  in  Italian  and  French.  He  was  captain  of  the  Eton 
shooting  team  which  won  the  Ashburton  Shield  in  1878.  At  a  later 
date  his  sporting  instincts  were  concentrated  upon  racing,  and  he 
succeeded  in  running  a  dead-heat  for  the  Derby  with  one  of  his  horses. 
Sir  John  is  very  popular  in  Rhodesia,  where  his  whole-hearted  en- 
deavours to  open  up  the  country  are  viewed  with  much  appreciation, 
and  where  his  unassuming  character  is  much  liked.  He  returns  to 
England  for  a  well-earned  holiday  at  about  the  end  of  the  year. 

Major  Hamilton  Browne,  who  for  a  time  at  the  commencement 
of  the  campaign  acted  as  Staff  Officer  to  Major  Forbes,  has  served  in 
the  Maori  War,  and  was  formerly  in  the  Royal  Engineers.  He  spent 
his  earlier  life  in  New  Zealand,  but  afterwards  campaigned  in  several 
other  parts  of  the  world.  He  took  part  in  the  Zulu  and  most  of  the 
other  recent    South    African    wars,    including   the  Boer   war    and    the 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula, 

Warren  Expedition.  He  was  at  one  time  Major  and  Adjutant  of  the 
Diamond  Fields  Horse,  a  volunteer  corps  which  has  done  good  service 
in  the  colonial  wars,  and  was  subsequently  Chief  Staff  Officer  in  the 
Mashonaland  Volunteers.  The  post  of  Staff  Officer  was  subsequently- 
taken  by  Captain  Finch,  but  Major  Browne  remained  with  the  column 
until  the  close  of  the  war,  taking  part  in  the  various  engagements. 

Major  Forbes'  chief  staff  officer 
was  Captain  Alan  George  Finch, 
late  Lieutenant  in  the  ist  Life  Guards. 
Captain  Finch's  connection  with 
South  Africa  dates  from  1890,  since 
when  he  has  been  engaged  in 
Mashonaland  in  investing  in  gold 
properties  and  real  estate.  When  the 
war  broke  out  he  volunteered  his 
services,  and  at  first  acted  as  remount 
officer  for  the  forces,  afterwards 
accompanying  Major  Forbes  as  staff 
officer,  and  ultimately  returning  to 
England  with  him.  Mr.  Finch  is  the 
eldest  son  of  Mr.  George  H.  Finch, 
M.P.,  of  Burley-on-the-Hill,  Oakham, 
Rutland.  He  was  educated  at  Eton, 
after  which  he  spent  some  years  in 
travel,  and  in  1884  obtained  a  com- 
mission in  the  ist  Life  Guards,  leaving  the  service  in  1890.  Mr.  Finch 
has  also  been  a  traveller  in  various  parts  of  Europe  and  America, 
having  visited  Ecuador  and  Columbia,  among  other  places,  and  the 

Major  Forbes'  Personal  Staff"  included  Captain  J.  H.  Kennedy, 
who  has  just  returned  to  this  country  for  a  holiday,  after  serving 
with  the  Chartered  Forces  throughout  the  war.  He  was  for  many 
years  in  the  Civil  Service  of  the  Colony  of  the  Caps  of  Good  Hope, 
and  subsequently  resided  for  some  time  in  Johannesburg.  At  present, 
under  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  he  holds  the  appoint- 
ment  in    Mashonaland   of    Master  of  the    High    Court    at    Salisbury, 

Captain  Alan  G.  Finch. 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call. 


Captain  J.  H.  Kennedy. 

and    Chief    Accountant   in    the 

Chartered   Company's  territory. 

He  volunteered  for  service  with 

the  Salisbury  Column  in  Mata- 

beliland  at  the  commencement 

of  the   recent   war,  and   joined 

that   Column  as  quartermaster, 

with    the    rank    of    captain,    in 

which  capacity  he   served  until 

the  arrival  of  the  joint  Columns 

at  Buluwayo,  when  he  assumed 

the  duties  of  Chief  Commissariat 

Officer.    He  has  been  favourably 

mentioned  in  reports  both  from 

Dr.  Jameson,  the  Administrator, 

and  Major  Forbes,  commanding 

the    Combined    Columns,    and 

took  an  active  part  in  the  two 

engagements  with  the  Matabeli. 

Captain  Kennedy  was,  at  the  time  of  joining  the  Salisbury  Horse,  one 

of  the  chief  officials  of  the  Chartered  Company,  and  at  the  head  of  a 

very  important  department,  yet  he  was  quite  ready  to  join  the  field 

force  in  any  capacity  whatever,  having  placed  himself  entirely  in  the 

hands  of  the  officer  commanding  that  force.     Such  an  example  had  an 

excellent  effect  upon  the  other  volunteers. 

Mr.  C.  M.  Acutt,  the  interpreter  and  guide,  is  a  member  of  a 
well-known  Natal  family,  and  was  particularly  selected  on  account  of  his 
acquaintance  with  the  Zulu  and  other  native  languages. 

Mr.  p.  L.  Chappe,  the  Acting- Veterinary  Surgeon  and  Trumpeter, 
served  in  the  Zulu  War,  and  did  good  work  of  a  miscellaneous 
character  throughout  the  recent  campaign,  being  energetic  and  ready 
to  turn  his  hand  to  any  duty.  Mr.  T.  E.  Tanner,  Orderly  Officer 
and  Galloper,  is  a  New  Zealander  by  birth.  He  entered  Mashonaland 
in  the  British  South  Africa  Compan3'''s  Police,  and  became  magistrate's 
clerk  (to  Major  Forbes)  at  Buluwayo. 

Captain  J.  A.  L.  Campbell,  late  R.A.,  was  Ordnance  Store  Officer. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

In  referring  to  the  other  officers  who  led  the  British  South  Africa 
Company's  forces  in  the  campaign,  those  of  the  three  cohimns  will  be 
mentioned  in  the  order  in  which  they  are  named  in  Major  Forbes' 
report.  Taking  first  the  Salisbury  Horse,  it  will  be  seen  by  referring  to 
the  earlier  pages  of  the  commanding  officer's  account  of  the  campaign 
that  the  senior    ("A")    Troop  was  offered  to  and  promptly  accepted 

by  Captain  Maurice  Heany,  who 
is  a  Pioneer  of  Pioneers  in  British 
Zambesia — one  of  the  famous  trinity, 
Johnson,  Heany,  and  Borrow — who  did 
such  splendid  work  in  1890,  who  were 
the  first  genuine  miners  in  the  country, 
and  one  of  whom,  poor  Borrow,  died 
in  maintaining  his  hard-earned  rights- 
Captain  Heany  is  an  American  by  birth 
but  has  been  for  sixteen  years  in  the 
outlying  portions  of  South  Africa — 
usually  a  good  bit  ahead  of  civilisation, 
and  has  taken  part  in  every  South 
African  war — the  Basuto  campaign  ex- 
cepted— since  he  landed  in  the  country. 
He  served  in  Carrington's  Horse  in  the 
Warren  Expedition,  and  afterwards  in 
the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police  with 
his  two  friends  and  partners,  Major 
Johnson  and  Captain  Borrow.  Leaving  the  Bechuanaland  Border 
Police  the  three  formed  a  syndicate  in  Cape  Town — the  Northern 
Goldfields  Pioneer  Syndicate — which  secured  from  Lobengula  a  con- 
cession to  work  what  are  now  the  Mazoe  Goldfields.  This  however 
was  afterwards  rescinded,  but  the  syndicate  was  ultimately  exceedingly 
successful,  and  acquired  from  Khama  a  valuable  concession,  which 
was  placed  upon  a  working  basis  as  the  Bechuanaland  Explora- 
tion Company,  of  which  Captain  Heany  was  for  some  years  general 
superintendent.  The  idea  of  the  Bechuanaland  Trading  Association 
originated  with  him,  and  he  became,  after  its  flotation,  its  general 
superintendent.     When    Mr.    Rhodes    decided  upon  the  occupation  of 

Captain  Maurice  Heany. 

The  RJwdesian  Roll  Call.  283 

Mashonaland,  the  three  friends  resigned  from  the  service  of  the 
Bechuanaland  Exploration  Company,  and  entered  that  of  the  Chartered 
Company,  being  entrusted  with  the  organisation  and  equipment 
of  the  Pioneer  Corps,  in  which  Captain  Heany  was  senior  Captain. 
When  the  Pioneers  were  disbanded,  the  firm  of  Johnson,  Heany,  and 
Borrow  was  formed,  and  did  splendid  work  in  opening  up  routes  and 
developing  the  mining  districts.  Just  before  the  Massi-Kessi  incident 
Captain  Heany,  in  opening  up  the  east  coast  trade  route,  was  taken 
prisoner  by  the  Portuguese  and  sent  down  to  Beira.  Later  on,  its 
operations  having  become  exceedingly  large,  the  firm  was  placed  on  a 
broader  basis  as  F.  Johnson  and  Co.,  Limited,  with  a  capital  of  ^^ 200,000, 
and  Captain  Heany  was  appointed  one  of  the  resident  managing 
directors.  When  the  Matabeli  war  broke  out  he  took  part  in  the 
raising  and  equipping  of  the  Salisbury  Horse,  and  was  appointed 
senior  Captain  of  the  same  in  command  of  "A"  Troop.  He  is 
exceedingly  popular  throughout  Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland,  where 
his  generosity  and  kindness  of  heart  are  almost  proverbial.  Speaking 
of  him  and  of  his  partners  Mr.  Selous,  in  his  last  and  exceedingly 
interesting  book,  says  : — 

So  much  has  been  written  concerning  the  march  up  to  Mashonaland,  and 
the  composition  of  the  force  that  took  part  in  it,  that  it  would  be  mere  repetition 
were  I  to  say  very  much  on  the  subject.  The  whole  force  of  police  and 
pioneers  was  commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Pennefather,  of  the  6th 
(Inniskilling)  Dragoons ;  but  the  pioneers,  one  company  of  whom  were  always 
in  advance  to  prepare  the  road,  were  commanded  by  Mr.  Frank  Johnson. 
Everyone  in  South  Africa  has  heard  of  Frank  Johnson  and  Co.— the  Co.  being 
Messrs.  Heany  and  Borrow.  All  three  names  are  household  words  in  Mashona- 
land. Johnson  and  Borrow  are  two  fine  young  Englishmen,  and  Heany  is  an 
American ;  and  all  three  are  brimming  over  with  enthusiasm  and  energy,  and  are 
possessed  of  that  dogged  perseverance  and  untiring  patience  which  has  already 
won  half  the  world  for  the  Anglo-Saxon  race.  They  are  the  men  who  raised 
and  equipped  the  Pioneer  Corps,  with  an  admirable  attention  to  every  detail  ot 
outfit ;  and  ever  since  the  occupation  of  Mashonaland  they  have  been  the  life 
and  soul  of  the  country.  In  1891  they  tried  to  open  up  a  transport  road  to  the 
east  coast.  Owing  to  the  tse-tse  fly  this  enterprise  was  a  failure,  and  cost  the 
firm  a  large  portion  of  the  money  they  had  won  by  the  successful  conduct  of  the 
Pioneer  Force.      All  honour  to  them  for  the  valiant  attempt   they   made  to 

284  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

overcome  what  proved  to  be  insuperable  difificulties.  "  It  is  not  in  mortals  to 
command  success."  During  the  hard  times  experienced  by  the  Pioneers  in 
the  first  rainy  season  after  the  occupation  of  Mashonaland,  Heany  and  Borrow 
(Johnson  had  gone  down  to  Cape  Town  to  prepare  for  the  opening  up  of  the 
east  coast  route  from  Beira)  endeared  themselves  to  all  classes  of  the  community 
by  their  kindness  to  all  who  were  in  distress  ;  and  I  think  all  old  Pioneers  will 
join  me  in  wishing  luck  to  Johnson,  Heany,  and  Borrow,  and  hoping  they  will 
live  to  reap  the  reward  their  pluck  and  perseverance  so  richly  deserve. 

Lieutenant  W.  Bodle  ("  A  "  Troop,  Salisbury  Horse)  had  been 
before  the  war  a  sub-inspector  of  Police.  He  is  an  old  campaigner, 
having  formerly  served  in  the  Cape  Mounted  Rifles,  and  also  in  the 
Zulu  and  Basuto  Campaigns,  entering  Mashonaland  as  regimental 
sergeant-major  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  Police.  He  is 
now  in  command  of  the  Company's  Police  at  Buluwayo,  with  the  rank 
of  inspector.  During  the  war  he  was  senior  lieutenant  in  Captain 
Heany's  Troop  and  rendered  useful  service  throughout  the  war. 

Lieutenant  Frank  Elliott  Lockner  ("  A "  Troop,  Salis- 
bury Horse)  had  served  in  the  Natal  Mounted  Police,  in  the  Warren 
Expedition,  and  Bechuanaland  Border  Police.  In  1889  he  was  sent 
by  Mr.  Rhodes  to  negotiate  on  behalf  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company  a  concession  with  Lewanika,  King  of  the  Barotsi,  in  which 
object  he  was  successful.  After  the  occupation  of  Mashonaland  he 
devoted  himself  to  mining  (being  at  one  time  in  partnership  with  the 
late  Mr.  E.  Burnett),  but  when  the  war  broke  out  volunteered  and 
went  through  the  campaign  with  the  rank  of  junior  lieutenant. 

Lieutenant  Tvndale-Biscoe,  R.N.  ("  A "  Troop,  Salisbury 
Horse)  is  an  officer  in  the  Royal  Navy,  who  has  distinguished 
himself  in  the  Egyptian  campaign  in  command  of  machine  guns, 
gaining  the  D.S.O.  He  entered  the  country  in  command  of  the 
Pioneer  Force's  machine  guns,  and  subsequently  devoted  himself  to 
mining.  During  the  campaign  he  was  attached  to  "  A "  Troop, 
Salisbury  Horse,  in  charge  of  the  galloping  Maxim,  and  rendered 
excellent  service  throughout  the  campaign. 

"  B  "  Troop  of  the  Salisbury  Horse  was  led  by  the  late  Captain 
Henry  J.  Borrow,  whose  senior  lieutenant,  Mr.  Snodgrass,  is  a 
New  Zealander  by  birth,  and  had  previously  seen  service  in  American 

The  Rliodesian  Roll  Call. 


native  wars  and  in  the  Maori  campaign.     He  was  engaged  in  business 
at  Salisbury  until  the  war  commenced. 

Lieutenant  Reid  ("  B "  Troop,  Salisbury  Horse),  formerly  a 
non-commissioned  officer  in  the  Inniskilling  Dragoons,  entered  Mashona- 
land  as  troop  sergeant-major  in  the  British  South  Africa  Company's 
Police,  and  subsequently  settled  in  business  in  the  country.  Volun- 
teering when  the  war  broke  out,  he  was  appointed  second  lieutenant 
under  Captain  Borrow. 

The  "B"  Troop  Maxim  was  entrusted  to  Mr.  LLEWELLYN,  who 
was  appointed  lieutenant.  He  was  formerly  in  the  Royal  Navy,  and 
had  seen  a  considerable  amount  of  service  on  the  African  Coasts. 

The   command   of   "  C "   Troop   of 
the  Salisbury  Horse  was  offered  to  and 
at   once   accepted   by   Captain    John 
A.  Sprecklev,  who  is  one  of  the  most 
popular   men    between    Capetown    and 
Fort  Salisbury.    Captain  Spreckley,  who 
is  an  old  friend  of  the  three  well-known 
pioneers,      Major      Johnson,      Captain 
Heany,  and   the  late   Captain    Borrow, 
was  born  at  Fulbeck,  Lincolnshire,  was 
educated  at  Derby  School,  and  went  out 
to  South  Africa  twelve  years  ago.     His 
first    occupation    was    that    of    ostrich 
farming  in  the  Eastern  Province  of  the 
Cape  Colony,  but  in    1886  he  entered 
the    Bechuanaland    Border    Police.      A 
year   afterwards  he   joined  his    friends, 
Messrs.  Johnson,    Heany   and    Borrow, 
as  a   member  of   the    Expedition    des- 
patched to  Lobengula's  country  by  the  Northern  Goldfields  Syndicate, 
and  with   them    penetrated  as  far  north  as  the  present  site  of  Salis- 
bury.    On  his  return   to  civilized   regions  he  entered   the  Cape   Civil 
Service,  but  resigned  to  go  to  the  Witwatersrand  goldfields,  where  he 
was  engaged  in  mining  business,  and  was,  as  his  high  spirits  and  genial 
disposition    made    him,  as    everywhere,   a   general    favourite.       In    the 

Captain  John  A.  Spreckley. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobeiigula, 

depression  which  followed  the  "  boom"  of  1889  and  1890,  Mr.  Rhodes 
made  his  plans  for  the  occupation  of  Mashonaland,  and  Mr.  Spreckley 
rejoined  many  old  comrades  as  Quartermaster  in  the  Pioneer  Force. 
Since  the  occupation  he  has  been  one  of  the  chief  mining  officials 
of  the  country,  having  held  the  offices  of  Mining  Commissioner  at  Lo 
Mogunda's,  Mazoe,  and  Umtali,  being  wonderfully  popular  with  all 
classes  at  those  places  during  the  time  he  held  these  appointments. 
On  the  breaking  out  of  the  Matabeli  War,  he  relinquished  his  post  at 
Umtali  and  reported  himself  for  volunteer  service  at  Salisbury,  and  was 
actively  engaged,  with  the  rank  of  Captain,  in  raising  a  troop  for  the 
Salisbury  Horse.  He  went  through  the  campaign  with  that  Force,  and 
at  its  close  conducted  back  to  Salisbury  the  men  sent  there  to  be 
disbanded,  this  being  a  most  trying  and  onerous  march,  owing  to  its 
being  carried  out  in  the  midst  of  the  rainy  season.  Captain  Spreckley, 
who  is  now  Mining  Commissioner  at  Victoria,  is  described  by  Captain 
Heany  as  being  "  gifted  with  a  wonderful  flow  of  animal  spirits,  bright 
humour,  and  untiring  energy.  All  these  have  stood  him  in  good 
stead.     He  is  deservedly  popular  with  everybody,  and  counts  his  friends 

in  the  country  by  hundreds." 

Mr.  Laing,  Senior  Lieutenant 
"C"  Troop,  was  formerly  in  the 
Cape  Colony  Military  Service  and 
had  been  through  most  of  the  re- 
cent South  African  wars,  including 
the  Zulu  and  Basuto  Campaigns. 
Up  to  the  outbreak  of  the  war  he 
was  engaged  in  mining  business 
on  behalf  of  the  South  African 
Trust  and  Finance  Company. 

Mr.  Thomas  J.  Chrtstison, 
Junior  Lieutenant  "  C "  Troop, 
was  born  in  Forfarshire,  Scotland, 
and  went  to  South  Africa  in  1883. 
On  the  formation  of  the  Cape 
Town  Highlanders  he  became 
Lieut.  Thomas  J.  Christison.  Lieutenant  and  Acting  Adjutant, 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call.  287 

being  subsequently  promoted  to  a  Captaincy  and  appointed  Adjutant 
of  the  Regiment.  He  resigned  in  1889  and  joined  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  Pioneer  Force,  serving  under  Captain  Heany  ("A" 
Troop).  On  arriving  at  Salisbury  he  was  appointed  to  the  Civil 
Staff,  and  soon  after  obtained  the  position  of  Mining  Commissioner 
there.  In  1891  (May)  he  volunteered  for  service  in  Manica  during 
the  trouble  with  the  Portuguese,  returning  to  his  duties  in  Salisbury, 
where  he  remained  till  the  Matabeli  war  broke  out.  He  then  joined 
"C"  Troop,  Salisbury  Horse,  as  Lieutenant  and  went  through  the 
campaign.  He  was  appointed  Mining  Commissioner  at  Buluwayo 
till  the  end  of  March  this  year,  when  he  was  allowed  six  months'  leave. 
Mr.  Christison  is  returning  in  September  to  resume  his  duties  in  the 
Mines  Office,  Salisbury,  where  he  has  been  appointed  a  Justice  of  the 
Peace  for  the  district. 

The  artillery  of  the  Salisbury  Horse,  together  with  the  dismounted 
men  forming  "  D  "  Troop,  were  placed  under  the  command  of  Captain 
MOBERLEY,  late  Captain  and  Battery-Adjutant  of  the  Royal  Artillery, 
and  therefore  a  competent  and  experienced  officer.  Captain  Moberley 
had  entered  Mashonaland  with  the  Pioneers,  and  was  subsequently  on 
the  staff  of  the  Company's  Volunteer  Forces.  Throughout  the  campaign 
he  rendered  particularly  useful  plucky  service.  At  Imbembesi  the  fire 
was  very  hot  round  the  Gardner,  and  Trooper  Calcraft  was  killed  while 
serving  it.  Captain  Moberley,  himself  grazed  by  the  same  bullet, 
stepped  into  his  place,  and  the  gun  did  not  cease  firing.  At  the  close 
of  the  war  he  was  sent  down  to  Pondoland  by  Mr.  Rhodes  in  view  of 
possible  trouble  in  connection  with  the  Civil  War  between  the  native 
chiefs  and  the  resultant  annexation  of  the  country,  being  attached  to 
the  Cape  Mounted  Rifles  in  command  of  the  Maxim  gun. 

Under  Captain  Moberley  Mr.  Tennant  had  charge  of  the  seven- 
pounder  gun,  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant.  He  had  formerly  served  in 
the  late  force  of  the  Cape  Artillery  (now  the  Artillery  Troop  of  the 
Cape  Mounted  Rifles)  and  rendered  good  service  throughout  the 

Mr.  J.  Carden,  assistant  remount  officer  of  the  Salisbury  Horse 
and  galloper  to  the  commanding  officer,  was,  when  the  war  broke 
out,  sub-inspector  of  police. 

2  88  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Of  the  Medical  Staff,  Dr.  Edgelow,  the  principal  Medical  Officer, 
was  the  District  Surgeon  at  Salisbury  when  the  war  broke  out,  and  had 
formerly  been  Resident  Physician  at  Lorenco  Marques  to  the  Delagoa 
Bay  Railway  Company.  Dr.  J.  Stewart  was  the  Assistant  Medical 
Officer  attached  to  the  Salisbury  Horse. 

Captain  J.  W.  Nesbitt,  a  son  of  Major  Nesbitt,  well  known  in 
the  Cape  Colony,  organised  and  commanded  a  contingent  of  the  Salisbury 
colonial  natives  and  coolies,  who  urged  that  they  were  subjects  of  Her 
Majesty  and  begged  for  permission  to  fight  in  her  service  against  the 
Matabeli.  They  did  excellent  work  and  were  of  the  greatest  use  in  laager- 
ing, etc.,  during  the  campaign,  saving  the  whites  a  great  many  additional 
hardships.  Several  were  killed  in  the  different  engagements.  Chief  among 
this  contingent  must  be  mentioned  John  Grootboom,  a  Cape  native, 
of  whom  one  of  the  officers  says  there  never  was  a  native  like  him.  He 
was  ready  to  face  absolutely  any  risks,  and  appeared  to  be  ignorant  of 
the  nature  of  fear.  He  was  always  prepared  to  undertake  the  most 
dangerous  mission  at  a  moment's  notice — as  for  instance  when,  taking 
his  life  in  his  hands,  he  set  out  from  Buluwayo  to  take  a  summons  to 
surrender  to  the  fugitive  Lobengula.  What  makes  his  courage  still  more 
conspicuous  is  that  he  was  fully  alive  to  the  dangers  he  was  facing  ;  and 
it  has  been  said  of  him,  "  He  was  all  pluck  right  away  through." 

The  Salisbury  scouts,  in  charge  of  Captain  O.  G.  Williams, 
who,  as  already  recounted,  met  his  death  early  in  the  campaign, 
were  Messrs.  Gerald  Paget,  J.  Murray  Gourlay,  and  Ifah  Williams. 
Mr.  Gerald  Cecil  Stewart  Paget  is  a  son  of  General  Lord 
Alfred  Henry  Paget,  C.B.,  and  was  born  in  1854.  He  commenced 
to  travel  at  a  very  early  age,  and  for  some  time  was  engaged  in  cattle 
ranching  in  America.  In  May,  1893,  Mr.  Paget  went  to  South  Africa 
with  Captain  Gwynyth  Williams  and  Captain  H.  J.  Borrow,  driving 
up  with  the  former  and  Mr.  Hirsch  from  Johannesburg  to  Salisbury. 
The  party  arrived  at  Victoria  in  July  just  at  the  time  of  the  Victoria 
incident.  Mr.  Paget  proceeded  to  Salisbury,  and  when  the  cam- 
paign commenced  volunteered  for  service  against  the  Matabeli.  Mr. 
Paget  went  through  the  whole  campaign,  and  a  very  interesting 
account  of  the  general  operations  was  supplied  by  him  on  his 
arrival    in    England     to     the    "  Times,"  appearing    in    the     issue     of 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call. 


Mr.  Gerald  C.  S.   Paget. 

2 1st    December,    1893,   of  that   news- 
paper.     Mr.  Paget  was  the  first  man 

to  come  through  to  the  Cape  and  to 

England    with    news    of    the    fighting. 

He  rode  the  first  250  miles  from  Bulu- 

wayo    to    Palapye    in    five   days,    the 

greater   part   of   the   way   alone,    and 

suffered  much  privation   from  want  of 

sleep.     From  Palapye  he  travelled  by 

trotting   ox    waggon    five    days    and 

nights,   changing    from    every   ten    to 

fifteen    miles    in    order   to   get   down 

quickly  to  Vryburg,  the  whole  distance 

being    about    500    miles.      He    came 

straight  through  to  Cape  Town,  saw 

Sir  Henry  Loch,  handed  him  the  first 

despatches     from     Buluwayo     in    the 

morning,   and     caught    the   afternoon 

boat,    reaching    England    in  thirty-three  days  after  leaving  Buluwayo. 

Mr.  J.  Murray  Gourlay,  who  ren- 
dered signal  services  during  the  war 
among  those  who  are  called  the  "eyes 
and  ears "  of  a  military  force,  has 
assisted  in  the  task  of  supplying  this 
work  with  some  most  valuable  photo- 
graphs made  during  the  campaign. 
Mr.  Ifah  Williams,  who  is  the 
second  son  of  General  Owen  Wil- 
liams, had  been  ranching  in  Mexico 
before  he  came  out  to  South  Africa 
to  join  his  brother.  He  arrived  by  the 
East  Coast  route  just  as  the  expedi- 
tion started,  but  at  once  volunteered 
and  joined  the  Columns  at  Charter. 

Among    the   wounded    may   be 
mentioned     Trooper      Mostyn 


Trooper  Mostyn  William  Barnard. 


TJie  Downfall  of  Lobengiila. 

William  Barnard,  born  in  London  January  28th,  1871,  the  fifth 
son  of  the  late  Colonel  Barnard,  Grenadier  Guards  and  96th  Regiment ; 
and  grandson  of  the  late  Sir  Henry  Barnard,  K.C.B.,  who  died  in 
command  at  Delhi  during  the  Indian  Mutiny.  He  went  out  to  South 
Africa  in  August,  1890,  and  joined  the  British  South  Africa  Company's 
Police  as  trooper,  serving  till  the  disbandment  of  that  force.  He  then 
joined  the  Mashonaland  Mounted  Police,  and  served  throughout  the 
Matabeli  War  as  a  volunteer  attached  to  "  A "  Troop,  Salisbury 
Horse,  under  Captain  Heany.  He  was  present  at  the  two  chief 
battles  (Shangani  and  Imbembesi),  and  the  intermediate  skirmishes. 
He  was  shot  in  the  knee  at  the  latter  engagement,  and  after  leaving 
hospital  at  Buluwayo  was  granted  six  months'  sick  leave  to  England. 

To  Mr.  Ralph 
Cecil  Batley  we  are 
indebted  for  a  number 
of  photographs  which 
have  been  reproduced 
or  utilised  in  this  book, 
and  which  were  taken 
in  Matabeliland  by  his 
friend  Mr.  J.  Murray 
Gourlay,  well  known 
as  one  of  the  scouts 
of  the  Chartered  Com- 
pany's forces.  Mr.  Batley 
went   into   the    country 


Mr.  R.  C.  Batley. 

in  March,  1893,  on  a 
shooting  expedition  in 
the  north  of  Mash- 
onaland. When  the 
Matabeli  troubles  began  he  was  in  the  "fly"  district,  but  at  once 
returned  and  joined  Captain  Borrow's  troop  of  the  Salisbury  Horse. 
He  went  all  through  the  campaign  as  a  corporal  and  was  one  of  the 
first  to  enter  Buluwayo.  He  served  throughout  the  last  patrol  in 
pursuit  of  the  King,  but  was  invalided  back  to  Buluwayo  three  days 
before    the    disaster   to    Major   Wilson's    party.     Mr.    Batley,   an    old 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call. 


Cambridge  man,  was  one  o{  the 
many  University  and  public  school 
men  in  the  Salisbury  Horse. 

The  Hon.  Maurice  Ray- 
mond GiFFORD,  a  brother  of 
Lord  Gififord,  V.C.,  is  well  known 
in  Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland 
as  the  manager  of  the  Bechuana- 
land  Exploration  Company.  He 
was  born  at  Ampney  Park, 
Gloucester,  on  May  5th,  1859,  and 
was  educated  privately.  On  the 
completion  of  his  education  he 
entered  the  Merchant  Service,  and 
was  on  board  the  training  ship 
'Worcester"  for  three  years.  In 
1878  he  entered  the  service  of  the 

The  Hon.  M.  R.  Gifford. 

British  Steam  Navigation  Company,  in  which  he  remained  until 
1882,  visiting  many  parts  of  the  globe.  In  the  last-named  year  he 
happened  to  be  on  the  Red  Sea  at  the  time  of  the  outbreak  of  the 
Egyptian  war,  and  acted  as  assistant  correspondent  to  the  *'  Daily 
Telegraph  "  at  the  time  of  the  engagement  of  Tel-el-Kebir.  He 
afterwards  went  to  Canada,  where  he  fought  as  a  trooper  in  Lord 
Minto's  forces  (in  "  French's  Scouts "')  sent  to  crush  the  Riel  rebellion 
in  the  north-west,  receiving  the  medal  and  clasp.  On  his  return  from 
Canada,  he  went  to  South  Africa  and  accepted  the  management  of 
the  Bechuanaland  Exploration  Company,  and  was  at  Khama's  chief 
town  when  war  was  declared  against  the  Matabeli.  He  at  once 
volunteered  to  serve  in  Major  Forbes'  Column.  He  was  the  last 
white  man  who  spoke  to  the  late  Captain  Gwynyth  Williams,  and 
had  a  very  narrow  escape  himself,  not  only  on  this,  but  on  another 
occasion,  when  he  shot  the  Matabeli  who  had  killed  the  late 
Mr.  E.  Burnett. 

Sergeant  Robert  T.  Coryndon  is  a  Cape  Colonist  by  birth,  and 
was  born  in  1870.  He  was  educated  at  an  English  public  school — 
Cheltenham.    On  his  return  to  South  Africa,  he  joined  the  Bechuanaland 

U  2 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Sergeant  Robert  T 

Border  Police, afterwards  transferring 
into  the  British  South  Africa  Com- 
pany's Police,  and  thence  into  the 
Pioneer  Corps,  with  which  he  entered 
Mashonaland  in  1890,  On  the  30th 
September  the  Pioneers  were  dis- 
banded, and  Mr.  Coryndon  entered 
the  Chartered  Company's  Survey 
Office.  In  the  winter  of  1892,  he 
went  on  a  hunting  expedition  up  to 
the  Zambesi  (Zumbo).  On  his  way 
back  with  a  Mr.  Eyre,  he  came 
across  the  white  rhinoceros,  then 
supposed  to  be  extinct ;  and  two 
specimens  were  shot  by  Mr.  Eyre. 
In  the  ensuing  dry  season  he 
again  went  hunting  in  north-eastern 
Mashonaland,  having  been  commis- 

sioned to  shoot  a  couple  of  white 
rhinoceri  for  the  Rothschild  collec- 
tion, and  in  this  quest  he  was 
successful.  On  the  outbreak  of 
hostilities  Mr.  Coryndon  returned 
to  Salisbury,  and  joined  the  Salis- 
bury Horse  as  a  sergeant.  He 
recently  came  to  England  for  a 
short  holiday,  but  has  since  returned 
to  the  Tanganyika  district  to  resume 
his  occupation  as  a  big  game  hunter. 
Sergeant  W.  Hacker,  who 
acted  as  sergeant  throughout  the 
campaign,  was  an  Australian  colonist 
of  many  years'  standing.  After 
returning  to  this  country  he  was 
attracted  by  very  good  reports  to 
South   Africa,  and   went  out,  prin- 

Sergeant  W.  Hacker. 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call. 


cipally  with  the  object  of  Kaffir  trading  in  Johannesburg,  in  the  early 
part  of  1891.  He  left  for  Mashonaland  just  in  front  of  Lord  Randolph 
Churchill's  Expedition,  and  remained  there  trading  until  the  war  broke 
out.  He  at  once  volunteered  and  was  attached  to  the  Artillery  with 
the  local  rank  of  sergeant,  serving  one  of  the  seven-pounder  guns 
throughout  the  war. 

Trooper  H.  N.  Fife 
Scott,  who  is  the  second  son 
of  Mr.  Fife  J.  Scott,  a  well- 
known  Newcastle  merchant,  went 
out  some  six  years  ago  to 
Johannesburg.  He  left  the 
Transvaal  to  join  the  Pioneer 
Expedition  of  the  Chartered 
Company  with  his  elder  brother, 
Mr.  Fife  J.  Scott,  jun.  Mr.  Fife 
Scott  continued  in  the  service 
of  the  Company  until  the 
troops  were  disbanded,  when 
he  commenced  prospecting 
and  developing  on  his  own 
account.  As  a  Trooper  of  Cap- 
tain Heany's  Troop  (Salisbury 
Horse)  he  marched  toBuluwayo, 
and  when  the  stampede  of  horses 

took  place  at  Imbembesi  was  one  of  those  who,  following  Sir  John 
Willoughby,  Captain  Borrow,  and  another  trooper,  left  the  cover  cf  the 
laager  to  stop  the  stampede  and  secure  the  horses.  He  also  served  with 
Major  Forbes'  patrol,  during  which  exposure  brought  on  an  acute  attack 
of  malarial  fever,  and  on  returning  to  camp  was  immediately  invalided 
home,  carrying  Dr.  Jameson's  despatches  to  Palapye  on  the  way. 

The  organisation  and  command  of  the  Victoria  Horse  were 
entrusted  to  MAJOR  ALLAN  WiLSON,  who  was  supported  by  a 
number  of  excellent  officers,  eight  of  whom  fell  before  the  close  of  the 
war.  Of  Major  Wilson's  staff,  ADJUTANT  Kennelly  had  formerly 
served  in  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  Captain   AND  OUARTER- 

Trooper  H.  N.  Fife  Scott. 


The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

MASTER  Harry  Greenfield  was  killed  on  the  Shangani  with  so  large 
a  number  of  his  brother  officers,  and  Major  Wilson's  first  orderly  officer, 
Lieutenant  Bowen,  only  escaped  sharing  his  fate  by  the  fact  that  he 
had  a  particularly  good  horse,  and  was  left  behind  to  keep  him  fresh 
to  carry  down  the  news  of  the  anticipated  capture  of  the  King.  Mr. 
Bowen,  who  was  a  close  friend  of  Major  Wilson,  is  a  son  of  the  Right 
Hon.  Sir  George  Ferguson  Bowen,  P.C.,  G.C.M.G.,  D.C.L.,  late 
Governor  of  Queensland,  New  Zealand,  Victoria,  Mauritius,  etc., 
and  a  son-in-law  of  the  Bishop  of  Derry.  He  was  fresh  from 
Australia  when  he  went  into  Mashonaland  as  a  Pioneer,  and  was  an 
official  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company  when  the  war  broke  out. 
He  is  now  Mining  Commissioner  at  Fort  Salisbury,  The  other  galloper 
was  Lieutenant  Chalk,  now  a  sub-inspector  in  the  Company's  Police. 
Lieutenants  Ware  and  Browne  acted  as  Pioneers  for  the 
Column  throughout  the  campaign.  The  former  is  one  of  the  Pioneers 
of  Northern  Zambesia — an  old-time  up-country  trader,  who  has  passed  his 
life  in  the  Lake  N'gami  and  Barotse  countries,  or  as  a  miner  in  the  river 
diggings  near  Kimberley.  Some  years  ago  he  obtained  a  concession 
of  a  large  tract  of  the  Barotse  country  from  the  Chief  Lewanika,  which 

he  afterwards  ceded  to  the  Chartered 
Company.  He  chanced  to  be  at  Vic- 
toria when  the  war  broke  out,  and 
went  through  the  campaign  in  charge 
of  a  number  of  road-making  natives 
who,  prior  to  the  crossing  of  the 
Shangani  River  by  the  Salisbury  and 
Victoria  Columns,  generally  kept 
ahead  with  the  scouts.  Both  the 
Pioneers  did  most  useful  work  in  the 
campaign.  The  latter  is  a  son  of  Lord 
Richard  Browne,  and  is  an  engineer 
by  profession,  being  engaged  on  survey 
work   before  the  war. 

The  captain  and  junior  lieutenant  of 

No.  I  Troop  (Capt.  Fitzgerald  and 

Lieut.  A.  B.  Hakris.  Mr.  Hughes)  were  killed  with  Major 

The  Rhode sian  Roll  Call.  295 

Wilson.  The  senior  lieutenant  of  the  Troop,  Mr.  A.  B.  HARRIS,  was  born 
in  Bradford,  Yorkshire,  on  November  nth,  1867,  and  was  educated  at 
Shrewsbury  and  Hertford  College,  Oxford.  Before  going  out  to  South 
Africa  (in  March,  1891),  he  held  a  commission  in  the  third  Battalion 
of  the  4th  Royal  Lancaster  Regiment.  He  is  engaged  in  business  in 
Mashonaland,  where  he  has  again  returned  after  a  brief  holiday  spent 
in  England  since  the  war. 

No.  2  Troop  of  the  Rangers  was  entrusted  to  Captain  BASTARD, 
R.N.,  who  was  engaged  in  mining  at  Victoria  when  the  hostilities 
commenced.  He  rendered  excellent  service  throughout  the  campaign, 
and  at  its  close  remained  at  Buluwayo,  where  he  is  still  engaged  in  his 
former  occupation. 

His  lieutenant  was  Mr.  Woolls  Sampson,  formerly  in  the 
Bechuanaland  Border  Police  and  subsequently  a  professional  mine 
manager  at  Johannesburg  and  elsewhere.  He  is  now  engaged  in 
mining  business  in  the  Matabeliland  goldfields. 

No.  3  Troop  was  led  by  Captain  Napier,  one  of  the  i^w  survivors 
of  Major  Wilson's  party,  who  owes  his  life  to  the  fact  that  he  was 
sent  back  to  Major  Forbes  to  ask  for  reinforcements.  He  is,  we  are 
informed,  a  Natal  colonist  by  birth,  and  was  engaged  in  business  at 
Victoria  until  the  commencement  of  the  campaign,  during  which  he 
rendered  a  good  account  of  himself. 

His  first  lieutenant,  Mr.  WILLIAMS,  had  formerly  served  in  the 
regular  forces,  and  was  engaged  in  business  in  Victoria  until  the  war 
broke  out.  No  information  is  to  hand  as  to  the  second  lieutenant, 
Mr.  Stoddart. 

No.  4  Troop  was  commanded  by  Captain  Judd,  who  was  killed 
on  the  Shangani.  His  first  lieutenant,  Mr.  Robert  Beale,  is  an 
ex-sergeant-major  of  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police,  and  came  into 
Mashonaland  as  lieutenant  in  the  Pioneer  Expedition.  When  this  was 
disbanded,  he  was  elected  first  lieutenant  of  the  Salisbury  Volunteers 
(the  Mashonaland  Horse),  in  which  fine  body  the  late  Captain  Borrow 
held  a  troop.  For  several  years  he  has  been  in  Mashonaland 
engaged  in  road-making,  is  very  well  known  in  the  country,  and  has 
been  a  most  energetic  and  useful  pioneer.  The  second  lieutenant  of  the 
troop  was  Mr.  Hofmeyr,  killed  on  the  Shangani. 

296  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

The  dismounted  men,  of  whom  there  were  about  250,  armed  with 
rifles  and  bayonets,  were  placed  under  the  command  of  Captain 
Delamere,  well-known  in  the  old  Cape  wars  and  who  had  been  farming 
near  Victoria,  with  Lieutenant  W.  Keppel  Stier  (formerly  in  the 
Cape  Mounted  Rifles  and  Pioneer  Expedition)  as  first  lieutenant. 
Lieutenant  Stier  was  at  the  outset  of  the  campaign  a  corporal  in  the 
Salisbury  Horse,  but  obtained  his  discharge  from  Major  Forbes  and 
joined  the  Victoria  Contingent.  As  to  the  second  lieutenant,  Mr, 
Robinson,  no  information  has  been  received. 

The  artillery  of  the  Rangers  was  entrusted  to  the  late  Captain 
Lendy,  R.A.,  who  on  the  junction  of  the  columns  took  chief 
command  of  the  guns.  He  was  assisted  by  Captain  Reid,  who 
worked  one  of  the  Maxims  with  the  greatest  precision,  possessed 
an  expert  knowledge  of  its  mechanism,  and  rendered  good  service 
throughout  the  campaign.  His  lieutenant,  Mr.  RIXON,  died  under 
circumstances  narrated  in  the  last  chapter. 

Perhaps    no    single    feature    con- 
tributed   more    to   the  success   of  the 
^^■M^^^  campaign    than  the  manner   in  which 

J|^BQ|PHHll>  the  scouting  operations  were  conducted. 

Jj^K  The   difficult    nature  of  the  unknown 

^Hl       .<«««■»  ;^£  country  to  be  traversed,  the  disparity 

^^^       "-"iP^  y^  of    the    numbers   of  the   natives   and 

.  the  whites,  made  it  fatal  to  allow  the 

f^  i^^lw  former  to  come  within  assegai  range, 

and  rendered  every  precaution  against 
surprise  a  paramount  necessity.  There 
were  in  all  about  sixty  men  employed 
in    scouting    duty.      These   formed    a 

/''  cordon   about   ten    miles   away    from 

the   main    body,    equivalent   to   about 
r  an   hour's    notice    of    the    neighbour- 

hood of  the  enemy.     The  chief  com- 
Captain  the  Hon.  C.  J.  White.  mand  of  the   scouting    parties  of   the 

combined      Salisbury     and      Victoria 
Columns   was   on    their   junction    entrusted    to    CAPTAIN   THE    Hon. 

The  Rhodesiait  Roll  Call.  297 

C.  J.  White,  who  carried  out  the  important  and  difficult  duties 
attaching  to  the  post  with  conspicuous  effectiveness,  and  earned  the 
respect  of  both  officers  and  men  for  his  zeal  and  energy.  Captain 
White,  who  was  born  in  June,  i860,  is  the  third  son  of  Baron  Annaly. 
He  was  educated  at  Eton,  and  in  1879  entered  the  Longford  Rifles 
Mihtia,  joining  the  7th  Royal  FusiHers  (City  of  London  Regiment) 
in  1881.  After  serving  in  England  until  1884,  he  exchanged  into 
the  foreign  Battalion,  then  quartered  at  Bellary  in  Madras.  On  his 
return  home  in  1886,  he  served  as  adjutant  to  the  Depot  of  the 
Royal  Fusiliers  at  Aldershot  for  eighteen  months,  and  proceeded  for 
the  second  time  to  India  in  1887.  He  obtained  his  company  in  the 
home  Battalion  in  1889,  and  remained  in  England  until  the  spring  of 
1 89 1,  when  he  was  seconded  with  a  view  to  taking  service  with  the 
British  South  Africa  Company.  He  has  served  with  the  Company  for 
the  last  three  years  (during  the  last  in  command  of  their  Police), 
until  the  commencement  of  the  war,  when  he  volunteered  to  serve  in 
any  capacity.  After  the  war  Captain  White,  who  came  home  for  a 
brief  period  of  rest  and  change,  decided  to  settle  in  the  country  under 
the  British  South  Africa  Company.  He  therefore  retired  from  Her 
Majesty's  Service  in  May,  1894,  and  returned  to  South  Africa  to 
resume  his  duties  as  Chief  Commissioner  of  Police  in  Rhodesia. 

Lieutenant  Dollar,  of  the  Victoria  Scouts,  who  was  farming  in 
Mashonaland  when  war  was  decided  upon,  was  selected  for  scouting 
work,  owing  to  his  possessing  an  unusually  good  knowledge  of  the  veld 
and  of  native  languages.  He  was  placed  in  chief  charge  of  the  scouts 
under  the  first  organisation,  and  rendered  excellent  service  throughout 
the  campaign. 

Li  connection  with  the  scouting  the  names  of  BURNHAM,  Ingram 
(two  Californians  now  settled  in  Mashonaland),  and  VAVASOUR  especiall}' 
call  for  mention.  Their  services  were  simply  invaluable,  and  they  were 
always  to  the  fore  when  any  exceptionally  difficult  or  dangerous 
scouting  duty  had  to  be  performed.  Burnham  and  Ingram,  who  had 
been  miners  and  prospectors  in  America  and  who  had  seen  hai'd  work 
on  the  Western  plains,  were  at  Victoria  when  the  war  broke  out. 
Vavasour  had  lived  for  some  time  at  Buluwayo  and  knew  the  country 
thereabouts,   and    therefore    volunteered    to    go     with    Burnham    and 

298  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

Ingram  when  they  made  their  famous  and  daring  reconnaissance  towards 
Buluwayo.  There  were  two  other  Victoria  scouts,  Mayne  (who  with 
Burnham  and  Ingram  escaped  from  tlie  ill-fated  Wilson  Patrol,  bearing 
messages  to  the  commanding  officer)  and  POSSELT,  both  of  whom  did 
very  useful  and  hazardous  work. 

Lieutenant  Brabant,  in  charge  of  the  Victoria  Native  Con- 
tingent, is  the  son  of  Colonel  Brabant,  well  known  in  the  Cape  as  a 
power  among  the  natives.  Following  the  example  of  his  father,  he  had 
acquired  considerable  influence  over  the  natives  around  Victoria.  On 
the  declaration  of  war  he  organised  a  corps  of  Mashonas,  notoriously  the 
most  useless,  lazy,  and  unreliable  among  natives,  and  got  a  great  deal  of 
exceedingly  useful  work — such  as  bushing  up  the  laagers,  collecting  fuel, 
scouting,  etc. — out  of  material  which  would  have  been  absolutely 
worthless,  or  worse,  in  other  hands. 

Another  body  of  natives  was  under  charge  of  Mr.  Quested.  He 
had  a  thorough  knowledge  of  natives  and  their  customs,  and  possessed 
great  influence  among  those  round  Victoria,  a  number  of  whom  he  found 
readily  responded  to  his  call  for  volunteers  for  service  in  the  campaign. 
It  was  his  contingent  that  received  the  first  attack  at  the  battle  of 
Shangani,  where  he  managed  to  make  a  plucky  stand  with  his  natives 
for  some  time.  He  was  wounded  in  the  arm  and  side,  and  had  his 
thumb  shot  off,  and  about  forty  or  fifty  of  his  men  were  killed.  He  then 
came  into  the  laager,  after  making — considering  the  material — a  very 
good  fight.  Mr.  Quested,  who  is  now  convalescing,  entered  Mashona- 
land  in  the  Pioneer  Force,  and  was  afterwards  in  the  service  of  Messrs. 
Johnson,  Heany,  and  Borrow.  His  force  was  very  useful  in  scouting 
work.  A  like  command  was  held  by  Mr.  Arnold,  very  much  the 
same  stamp  of  man,  who  also  rendered  excellent  service. 

Captain  C.  H.  W.  Donovan,  who  accompanied  the  Victoria 
Rangers  as  a  volunteer  unattached,  has  just  returned  from  South 
Africa — where  he  has  had  a  number  of  interesting  and  varied  ex- 
periences. He  was  on  a  hunting  expedition  in  that  country  when  he 
heard  of  the  Matabeli  raid  at  Victoria.  He  volunteered  and  served  with 
the  Artillery  under  Captain  Lendy,  R.A.,  taking  part  in  all  the  en- 
gagements previous  to  the  occupation  of  Buluwayo.  He  also  went 
forward    with   the    Patrol    sent    after    Lobengula,    returning    from    the 

The  Rhodesian  Roll  Call. 


Captain  C.  H.  \V.  Donovan. 

Bubye  River  with  despatches  from  Major 
Forbes  for  the  Administrator.  He  was 
then  sent  on  with  despatches  and  mails  by 
Dr.  Jameson  to  Capetown  and  England, 
The  latter  he  reached  on  the  last  day  of 
December,  having  left  Major  Forbes 
eighty  miles  north  of  Buluwayo  on  the 
afternoon  of  November  19th,  and  so 
beating  the  record  for  that  journey. 
Captain  C.  H.  W.  Donovan  is  now  in  the 
Army  Service  Corps,  but  formerly  held 
a  lieutenant's  commission  in  the  4th 
Dragoon  Guards.  He  has  seen  a  good 
deal  of  service,  having  been  in  Egypt 
in  1885,  up  the  Nile  with  the  Heavy 
Camel  Regiment,  receiving  the  medal 
and  clasp  of  the  Khedive's  Star.  Sub- 
sequently, he  spent  eighteen  months 
on  the    West    Coast  of  Africa,   taking 

part  in  the  two  expeditions  in  the  Tambacca  country  (1892), 
for  which  he  received  the  medal  and  clasp.  He  was  A.D.C.  to  the 
Administrator  of  Sierra  Leone  (Sir  W.  H.  Quayle-Jones),  and  was  on 
leave  from  the  West  Coast  when  he  went  to  South  Africa  to  hunt, 
meeting  with  splendid  sport  in  the  Mozambique  country,  between  the 
Lundi  and  Sabi  Rivers.  He  joined  the  4th  Dragoon  Guards  in  August, 
1882,  and  the  Army  Service  Corps  in  February,  1887.  Captain  Donovan 
is  the  second  son  of  the  late  Mr.  Richard  Donovan,  J. P.,  D.L.,  of 
Ballymore  Camolin,  Co.  Wexford,  Ireland,  and  was  born  at  Pole  Hore, 
in  the  same  county,  on  June  26th,  i860.  He  was  educated  at  Clifton 
College.  He  is  now  engaged  in  writing  a  book  dealing  with  his  sporting 
and  military  experiences  in  South  Africa. 

The  transport  arrangements  were  entrusted  to  Captain  A.  B. 
KiRTON,  v/ho  was  killed  with  Major  Wilson  on  the  Shangani. 

Last,  but  by  no  means  least  among  the  officers  of  the  little  army, 
must  be  mentioned  BiSHOP  Knight-Bruce,  late  Bishop  of  Bloem- 
f  ontein,  and  now  Bishop  of  Mashonaland,  whose  courage  in  sharing  the 


TJie  Downfall  of  Lobeng?ila. 

perils  of  the  campaign  appealed  in  a  particularly  direct  manner  to  his 
flock,  and  whose  presence  as  one  of  the  columns  forms  a  very  emphatic 
contradiction,  were  that  needed,  to  the  ridiculous  allegations  that  the 
war  was  one  of  conquest  and  not  of  self-protection. 

Major  Forbes  and;  his  Staff. 

Photo  by  Vebenham,  Southsca.'\ 

Mr.  PHILIP  B.  S.  WREY,  A.M.Inst.C.E. 

{Consnltwg  Engineer  lo   the   Mashon aland  Agency    Company.) 


By  Philip  B.  S.  Wrey,  A.M.I.C.E. 

A  land  of  promise — A  succession  of  gardens — Climatic  conditions — The  question  of  markets — 
A  comparison  with  Johannesburg  in  its  early  days — Labour  and  fuel — The  native 
population — The  administration — A  final  conclusion. 

Asked  what  one's  opinion  of  Mashonaland  is  to-day,  and  its  future 
prospects,  there  can  be  but  one  answer.  It  is  a  country  full  of 
promise,  and  its  prospects  are  most  excellent  and  encouraging. 

Of  course,  those  who  expect  a  country  of  the  size  and  distance  from 
civilisation  as  is  Mashonaland  to  be  changed  in  a  year  or  so  from  a  wild, 
uncultivated  area  into  a  territory  full  of  the  conveniences  of  a  long- 
established  colony,  must  lay  themselves  open  to  many  disappointments. 
But  people  who  do  not  look  for  the  impossible  cannot  help  being  struck 
with  the  rapid  strides  that  have  been  made  in  the  civilising  of  the 
country.  The  three  main  townships — Salisbury,  Victoria,  and  Umtali — 
are  not,  as  many  suppose,  mere  collections  of  huts,  but  consist  of 
well-laid-out  streets,  properly  surveyed,  and  the  houses  erected  on  the 
stands  are  in  nearly  all  cases  built  of  burnt  bricks  and  roofed  with 
iron  sheeting.  A  friend  remarked  to  me,  that  he  supposed,  "  unless  we 
shot  game  of  some  sort,  we  had  no  meat  whatsoever  to  live  on  " ;  he 
would,  indeed,  be  surprised  to  see  the  excellent  and  varied  menus 
provided  by  any  one  of  the  numerous  hotels  in  either  of  the  three 
towns  ;  and  should  he  wish  to  feed  in  his  own  house,  he  would  find 
butchers'  shops  in  any  town  where,  for  sixpence  a  pound,  he  could  obtain 
most  excellent  beef  or  mutton.  Again,  the  excellent  system  of  mail 
coaches  renders  travelling  a  matter  of  simplicity,  and  the  post  and  tele- 
graph services  are  indeed  a  credit  to  a  country  three-and-a-half  years 
old.    The  route  taken  by  some  of  the  mail  coaches  through  the  low-lying 

302  The  Doivnfall  of  Lobengiila. 

country  between  TuH  and  Victoria,  and  from  thence  along  the  watershed 
of  the  country  to  Salisbury,  does  not  convey  to  the  traveller  anything 
of  the  grand  country  lying  on  either  side  of  this  watershed.  But  one 
has  only  to  ride  across  country,  say  from  Victoria  to  Umtali,  to  be 
satisfied  that  the  prospects  of  Mashonaland,  from  an  agricultural  point  of 
view,  are  all  that  can  be  desired.  Natives,  as  a  rule,  are  very  good 
judges  of  soil,  and  it  is  seldom,  unless  compelled  so  to  do,  that  they  will 
ever  farm  anywhere  but  where  the  country  is  fertile.  The  whole 
distance,  covering  about  i6o  miles,  may  be  said  to  be  one  succession 
of  small  groups  of  gardens,  growing  all  kinds  of  produce,  such  as 
maize  and  various  growths  of  millet,  rice,  and  tobacco.  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  Salisbury,  either  in  the  Mazoe  or  Umtali  directions, 
land  is  now  being  energetically  farmed,  and  it  is  no  exaggeration 
to  say  that  exceptionally  fine  wheat,  oats,  mealies,  and  tobacco  are 
being  grown.  Most  of  these  crops  are  grown  on  the  highland  country, 
but  at  a  lower  elevation  tea  and  coffee  have  been  tried  as  an  ex- 
periment, and  the  results  are  most  encouraging.  Grapes  have  also 
been  planted  with  equal  success. 

Matabeliland  appears  to  be  the  better  country  for  stock  raising,  and 
the  reason  is  not  far  to  seek.  The  Mashonas  possess  extremely  few 
sheep  or  cattle,  for  the  yearly  raids  of  the  Matabeli  decimated  their 
herds.  The  captured  cattle  have  been  always  driven  into  Matabeliland, 
where,  forming  an  ever-increasing  herd,  they  have  kept  the  pasture  short 
and  sweet,  changing  it  from  the  strong  sour  grass  into  the  short,  sweet 
veld  so  well  suited  for  sheep  and  cattle.  Stock  Mashonaland  with  cattle 
and  the  same  result  will  be  seen,  for  I  am  confident  the  soil  in  the  two 
districts  is  identical.  On  all  sides  of  the  main  watershed  of  the  country 
the  various  districts  are  well  watered,  affording  ample  scope  for  irrigation 
if  required. 

The  climate  of  the  high  plateau  land  of  Mashonaland  and  Matabeli- 
land is  most  excellent,  no  great  maximum  of  heat  or  cold  being  main- 
tained, and  even  in  the  height  of  summer  the  mid-day  sun  is  always 
tempered  with  a  cool  breeze.  The  changes  of  temperature  are  neither  so 
rapid  nor  so  great  as  in  many  other  parts  of  Africa.  It  is,  of  course,  on 
this  plateau  that  the  townships  are  built,  and  farming  operations  carried 
on.     The  low-lying  country,  covered  as  it  is  in  many  parts  with  forest 

The  Position  and  Pj'ospects  of  Mashonaland.  303 

and  swampy  ground,  is  most  unhealthy  for  fully  five  months  in  the 
year,  and  malarial  fever  is  a  certainty  to  anyone  who  remains  any  length 
of  time  in  those  parts.  It  will  take  years  before  this  improves,  but  of 
course  it  must  be  remembered  that  many  parts  of  Africa  which  are  now 
inhabited  and  civilised  have  been  equally  unhealthy,  but  are  now  com- 
paratively free  from  malaria.  The  yearly  rains  maybe  said  to  commence 
early  in  December,  and  to  last,  with  certain  periods  of  intercession,  until 
the  following  April.  The  amount  of  rainfall  varies  considerably,  some 
years  being  far  greater  than  others. 

Of  course  it  may  be  argued  that  it  is  not  much  good  having 
excellent  soil  and  energetic  colonists  to  farm  it,  unless  there  be  a 
market  for  your  produce.  This  is  very  true,  but  I  maintain  that  there 
is  a  market  already  in  the  country.  Not  a  large  one,  perhaps,  but  fully 
extensive  enough  to  absorb  the  crops  of  a  considerable  number  of  farmers, 
who,  from  the  very  nature  of  their  ground,  cannot  individually  produce 
any  very  big  amount  for  the  first  few  years  of  occupation.  Take  for 
example  wheat.  At  the  present  time  the  price  of  imported  flour  is  about 
^5  a  bag  of  200-lbs.  Granted  the  population  is  not  a  large  one  at 
present,  yet  the  yearly  consumption  must  be  considerable,  and  the  price 
per  bag  must  yield  heavy  profits  to  the  local  grower.  In  maize  there  is 
even  now  a  large  market.  The  various  mining  companies  take  large 
supplies  of  both  it  and  millet  upon  which  to  feed  their  native  labour.  The 
coaching  company  absorbs  a  large  stock  every  month  for  feeding  its 
mules,  and  the  Chartered  Company  and  private  individuals  for  feeding 
their  horses.  Oats,  or  forage  as  it  is  commonly  known,  grows  luxuriantly, 
and  from  sixpence  to  a  shilling  a  bundle  can  be  readily  obtained  in  any 
one  of  the  towns.  Stock-rearing,  in  a  country  where  transport  by 
means  of  the  ox-waggon  must  be  in  vogue  for  many  years  to  come,  is 
bound  to  be  a  profitable  business,  and  as  the  population  of  the  country 
increases,  so  do  I  expect  to  see  large  tracts  of  land  utilized  for  breeding 
on  a  large  scale. 

Of  course  the  main  cause  of  the  increase  in  population  will  be  due 
to  mining  operations,  and  I  should  now  like  to  say  a  few  words  as  to 
prospects  in  this  direction. 

Everyone  knows  the  old  saying,  "  Distant  hills  always  appear  the 
greenest,"  and  there  is  no  greater  truism  when  the  subject  concerned  is 

304  The  Downfall  of  Lobcngula. 

gold  mining.  In  1890,  when  the  Pioneer  forces  first  entered  Mashonaland, 
Johannesburg  was  under  a  heavy  financial  cloud,  and  many  were  only 
too  glad  to  start  afresh  for  a  country  whose  prospects  had  been  so 
glowingly  painted  by  travellers  and  hunters.  Everyone  remembers  the 
rumours  of  the  wonderfully  rich  reefs  said  to  exist  in  the  country,  and 
there  was  much  wild  talk  about  eclipsing  the  marvellous  output  of  Johan- 
nesburg mines,  and  of  the  rapidity  with  which  the  lost  fortunes  were  again 
to  be  made.  The  first  year  of  occupation  was,  indeed,  a  hard  one  for  all 
concerned.  An  extremely  heavy  rainy  season,  to  commence  with,  ren- 
dered prospecting  a  matter  of  great  difficulty,  and  the  transport  of  the 
necessaries  of  life  almost  an  impossibility.  Men  became  sick  and  down- 
hearted ;  a  thorough  reaction  set  in,  and  no  word  was  bad  enough  with 
which  to  describe  the  country.  The  disappointment  to  many  was  the 
finding  that  they  had  quartz  reef  formations  to  contend  with  in  place 
of  the  bedded  lodes  of  Johannesburg,  rendering  prospecting  and 
development  a  far  more  difficult  and  expensive  operation  than  the  mere 
quarrying  they  had  been  accustomed  to.  Again,  on  closer  inspection, 
the  distant  hills  did  not  prove  to  be  any  greener  than  those  previously 
met  with,  and  where  men  had  talked  of  ounces  they  had  to  content 
themselves  with  pennyweights.  As  time  went  on  these  pessimistic  views 
of  the  country  again  underwent  a  change.  Prospectors  went  further 
afield,  new  strikes  became  more  frequent,  and  the  results  of  development 
in  many  cases  proved  most  successful.  Many  capitalists  in  the  country 
took  over  properties,  and  mining  was  rapidly  pushed  ahead.  The 
success  attending  this  work  was  such  that  in  the  latter  part  of  1892 
and  early  months  of  1893,  several  companies  were  floated  in  London  to 
thoroughly  explore  and  develop  certain  reefs. 

The  unfortunate  series  of  events  culminating  in  what  is  known  as 
the  Matabeli  war  effectually  paralysed  all  work,  and  it  was  only  in  one 
or  two  cases  that  development  was  continued.  Where,  however,  such 
work  was  carried  on,  the  results  were  most  encouraging.  The  reefs  not 
only  held  in  depth,  but  their  quality,  though  in  places  extremely  variable, 
maintained  its  average.  Everyone  knows  that  quartz  reef  mining  is  an 
acute  form  of  speculation,  and  Mashonaland  will  prove  no  exception 
to  this  rule.  Disappointments  are  bound  to  be  frequent,  but  I  feel 
assured  there  is  a  large  amount  of  gold  to  be  obtained,  affording  lucrative 

The  Position  and  Prospects  of  MasJionaland.  305 

employment  to  a  large  number  of  men,  and  that  the  country  abounds 
in  what  may  be  termed  excellent  mining  possibilities. 

Now  that  the  Matabeli  question  is  settled  once  and  for  all,  the  capital 
at  present  in  the  country  will  vigorously  develop  the  reefs  owned  by  the 
various  companies,  and  fresh  European  money  will  purchase  many  of 
the  numerous  reefs  already  found,  and  only  awaiting  further  funds  to 
open  them  up.  In  many  cases  it  will  be  found  that,  although  the  assay 
value  retains  its  average  when  the  lode  is  sunk  on,  yet  the  gold  gradually 
becomes  less  free  and  more  and  more  enveloped  in  sulphides.  The  many 
recent  scientific  discoveries  for  the  proper  treatment  of  refractory  ores  will 
gradually  overcome  any  difficulty  that  may  arise  to  commence  with  in 
dealing  with  them.  Labour  is  distinctly  cheap,  fuel  is  plentiful,  and  the 
circumstances  under  which  gold  mining  can  be  carried  on  will  be 
decidedly  favourable,  so  soon  as  transport  is  cheapened  and  facilitated, 
and  the  malaria  existing  in  most  parts  of  the  low-lying  country  has  begun 
to  disappear.  By  this  time  there  are  several  batteries  either  crushing  or 
in  course  of  erection  ;  I  am  in  hopes  of  seeing  many  more  coming 
into  the  country,  and  anticipate  seeing  a  steady  yearly  increase  in  the 

From  the  foregoing  remarks  it  will  be  seen  that  the  mining 
prospects  of  Mashonaland  are  decidedly  encouraging,  and  that  the 
working  of  this  industry  will  necessitate  a  population  which  will  absorb 
the  increasing  produce  of  the  country,  and  thereby  obviate  any  tendency 
to  glut  the  market,  with  consequent  lowering  of  prices  and  profits  to 
the  farmer  and  stock-breeder.  News  from  Matabeliland  coming  home  by 
every  mail  leads  one  to  believe  that  the  promise  of  fresh  discoveries  of 
gold  reefs  are  most  satisfactory,  and  already  a  large  amount  of  capital 
and  energy  is  being  devoted  to  this  fresh  field  for  enterprise. 

In  a  country  full  of  promise  to  the  mining  and  farming  community, 
trade  and  commerce  must  in  like  manner  have  their  share  in  prosperity, 
and  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  the  prospects  of  merchants  and 
storekeepers  are  most  excellent.  Most  thoroughly  do  they  deserve  good 
profits,  for  their  enterprise  in  transporting  the  many  and  varied  require- 
ments, such  as  a  community  like  that  in  Mashonaland  demands,  is  a 
very  serious  undertaking,  necessitating  a  large  expenditure  of  capital. 
Business  men  are  not  as  a  rule  philanthropists,  and  I  consider  one  of  the 


3o6  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

best  signs  of  the  future  success  of  the  country  is  the  fact  that  so  much 
capital  has  been  sunk  by  them  already,  with  full  confidence  of  receiving 
good  returns  for  their  outlay. 

In  speaking  on  the  subject  of  trade  and  its  future,  one  must  not 
forget  what  excellent  prospects  the  native  population  affords.  Now  that 
the  country  is  settled,  the  natives  will  soon  find  out  the  advantages  to 
be  derived  from  working  for  the  white  man,  and  receiving  his  money  for 
their  labour.  And  although  at  present  a  down-trodden  and  impecunious 
race,  there  can  be  no  doubt  the  Mashonas  will  improve  immensely  under 
the  civilising  influence  of  our  rule.  They  are  a  people,  also,  who  will 
very  soon  appreciate  the  small  luxuries  of  life,  such  as  coffee,  sugar,  and 
European  clothing  ;  and  this  taste  gradually  increasing,  will  in  time 
create  a  very  large  field  for  commercial  enterprise. 

It  will  be  readily  understood  that,  no  matter  how  good  the  pros- 
pects, mineral,  agricultural,  or  pastoral,  of  a  country  may  be,  unless  its 
administration  be  well  looked  after,  it  will  never  be  a  success.  No 
one  but  those  who  have  lived  in  Mashonaland  for  the  last  three 
years  or  so  can  have  any  conception  of  the  difficulties  that  must 
have  been  met  with  in  the  administering  of  the  country.  The  new 
townships  to  be  laid  out,  farms  to  be  beaconed  off",  the  sale  and 
registration  of  titles  to  both  stands  and  farms,  the  organisation  of  a 
proper  staff  of  magistrates  and  officials,  the  institution  of  courts  of  law 
and  all  legal  matters  connected  therewith,  the  enrolling  and  subsequent 
controlling  of  an  efficient  body  of  police  in  the  country,  the  proper 
supervision  of  all  mining  areas,  registration  of  claims,  conserving  of 
woods  and  forests,  the  undertaking  and  proper  carrying  out  of  an 
efficient  weekly  mail  connecting  Mashonaland  with  the  Cape  Colony, 
the  construction  and  maintenance  of  telegraphic  communication  with 
the  Colony  and  England,  the  building  of  good  substantial  public  ofl'ices 
— all  these  and  many  other  details  not  only  have  "  to  be  done,"  but 
actually  have  "  been  done,"  in  a  country  which  was,  four  years  ago,  a 
wild  stretch  of  uncivilised  and  almost  unexplored  veld. 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  Dr.  Jameson,  who,  with  his 
able  staff,  has  administered  the  country  since  the  autumn  of  1891.  It 
would,  indeed,  be  difficult  to  find  a  man  so  well  adapted  to  the  position 
he   holds,   and    his    infinite    tact    and    ready   resource    have    much    to 

The  Position  and  Prospects  of  Mashonaland.  307 

do  with  his  success  as  an  administrator.  In  no  instance  were  his 
powers  more  clearly  shown  than  during  the  time  previous  to  the 
declaration  of  war  against  the  Matabeli.  And,  before  closing,  I  would 
like  to  add  my  testimony  towards  proving  that,  far  from  forcing  on  the 
w^ar,  it  was  only  after  every  effort  to  maintain  peaceful  relations  with 
Lobengula  had  failed,  that  Dr.  Jameson  was  compelled  to  recommend 
the  course  of  action  finally  adopted. 

Having  briefly  discussed  the  position  of  Mashonaland  to-day,  and 
its  prospects  from  a  farming,  mining,  and  commercial  point  of  view, 
I  hope  I  have  made  it  clear  that  I  consider  it  a  country  which  offers 
good  scope  for  all  branches  of  enterprise.  Any  man  going  there  must 
be  prepared  to  face  many  difficulties,  much  discomfort,  and  if  he  travels 
in  the  low  country,  a  certainty  of  fever.  But  on  the  other  hand,  though 
large  fortunes  will  not  be  rapidly  made,  I  am  certain  that  any  steady 
man  possessing  a  profession  or  trade  cannot  fail  to  improve  his  position  ; 
and  should  he  have  command  of  capital,  it  is  a  country  offering  far 
better  prospects  for  commercial  enterprise  than  can  be  had  in  more 
civilised,  but  at  the  same  time  more  crowded,  parts  of  South  Africa. 

A  Mashona   Piano. 

X  2 



The  extent  of  our  latest  territorial  acquisitions — Northern  Zambesia — The  gold  areas — The 
value  of  real  estate — Terms  of  settlement  with  the  Colonial  Office — Mr.  Rhodes' 
views  on  the  fiscal  policy  of  the  Empire — Railways,  telegraphs,  and  coach  services — 
Native  labour. 

Stay- AT-HOME,  incurious  Britons  are  strangely  unacquainted  with  the 
outlying  portions  of  that  vast  empire  of  which  these  islands  form  so 
small  a  part.  What  Englishman  of  average  intelligence  and  education 
could,  for  instance,  be  trusted  to  write,  without  reference,  anything  that 
could  be  described  as  a  correct  and  briefly  comprehensive  account  of 
our  Australian  or  Canadian  dominions,  or  of  the  vast  and  populous 
satrapy  which  was  won  for  us  by  the  resourceful  genius  of  Robert  Clive 
and  Warren  Hastings  ?  How  many  really  grasp  the  importance  of  the 
fact  that  within  the  last  four  years  a  few  British  "  adventurers  " — the 
term  is  officially  applied  to  the  founders  of  that  most  conservative  of 
institutions,  the  Bank  of  England — have  added  to  the  empire  a  territory 
which  is  eight  times  the  size  of  Great  Britain  herself,  equal  in  area  to  the 
combined  extents  of  the  United  Kingdom,  France,  Austria,  and  Italy, 
and  larger  than  our  East  Indian  possessions  .''  Still  less  is  it  generally 
understood  that  of  British  Zambesia  hundreds  of  thousands  of  square 
miles  are  fertile,  well-watered,  well-timbered,  endowed  with  a  pleasant 
and  healthful  sub-tropical  climate — all  in  the  most  emphatic  sense  of 
these  phrases — and  that,  moreover,  immense  stretches  of  country  are 
highly  mineralised.  Yet  this  is  so.  There  is  probably  no  healthier 
country  in  South  Africa  than  the  enormous  upland  region  called 
Matabeliland,  which  possesses  the  finest  pasturage  between  the  Zambesi 
and  the  southern  littorals  of  our  Cape  dependencies.  In  addition  to 
this,  the  countries  of  the  Matabeli  and  Mashona  are  known  to  be 
auriferous  ;  indeed,  they  are  believed  to  be  richly  so.  It  is,  however,  still 
too  early  to  pronounce  upon  this  matter  with  the  certainty  born  of  actual 

The  Settlement  and  Administration  of  Zambesia.       309 

results.  Systematic  crushing  has  ah-eady  commenced  at  some  of  the 
mines,  and  within  the  next  six  months  more  definite  data  will  either 
confirm  or  disappoint  the  hopeful  anticipations  entertained.  In  the 
meantime  it  may  be  noted  that  important  economic  adjuncts  in  the 
form  of  coalfields  have  been  discovered  near  Salisbury  and  Bulu- 
wayo.  Other  minerals  are  known  to  exist  in  various  parts  of  the 
country,  but  the  limits  of  this  volume  will  not  permit  any  detailed 
reference  to  their  character.  The  occasion  may  be  utilised,  however,  to 
take  a  bird's-eye  view  of  the  territories  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company  as  a  whole  ;  to  take  some  brief  note 
__-,,.,.,-„.  Qf  |.]^gjj.  resources,   prospects,  and  of  the  con- 

siderable progress  made  in  the  task  of  their 
development  since  the  historic  occupation 
of  Mashonaland. 

The  Crocodile  or  Limpopo  River. 

A    wide    reach    on    the 
Limpopo  River. 

The  Chartered  Com- 
pany's sphere  extends  over 
an  approximate  area  of  three- 
quarters  of  a  million   square 

miles.  This  enormous  territory  is  sectioned  off  by  the  Zambesi  River 
into  two  main  divisions,  to  which  the  names  of  NORTHERN  and 
Southern  Zambesia  have  been  respectively  suggested. 

Northern  Zambesia  is  defined  to  be  the  territory  which,  with  the 
exception  of  Nyasaland,  has  been  declared  by  Her  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment to  be  within  the  field  of  operations  of  the  Charter  of  the  British 

3IO  The  Downfall  of  Lobengitla. 

South  Africa  Company.  It  is,  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the 
Anglo-Portuguese  Agreement,  bordered  on  the  east  by  a  line  starting 
from  the  eastern  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa  at  the  point  of  the  parallel 
of  the  confluence  of  the  Rivers  Rovuma  and  M'Sinje,  Following  the 
shore  southwards  as  far  as  the  parallel  of  latitude  13*^  30'  south,  it 
proceeds  in  a  south-easterly  direction  to  the  eastern  shore  of  Lake 
Chiuta,  which  it  follows.  Thence  the  boundary  line  runs  in  a  direct 
line  to  the  eastern  shore  of  Lake  Kilwa  or  Shirwa,  which  it  follows 
to  its  south-easternmost  point.  From  that  point  the  line  proceeds  in 
a  direct  line  to  the  easternmost  affluent  of  the  River  Ruo,  and  thence 
follows  that  affluent,  and  subsequently  the  centre  of  the  channel  of 
the  Ruo,  to  its  confluence  with  the  River  Shire.  From  the  confluence 
of  the  Ruo  and  Shire  the  boundary  follows  the  centre  of  the  channel 
of  the  latter  river  to  a  point  just  below  Chiwanga  ;  thence  runs  due 
westward  until  it  reaches  the  watershed  of  the  Zambesi  and  the  Shire 
Rivers.  Following  that  watershed  and  afterwards  the  watershed 
between  the  former  river  and  Lake  Nyasa,  it  reaches  parallel  14''  of 
south  latitude.  From  parallel  14*^  it  runs  in  a  south-westerly  direction 
to  the  point  where  south  latitude  15'^  meets  the  River  Aroangwa  or 
Loangwa,  and  follows  the  mid-channel  of  that  river  to  its  junction 
with  the  Zambesi. 

On  the  west  Northern  Zambesia  is  bordered  by  a  line  following 
the  centre  of  the  channel  of  the  Upper  Zambesi,  starting  from  the 
Katima  Rapids  up  to  the  point  where  it  reaches  the  territory  of  the 
Barotse  kingdom.  That  territory  remains  within  the  British  sphere ; 
but  its  exact  limits  to  the  westward,  which  will  constitute  the  boundary 
between  the  British  and  Portuguese  spheres  of  influence,  are  yet  to 
be  decided  by  a  joint  Anglo-Portuguese  Commission. 

In  the  early  part  of  1891,  Her  Majesty's  Government  extended 
the  field  of  operations  of  the  Charter  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  so  as  to  include  the  whole  of  the  British  sphere  north  of  the 
Zambesi,  except  Nyasaland.  Under  the  latter  name  are  included 
certain  districts  in  the  Lake  Nyasa  region  where  British  missionaries 
had  been  settled  for  over  fifteen  years,  and  the  African  Lakes  Company 
had  been  at  work  for  the  same  period.  These,  in  1889,  were  declared 
to  be  within  the  British  sphere  of  influence.     On  the  14th  of  May,  1891, 

The  Settlement  and  Administration  of  Zambesia.         311 

north  of 
that  better 
which  in- 
Hland,  to- 
ing  one  of 
Africa.  In 
ation  it 
ately  to  the 

Bechuanaland,  to  the  north 
and  north-west  of  the  Trans- 
vaal Republic,  to  the  west  of 
the  Portuguese  province  of 
Mozambique,  and  to  the  east 
of  the  German  sphere  in  South 
West  Africa.  In  addition  to 
this,  it  may  also  be  mentioned 
that  the  British  South  Africa 
Company  is  deeply  concerned 
in    the    development    of    the 

these  districts  were  pro- 
claimed a  Protectorate  of 
Great  Britain  under  the  name 
of  the  British  Central  Africa 
Protectorate,  The  Protecto- 
rate is  administered  by  Her 
Majesty's  Commissioner,  who 
also  practically  exercises  ad- 
ministrative authority  on  be- 
half of  the  British  South 
Africa  Company,  over  the 
whole  sphere  of  influence 
the  Zambesi, 
Zambesia  is 
known  region 
eludes  Ma- 
and  Matabe- 
gether  form- 
the  fairest 
of  South 
point  of  situ- 
lies  immedi- 
north      of 

A  Hunting  Party  at  Shashi  River. 

3^2  The  Doiunfall  of  LobengiLla, 

Bechuanaland  Protectorate,  having  acquired  from  the  Chief  Khama 
a  concession  of  the  entire  mineral  rights  throughout  his  extensive 

The  development  of  the  mineral  areas  of  these  vast  countries 
has  been  taken  in  hand  by  the  Company  and  numerous  more  or 
less  affiliated  concerns  with  conspicuous  energy  and  determination, 
and  with  results  which  are,  under  all  the  untoward  circumstances 
(among  which  the  Matabeli  war  may  be  classed),  equally  sur- 
prising. Gold  mining  centres,  some  already  of  considerable  import- 
ance, have  already  been  established  at  Victoria,  Manica,  Hartley 
Hill  (Salisbury),  Mazoe,  Lo  Mogundi,  Kaiser  Wilhelm,  and  elsewhere 
in  Mashonaland. 

The  number  of  claims  which  had  been  registered  in  the  following 
Mining  Districts  there  before  the  end  of  July,  1894,  were  approxi- 
mately:— Umfuli,  7,590;  Mazoe,  6,510;  Victoria,  6,150;  Lo  Mogundi, 
2,600;  Salisbury,  3,560;  Manica.  10,150;  total,  34,560.  Since  the 
occupation  of  MatabeliJand  discoveries  of  gold  bearing  districts  have 
rapidly  succeeded  each  other,  finds  having  been  made  at  Buluwayo, 
Sebakwe,  Gwelo,  Matopo,  Bembesi,  Balingwe,  Umswizwe  and  Selukwe. 
Altogether,  on  the  21st  July,  1894,  12,000  claims  were  reported  as 
registered  in  these  Mining  Districts  of  Matabeliland.  The  foregoing 
substantial  results  had  been  achieved  in  three  years.  What  has  been 
done  in  Matabeliland  seems  still  more  phenomenal,  seeing  that  the 
Chartered  Company's  troops  only  marched  into  Buluwayo  on  November 
3rd  of  last  year  (1893). 

Apart  from  mining  operations,  townships  have  been  established  at 
Salisbury,  Victoria,  Umtali,  Hartley  Hill,  and  Mazoe  in  Mashonaland  ; 
and  at  Buluwayo  and  Gwelo  in  Matabeliland.  Real  estate  has  already 
reached  a  considerable  value,  as  may  be  gauged  from  the  fact  that  in 
July,  1893,  348  "stands,"  or  town  lots,  were  sold  for  ;^i 7,786.  Three 
other  large  auction  sales  of  stands  at  Buluwayo,  Gwelo,  Salisbury, 
Victoria,  Umtali,  and  Mazoe,  have  recently  taken  place,  or  are  to  be  held 
in  July  to  September  of  the  current  year,  and  an  indication  of  values 
is  afforded  by  the  upset  price,  which  ranges  from  ;^40  for  town  lots  (per 
stand)  to  ^loo  for  residential  sites.  In  all  probability  the  upset  prices 
will  be  considerably  exceeded,  as  in  the  past ;  but  even  on  the  basis  of 

The  Sett ieme Jit  and  Administration  of  Zambesia. 


the  upset  figure  the  stands  would  realise  ;^93,56o  *  This  sum — to-day 
the'  purchase-price  of  a  few  acres — would,  ten  years  ago,  have  acquired 
the  whole  of  the  Witwatersrand  and  every  then  known  concession  in 
Zambesia,  affording  a  typical  instance  of  the  kaleidoscopic  changes  which 
have  transfigured  South  Africa — still  practically  a  virgin  country — 
during  recent  years. 

Upon  the  disbanding  of  the  Chartered  Company's  Forces  immediate 
steps  were  taken  to  ensure  the  proper  administration  of  Matabeliland, 
and  the  opportunity  was  afforded  to  revise  the  whole  scheme  of  the 
government  of  Southern  Zambesia.  The  chief  points  to  be  settled  were 
connected  with  the  natives ;  the  devising  of  a  proper  legal  system 
adapted  to  the  native  codes  and  customs,  and  the  allocation  of  habitable 
areas  sufficient  for  the  needs  of  the  black  population.  But  several 
important  side  issues  were  raised  in  view  of  possible  political  contin- 
gencies. It  will  be  apparent  to  even  the  most  cursory  reader  of  it  that 
the  agreement  ultimately  arrived  at  between  Her  Majesty's  Government 
and  the  British  South  Africa  Company  makes  complete  provision 
for  the  protection  of  the  native  interests  involved,  and  for  proper 
legislation  in  that  connection.  The  following  is  the  full  text  of  the 
agreement  in  question  : — 

Clause  i. — The  territories  referred  to  in  this  Memorandum  are  those  parts 
of  South  Africa  bounded  by  British  Bechuanaland,  the  German  Protectorate,  the 
Rivers  Chobe  and  Zambesi,  the  Portuguese  Possessions,  and  the  South  African 
Republic,  within  which  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  in  this  Memorandum 
referred  to  as  "  the  Company,"  carries  on  operations  under  and  by  virtue  of  Her 
Majesty's  Charter  of  October  29th,  1889:  save  and  except  the  territories  defined 
in  the  third  section  of  the  Proclamation  of  the  High  Commissioner  of  September 
27th,  1892,  and  known  as  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate. 

Clause  2. — The  administration  of  the  Government  of  the  said  territories 
shall  be  conducted  by  the  Company  in  accordance  with  its  Charter,  and  under  an 
Administrator  and  a  Council  of  four  members  composed  of  a  Judge  and  three 
other  members.     Any  two  members  shall  form  a  quorum. 

Clause  3. — The  Administrator  shall  be  appointed  by  the  Company  with 
the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  may  be  removed  either  by  the 
Secretary  of  State  or  by  the  Company  with  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of 

*  Since  the  above  was  written,  535  stands  at  Buluwayo  and  Gwelo  were  sold  on  August 
1st  for  ^52,592.  This  result,  though  not  unexpected,  created  a  deep  impression  as  the  evidence 
of  unprecedented  progress  in  a  new  country. 

314  The  Doiunfall  of  Lobengiila. 

State.  He  shall,  unless  sooner  removed,  hold  his  ofifice  for  a  term  of  three 
years,  and  after  the  end  of  that  term  shall  continue  to  hold  his  ofifice  until 
his  successor  is  appointed.  An  Administrator  whose  term  of  office  has 
expired  may  be  re-appointed.  The  Company  may  appoint  an  Acting  Adminis- 
trator, of  whom  the  Secretary  of  State  approves,  to  act  as  Administrator  during 
the  absence  on  leave  or  incapacitating  illness  of  the  Administrator.  When 
there  is  no  Administrator  or  Acting  Administrator  present  in  the  said  territories 
and  capable  of  acting,  the  duties  and  powers  of  the  Administrator  shall  devolve 
on  the  Judge. 

Clause  4. — The  Judge  shall  be  appointed  by  the  Company  Avith  the  ap- 
proval of  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  may  be  removed  only  by  the  Secretary  of 
State.     He  shall  be  a  member  of  the  Council  ex  officio. 

Clause  5. — The  members  of  the  Council,  other  than  the  Judge,  shall  be 
appointed  by  the  Company  with  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  may 
be  removed  by  the  Company.  On  the  expiration  of  two  years  from  the  first 
appointment  of  members,  and  on  the  expiration  of  every  succeeding  period  of 
two  years,  one  member  of  the  Council  shall  retire  from  office.  The  first  two 
members  to  retire  shall  be  determined  by  agreement,  or,  in  default  of  agreement, 
by  lot.  Subsequently,  the  member  shall  retire  who  shall  have  been  longest  in 
office  without  re-appointment.  A  retiring  member  may  be  re-appointed,  and 
shall  hold  his  office  until  the  appointment  of  his  successor. 

Clause  6. — When  the  Administrator  or  the  Judge  or  other  member  of  the 
Council  resigns,  is  removed,  or  dies,  the  Company  shall,  within  nine  months  of 
his  resignation,  removal,  or  death,  appoint  a  successor  of  whom  the  Secretary  of 
State  approves,  and  if  they  fail  to  do  so  the  appointment  may  be  made  by  the 
Secretary  of  State.  A  member  of  the  Council  (other  than  the  Judge)  appointed 
under  this  clause  shall  hold  office  so  long  only  as  the  person  in  whose  stead  he 
is  appointed  would  have  been  entitled  to  hold  office. 

Clause  7. — The  salaries  of  the  Administrator  and  of  the  Judge  shall  be 
paid'  by  the  Company  ;  the  salaries  shall  be  fixed  by  the  Company,  with  the 
approval  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  shall  not  be  increased  or  diminished 
save  with  his  approval. 

Cl.-^use  8. — The  Administrator  shall,  as  representative  of  the  Company, 
administer  the  government  of  the  said  territories,  but  shall  take  the  advice  of  his 
Council  on  all  questions  of  importance  affecting  the  government  of  the  said 
territories.  If  in  cases  of  emergency  it  shall  be  impracticable  to  assemble  a 
quorum,  the  Administrator  may  take  action  alone,  but  he  shall  report  such  action 
to  the  Council  at  its  next  meeting. 

Clause  9.— If  the  Administrator  dissents  from  the  opinion  of  the  Council, 
or  the  Majority  of  the  Council,  he  may  overrule  their  opinion ;  but  in  such  case 
he  shall  report  the  matter  forthwith  to  the  Company,  with  the  reasons  for  his 
action,  and  in  every  such  case  any  member  of  the  Council  who  dissents  may 

The  Settlemeiit  and  Administration  of  Zambesia.       315 

require  that  the  reasons  for  his  dissent  shall  be  recorded  and  transmitted  to  the 
Company.  The  Company  may  rescind  the  decision  of  the  Administrator, 
whether  made  with  or  without  or  against  the  advice  of  the  Council. 

Clause  10. — It  shall  be  lawful  for  the  Administrator,  with  the  concurrence 
of  at  least  two  members  of  the  Council,  and  with  the  approval  of  the  High 
Commissioner,  to  frame  and  issue  Regulations  ;  and  every  such  Regulation, 
after  it  has  received  the  approval  of  the  High  Commissioner,  shall  on  its 
promulgation  have  the  force  of  law.  Provided  that  either  the  Secretary  of  State 
or  the  Company  may  veto  any  such  Regulation  at  any  time  within  twelve  months 
of  the  date  of  approval  by  the  High  Commissioner.  In  case  of  the  exercise  of 
such  veto,  the  Regulation  shall  be  of  no  force  and  effect  save  as  to  any  act  done, 
right  acquired,  or  liability  incurred  thereunder  before  the  exercise  of  the  said 
veto  has  been  communicated  to  the  Administrator  and  public  notice  of  the  same 
has  been  given  by  him. 

Clause  ii. — A  Regulation  approved  and  promulgated  as  aforesaid  may 
suspend  any  provision  of  any  Ordinance  of  the  Company  which  shall  be  specified 
therein,  but  every  such  Regulation  shall  itself  be  subject  to  repeal  or  amendment 
by  Ordinance  of  the  Company. 

Clause  12. — Neither  the  Company  nor  the  Administrator  in  Council  can 
by  Ordinance,  or  Regulation,  or  otherwise,  amend  or  repeal  any  Order  made  by 
Her  Majesty  in  Council,  nor,  except  with  the  previous  consent  of  the  High  Com- 
missioner, any  Proclamation  issued  by  such  High  Commissioner  under  the 
authority  of  an  Order  made  by  Her  Majesty  in  Council. 

Where  an  Ordinance  of  the  Company,  or  Regulation  of  the  Administrator  in 
Council,  is  in  any  respect  repugnant  to  the  provisions  of  an  Order  made  by  Her 
Majesty  in  Council,  or,  except  in  the  case  of  previous  consent  above  specified,  of 
a  Proclamation  issued  by  the  High  Commissioner  under  such  an  Order,  it  shall 
be  read  subject  to  such  Order  or  Proclamation,  and  shall,  to  the  extent  of  such 
repugnancy,  but  not  otherwise,  be  and  remain  absolutely  void  and  inoperative. 

Clause  13. — The  power  of  making  Ordinances,  granted  to  the  Company 
under  clause  10  of  its  Charter,  shall  be  deemed  to  include  the  power  of  imposing 
by  such  Ordinances  all  such  taxes  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  order  and  good 
government  of  the  said  territories  and  for  the  raising  of  revenue  therein,  and  also 
the  right  to  impose  and  to  collect  Customs  duties. 

Clause  14. — The  Company  may  by  Ordinance  empower,  or  the  Adminis- 
trator in  Council  may  by  Regulation  empower,  any  local  municipal  body  or  other 
local  authority  to  levy  municipal  rates  and  taxes,  and  to  prescribe  and  enforce 
moderate  money  penalties  for  breach  of  local  regulations. 

Clause  15. — The  Judge  shall  have  jurisdiction  over  all  causes,  both  civil 
and  criminal,  and  shall  hold  courts  at  such  places  as  may  be  from  time  to  time 
prescribed  by  Proclamation  of  the  High  Commissioner  or  by  Ordinance  of  the 
Company.     The  procedure,  rules,  and  regulations  of  the  said  courts  shall  be  the 

3i6  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

same,  as  far  as  is  applicable,  as  the  procedure,  rules,  and  regulations  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  Cape  Colony.  If  and  when  the  Parliament  of  the  Cape 
Colony  shall  express  its  assent  thereto,  Her  Majesty's  Government  will  advise 
the  issue  of  an  Order  in  Council  under  the  Foreign  Jurisdiction  Act,  1890, 
providing  that  appeals  from  the  decision  of  the  Judge  shall  lie  to  the  said 
Supreme  Court. 

Clause  i6.^The  said  territories  shall  be  divided  by  the  Company  into 
magisterial  districts.  There  shall  be  an  appeal  in  all  civil  and  criminal  cases 
from  the  decision  of  the  magistrate  of  any  district  to  the  Judge  upon  the  same 
terms  and  conditions,  and  subject  to  the  limitations,  rules,  and  regulations,  as  far 
as  possible,  which  regulate  appeals  in  the  Cape  Colony  ;  and  all  criminal  cases 
that  would,  if  the  same  had  been  tried  by  a  Resident  Magistrate  in  the  said 
Colony,  be  liable  to  review  by  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  shall  be  liable  to 
review  by  the  Judge. 

Clause  17. — All  civil  and  criminal  cases,  whether  between  native  and 
native,  or  between  native  and  non-native,  or  between  non-native  and  non-native, 
shall  be  cognisable  by  the  courts  of  the  Judge  and  magistrates  within  the 
respective  jurisdictions  assigned  to  such  courts. 

Clause  18. — In  civil  cases  between  native  and  native  the  said  courts  shall 
decide  the  said  cases  in  accordance  with  native  law,  in  so  far  as  the  said  law  is 
not  repugnant  to  principles  of  morality,  or  to  any  law  or  ordinance  in  force  in  the 
said  territories ;  provided  that  in  any  suit  in  which  the  effect  or  consequence  of 
any  marriage  contracted  according  to  native  law  or  custom  shall  be  involved,  any 
such  marriage  contracted  by  a  native  in  the  lifetime  of  one  or  more  other  wives 
of  the  said  native,  married  to  him  according  to  the  said  law  or  custom,  may  be 
recognised  and  regarded  as  in  all  civil  respects  and  for  all  civil  purposes  a  valid 
marriage,  in  so  far  as  such  polygamous  marriages  are  recognised  by  the  said 
native  law  or  custom.  In  all  civil  cases  between  natives,  any  magistrate  or  the 
Judge  may  call  to  his  assistance  two  native  assessors  to  advise  him  upon  native 
law  and  customs,  but  the  decision  of  the  case  shall  be  vested  in  the  magistrate  or 
Judge  alone.  Subject  as  aforesaid,  the  same  procedure  shall,  as  far  as  possible, 
"be  observed  as  though  the  said  cases  had  been  tried  in  the  Cape  Colony. 

Clause  19. — All  criminal  cases,  whether  between  native  and  native,  or 
between  native  and  non-native,  or  between  non-native  and  non-native,  shall  be 
dealt  with  in  accordance  with  the  laws  applicable  to  non-natives,  and  the  same 
procedure,  as  far  as  possible,  shall  be  observed  as  though  the  said  cases  had  been 
tried  in  the  Cape  Colony. 

Clause  20. — The  magistrates  shall  be  appointed  by  the  Company  with  the 
approval  of  the  High  Commissioner,  and  shall  thereupon  enter  on  office,  but  the 
appointment  shall  be  subject  to  confirmation  by  the  Secretary  of  State.  The 
magistrates  may  be  removed  either  by  the  Secretary  of  State,  or  by  the  Company 
with  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  State. 

Clause  21. — The   High    Commissioner  may    suspend  the   Judge  or  any 

The  Settle7nent  and  Administration  of  Zambesia.      317 

magistrate  from  ofifice  for  misconduct,  but  shall  immediately  report  to  the 
Secretary  of  State  the  grounds  of  such  suspension.  The  Secretary  of  State  may 
either  confirm  or  disallow  the  suspension. 

Clause  22. — Fines  levied  upon  native  chiefs  or  tribes  for  misconduct  or 
'•rebellion  may  only  be  imposed  by  the  Administrator  in  Council,  and  every  such 
case  shall  be  forthwith  reported  to  the  High  Commissioner. 

Clause  23. — Natives  shall  not  be  subjected  to  any  exceptional  legislation 
save  as  regards  liquor,  arms,  and  ammunition  and  as  regards  the  title  to  and 
occupation  of  land  as  hereinafter  referred  to  in  Clause  27  and  as  regards  any 
other  matter  which  the  x\dministrator  in  Council  may,  with  the  approval  of  the 
High  Commissioner  and  the  assent  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  subsequently  by 
Regulation  define  ;  provided  that  nothing  herein  contained  shall  prevent  a  hut 
tax  being  imposed  by  legislative  authority  in  respect  of  the  occupation  of  huts 
by  natives. 

Clause  24. — A  Commission  shall  be  appointed  to  deal  with  all  questions 
as  to  native  settlements  in  the  portion  of  the  said  territories  termed  ]\Iatabeli- 
land.  It  shall  be  called  the  "  Land  Commission,"  and  shall  be  composed  of 
three  persons,  namely,  the  Judge,  one  member  appointed  by  the  Secretary  of 
State,  and  one  member  appointed  by  the  Company. 

Clause  25. — Any  decision  of  the  Land  Commission  shall,  on  sufficient 
cause  being  shown  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  be  subject  to 
revision  by  him,  if  within  twelve  months  from  the  date  of  the  award  being 
received  by  him  he  shall  give  notice  of  his  intention  to  proceed  to  such  revision. 

Clause  26. — The  Land  Commission  shall  continue  for  such  time  as  may 
be  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  State  after  consultation  with  the  Company  ;  after 
which  time  all  the  powers  and  duties  of  the  said  Commission  shall  become  and 
be  vested  in  the  Judge  alone. 

Clause  27. — The  land  Commission  shall,  as  regards  the  portion  of  the  said 
territories  termed  Matabeliland,  assign  to  the  natives  now  inhabiting  the  said 
portion  land  sufficient  and  suitable  for  their  agricultural  and  grazing  require- 
ments, and  cattle  sufficient  for  their  needs. 

Clause  28. — The  Company  shall  retain  the  mineral  rights  in,  over,  or  under 
all  land  so  assigned  to  natives ;  and,  if  the  Company  should  require  any  such 
land  for  the  purpose  of  mineral  development,  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  Company 
to  make  application  to  the  Land  Commission,  and  upon  good  and  sufficient 
cause  shown,  the  Commission  may  order  the  land  so  required,  or  any  portion 
thereof,  to  be  given  up,  and  assign  to  the  natives  concerned  just  compensation 
in  land  elsewhere,  situate  in  as  convenient  a  position  as  possible,  and,  as  far  as 
possible,  of  equal  suitability  for  their  requirements  in  other  respects. 

Clause  29. — In  like  manner,  should  any  land  assigned  to  natives  be  required 
for  sites  for  townships,  railways,  or  for  any  public  works,  then  upon  application 
to  the  Land  Commission,  and  upon  good  and  sufficient  cause  being  shown  that 


1 8  The  Dozunfall  of  Lobengula, 

the  land  is  required' for  any  of  the  above  purposes,  the  Commission  may  order 
the  land  so  required,  or  any  portion  thereof,  to  be  given  up,  and  assign  to  the 
natives  concerned  just  compensation  in  land  elsewhere,  situate  in  as  convenient 
a  position  as  possible,  and,  as  far  as  possible,  of  equal  suitability  for  their 
requirements  in  other  respects. 

Clause  30. — No  removal  of  natives  from  any  kraal,  or  from  any  portion  of 
land  assigned  by  the  Land  Commission,  shall  take  place  to  another  locality, 
except  after  due  inquiry  made  upon  the  spot  and  with  the  authority  of  the  said 

Clause  31. — The  land  to  be  assigned  to  natives  shall  include  a  fair  and 
equitable  portion  of  springs  or  permanent  water  and  of  grazing  and  arable  land. 

Clause  32. — The  Land  Commission  shall  have  power  to  appoint  a  subordi- 
nate court,  to  be  called  the  "  district  land  court,"  in  each  magisterial  district,  con- 
sisting of  the  magistrate  of  the  district  and  two  assessors  to  be  appointed  by  the 
Land  Commission.  The  said  district  land  courts  shall  report  or  make  recommen- 
dation to  the  Land  Commission  on  all  questions  which  shall  be  remitted  to  them 
by  the  Land  Commission.  The  Land  Commission  may  confirm  or  disallow, 
with  or  without  amendments,  any  recommendation  of  such  district  land  courts. 

Clause  33. — Natives  shall  have  the  right  to  acquire  and  hold  and  dispose  of 
landed  property  in  the  same  manner  as  persons  who  are  not  natives,  and  in  all 
respects  such  property  shall  be  liable  in  the  usual  manner  for  any  obligations  for 
which  such  property  shall  be  liable.  But  these  provisions  shall  not  apply  to  land 
assigned  under  Clause  2  7;  and  no  contract  for  alienating  or  encumbering  a  native's 
land  shall  be  valid  unless  it  is  made  before  a  magistrate  and  attested  by  him,  after 
satisfying  himself  that  the  native  understands  the  bargain. 

Clause  34. — Persons  who  may  be  appointed  to  such  offices  as  may  be  de- 
signated in  a  Proclamation  or  Proclamations  by  the  High  Commissioner,  shall 
not  (except  in  the  case  of  an  acting  apppointment)  have  any  interest,  either 
direct  or  indirect,  in  the  commercial  undertakings  or  shares  of  the  Company. 
The  offices  to  be  designated  in  the  said  Proclamations  shall  be  such  as  may  be 
agreed  upon  by  the  Secretary  of  State  after  consultation  with  the  Company. 

Clause  35. — The  armed  forces  of  the  Company  shall  not,  without  the 
permission  of  Her  Majesty's  Government,  act  outside  the  limits  defined  in 
Clause  I  of  this  Memorandum. 

Clause  36. — The  cost  of  any  inquiry  which  the  Secretary  of  State  may 
think  it  necessary  to  institute  into  the  administrative  or  judicial  system  established 
in  the  said  territories,  shall  be  borne  by  the  Company.  The  Company  shall  like- 
wise provide  such  payment  as  may  be  agreed  upon  between  Her  Majesty's 
Government  and  the  Company,  to  the  member  of  the  Land  Commission 
appointed  by  the  Secretary  of  State. 

Clause  37. — None  of  the  provisions  in  this  Memorandum  contained  shall 
be  construed  so  as  in  any  way  to  diminish  or  detract  from  the  powers  conferred 

The  Settlement  and  Administration  of  Zai^tbesia.       319 

upon  Her  Majesty's  Secretary  of  State  or  High  Commissioner  by  Her  Majesty's 
Order  in  Council  of  May  9th,  1891,  or  by  the  Charter  incorporating  the 
Company  ;  but  the  said  provisions  shall  be  considered  as  subsidiary  to,  and  in 
augmentation  of,  the  powers  so  conferred  :  and  nothing  herein  contained  shall 
be  construed  so  as  in  any  way  to  diminish  or  detract  from  the  powers  granted 
to  the  Company  by  its  Charter. 

Executed  in  London  this  23rd  day  of  May  A.D.  1894. 

Signed  on  behalf  of     The  Common  Seal  of  British  South  Africa  \ 

Her     Majesty's         Company  was  affixed  hereto,  pursuant  \  \^^y.rQ^^ 
Government,  to  a  Resolution  of  the  Boardof  Directors  v -p  ' 

Henry  B.  Loch,  passed  and  dated  the  23rd  May,  1894,  \  ' Directors 

High  Comi7iissioner .      in  the  presence  of  / 

Herbert  Canning, 


Of  the  matters  dealt  with  in  the  foregoing,  the  first  is  the  method  of 
the  administration,  which  is  to  be  carried  on  by  the  Administrator, 
advised  but  not  controlled  by  a  Council  of  Advice  consisting  of  a  Judge 
and  three  other  members.  All  the  members  of  this  are  to  be  appointed 
by  the  Company,  but  their  nomination  is  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 
Secretary  of  State.  The  judicial  member  of  the  Council  has  already 
been  appointed  in  the  person  of  Mr.  JOSEPH  ViNTCENT,  whose  office  is 
only  second  in  importance  to  that  of  the  Administrator,  whose  duties,  in 
case  of  absence  or  death,  and  should  there  be  no  acting  Administrator, 
devolve  upon  him.  He  may  only  be  removed  by  the  Secretary 
of  State.  The  new  Chief  Justice  in  Matabeliland  is  the  eldest  son 
of  the  Hon.  L.  A.  Vintcent,  Member  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  of 
the  Cape  Colony,  and  was  born  at  Mossel  Bay,  November  9th, 
1 861,  He  was  educated  at  the  Diocesan  College,  Rondebosch, 
Charterhouse,  and  Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge.  He  afterwards  qualified 
for  the  Bar,  and  after  returning  to  the  Cape  was  admitted  as  an 
advocate  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Cape  Colony.  In  1885  he 
went  to  practice  in  the  High  Court  at  Vryburg,  British  Bechuanaland, 
and  was  subsequently  appointed  Crown  Prosecutor  of  the  Colony. 
He  remained  in  Bechuanaland  until  he  received  his  present  important 
appointment.  At  a  farewell  banquet  given  in  his  honour  before 
leaving  Vryburg,  Sir  Sidney  Shippard,  Administrator  of  British 
Bechuanaland,  referred  in  the  most  eulogistic  terms  to  his  services,  and 

320  The  Dozvnfall  of  Lobengtda. 

said  that  no  more  efficient  Public  Prosecutor  could  have  been  found ; 
and  added  that  Mr.  Rhodes  could  not  have  made  a  happier  choice  if  he 
had  searched  the  whole  of  the  Cape  Colony.  In  a  sporting  country  such 
as  South  Africa  eminently  is,  some  mention  of  the  athletic  career  of 
any  member  of  the  Vintcent  family  is  naturally  looked  for.  The  name 
of  Mr.  C.  A.  Vintcent  is  too  well-known  in  sporting  circles  throughout 
South  Africa  to  need  mention.  Another  brother,  Mr.  Louis  Vintcent, 
who  was  one  of  the  Pioneer  Force,  and  who  died  of  fever  shortly  after 
the  occupation,  also  achieved  a  reputation  as  a  good  all-round  athlete. 
The  new  judge  did  well  at  cricket  and  football  at  Charterhouse,  and  at 
Cambridge  got  his  "  blue  "  for  Association  football,  and  obtained  a  fair 
amount  of  success  as  a  cricketer.  While  studying  for  the  Bar  he  played 
for  London  in  nearly  all  the  Association  matches  of  the  day,  and  for 
the  Old  Carthusians  when  at  their  best.  He  was  said  to  have  been  sure 
of  international  honours,  but  at  this  point  damaged  his  knee  so  badly 
that  he  had  to  give  up  the  game  entirely. 

The  remaining  three  members  have  not  yet  been  appointed.  It  will 
be  observed  that  the  Administrator  has  power  to  act  even  in  opposition 
to  the  advice  of  a  majority  of  his  Council,  and  is  only  subject  to  the 
authority  of  the  Company,  which  in  turn  is  under  the  supreme  authority 
of  the  High  Commissioner  representing  Her  Majesty's  Government. 
The  land  rights  of  the  natives  are  protected  by  a  Land  Commission 
consisting  of  three  members  :  the  Judge,  one  appointed  by  the  Company, 
and  one — this  is  a  somewhat  important  proviso — appointed  directly  by 
the  Secretary  of  State.  In  purely  native  cases  the  native  law  is  followed 
where  it  does  not  clash  with  the  morals  of  civilised  communities  ;  but 
here  again  an  important  exception  is  very  properly  rnade  by  the  official 
recognition  of  polygamy  among  the  natives.  The  stipulation  providing 
that  "  if  and  when  the  Parliament  shall  express  its  consent  thereto " 
appeals  from  the  decision  of  the  Judge — the  present  supreme  legal 
authority  in  British  Zambesia — shall  lie  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
Cape  Colony,  is  important  as  showing  the  grooves  along  which  the 
Rhodesian  legal  system,  the  framework  of  which  is  designed  to  follow 
as  closely  as  possible  the  judicial  system  of  the  Cape  Colony, 
is  expected  to  run.  This  is  noticeable  in  the  clause  (No.  19) 
which  provides  that  in   all  criminal  cases  the  procedure  of  the   Cape 

The  Settlement  ajtd  Administration  of  Zambesia.        321 

Colony  shall  be  followed.  The  only  exceptional  legislation  to  which 
the  natives  are  to  be  subjected  is  in  respect  to  liquor,  arms,  and 
ammunition,  with  regard  to  which  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  Mr.  Rhodes' 
policy  of  total  prohibition  of  alcoholic  liquors  among  the  natives  will  be 
carried  out  in  its  full  stringency.  Only  in  this  way  can  the  physique 
and  self-respect  of  the  natives  be  kept  up  to  anything  like  a  satisfactory 
level.  By  a  further  clause  the  necessities  of  the  Matabeli  in  respect  of 
cattle  and  land  for  farming,  grazing,  or  dwelling  purposes,  are  met  by  a 
clause  providing  that  the  Land  Commission  shall  satisfy  the  wants  of 
the  natives  of  Matabeliland  in  this  respect.  When  this  agreement,  of 
which  the  salient  points  were  agreed  upon  by  Sir  Henry  Loch  and 
Mr.  Rhodes  in  consultation,  was  being  framed  by  the  Colonial  Office  on 
the  one  side  and  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Company  on  the  other, 
Mr.  Rhodes  wished  that  it  should  contain  a  stipulation  that  the  British 
South  Africa  Company  should,  in  perpetuum,  pledge  itself  never  to 
impose  duties  upon  British  goods  higher  than  those  levied  by  the  Cape 
Colony  ;  and  also  a  stipulation  that  the  produce  of  that  Colony  should 
be  always  admitted  free  into  the  territories  of  the  Company.  These 
provisions,  however,  were  rejected  upon  grounds  which  are  stated  in  a 
letter  from  the  Marquis  of  Ripon,  of  which  a  copy  is  appended  hereto, 
together  with  a  copy  of  the  letter  embodying  Mr,  Rhodes'  views.  The 
following  is  the  text  of  the  letter,  dated  22nd  May,  1894,  sent  by  the 
British  South  Africa  Company,  embodying  Mr.  Rhodes'  views,  and  of 
Lord  Ripon's  reply. 

Sir, — In  acknowledging  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  8th  instant, 
and  the  draft  of  the  proposed  Memorandum  as  to  the  administration  of 
Matabeliland  and  Mashonaland,  my  Directors  desire  me  to  say,  for  the 
information  of  the  Right  Hon.  the  Secretary  of  State,  that  they  accept 
the  Memorandum  as  fairly  and  adequately  meeting  the  present 
conditions  of  the  territories,  and  are  prepared  to  affix  the  Seal  of  the 
Company  to  a  copy. 

I  am  instructed  at  the  same  time  to  lay  before  Her  Majesty's 
Government  the  grounds  upon  which  Mr.  Rhodes  desired  Clause  13  to 
take  a  different  form  to  that  now  settled. 

The  clause  in  the  Agreement  runs  : — 
The    power   of   making   Ordinances,    granted   to   the    Company   under 


32  2  The  Downfall  of  Lobengtila. 

Clause  lo  of  its  Charter,  shall  be  deemed  to  include  the  power  of  imposing  by 
such  Ordinances  all  such  taxes  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  order  and  good 
government  of  the  said  territories  and  for  the  raising  of  revenue  therein,  and 
also  the  right  to  impose  and  to  collect  Customs  duties. 

Mr.  Rhodes  wished  the  following  proviso  to  be  added  : — 

Provided  that  if  Customs  dues  are  levied,  then  in  so  far  as  Customs  dues 
on  British  goods  are  concerned,  they  shall  not  exceed  the  duties  thereon 
according  to  the  tariff  at  present  in  force  in  the  South  African  Customs  Union  ; 
and  provided  further  that  the  produce  of  the  Colony  of  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope  shall  pass  free  into  the  Chartered  territories  the  subject  of  this 

The  following  remarks  were  forwarded  as  embodying  Mr.  Rhodes' 

reasons  for  this  addition  : — 

It  must  be  remembered  that  this  Agreement  contains  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  constitution  for  the  Chartered  territories,  and  Mr.  Rhodes 
thinks  that  it  is  a  wise  provision  that  the  Customs  duties  on  British 
goods  should  not  exceed  the  present  Cape  tariff,  which  is  a  reasonable 
one,  and  is  imposed  for  the  purpose  of  revenue  and  not  for  pro- 
tection, and  not  with  the  view  of  making  prohibitive  tariffs  against 
British  manufactures.  He  thinks  it  is  a  pity  that  when  responsible 
government  was  given  to  the  Colonies,  provision  was  not  made  at  the 
time  that  duties  imposed  upon  British  goods  should  not  exceed  a 
certain  amount.  Such  an  arrangement  would  have  been  a  fair  return 
by  the  Colonists  to  the  Mother  Country  for  the  heavy  expenditure  she 
had  incurred  in  founding  their  settlements,  and  at  the  same  time 
would  have  been  a  salutary  check  against  the  introduction  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  extreme  protection,  the  results  of  which  to  the  ordinary 
community  are,  that  all  the  necessaries  of  life  are  made  infinitely 
dearer,  and  in  addition  to  this,  such  an  Agreement  would  have  been 
one  of  the  strongest  ties  between  the  Mother  Country  and  her 
Colonies.  Mr.  Rhodes  objects  to  the  proviso  extending  to  goods 
from  Foreign  States,  as  he  wishes,  in  case  the  United  States  and  other 
European  Powers  continue  their  policy  of  excluding  British  manu- 
factures from  their  countries,  to  reserve  power  and  right  to  consider 
the  advisability  of  meeting  them  in  the  same  spirit.  He  says  it  must 
be  noted  that  the  amendments  proposed  in  the  McKinlay  tariff  are  in 
the  direction  of  admitting  raw  products  on  a  freer  basis,  but  still  very 
high  tariffs  are  kept  against  foreign  manufactures,  the  object  being  to 
keep  out  British  manufactured  goods,  and  by  increasing  the  supply  of 
raw  materials— which  are  lacking  in  the  United  States — to  compete 
with  manufactured  British  goods  in  the  outside  markets  of  the  world. 
Mr.  Rhodes  thinks,  therefore,  that  the  arrangement  suggested  by  him 
— which  is  a  just  one — should  be  made  to  apply  only  to  British  goods ; 

■-■-  .  and  as  to  the  rest  of  the  world  the  question  should  be  left  open,  so 

The  Settle?nent  mid  Administration  of  Zambesia.       323 

that  we  are  free  to  consider  the  situation.  If  the  unfriendly  attitude 
of  Foreign  Powers  against  British  goods  continues,  the  English  people 
may  have  to  reconsider  the  question  of  tariff,  and  in  the  future  have  to 
consider  the  advisability  of  imposing  tariffs  against ;  those  countries 
which  treat  their  manufactures  in  a  hostile  manner.  Mr.  Rhodes  does 
not  now  ask  for  the  Company  the  right  of  imposing  a  differential 
tariff,  but  says,  in  return  for  the  benefit  that  we  have  received  from  the 
Mother  Country  let  us  make  it  a  portion  of  our  constitution  that 
British  goods  shall  never  pay  a  tariff  exceeding  the  present  tariff  in 
force  in  the  Cape  Colony.  This  tariff  is  not  a  prohibitive  or  pro- 
tective one,  but  is  merely  for  the  purpose  of  revenue,  and  under  it 
British  goods  receive  the  utmost  fair  play.  Mr.  Rhodes  wishes  this 
tariff  to  become,  in  so  far  as  British  goods  are  concerned,  a  portion  of 
the  constitution  of  the  Chartered  Company's  territories,  i.e.,  that  we 
shall  not  have  the  power  to  impose  a  higher  tariff  on  British  goods,  as 
that  would  be  in  the  direction  of  a  protective  or  prohibitive  tariff. 
The  proviso  respecting  "  British  goods,"  Mr.  Rhodes  points  out, 
gives  the  Company  no  power  to  impose  any  differential  rate — and 
therefore  the  argument  of  interference  with  the  general  fiscal  policy  of 
Her  Majesty's  Government  falls  to  the  ground — as  the  Ordinance 
imposing  the  dues  would  be  subject  to  the  approval  of  Her  Majesty's 
Government ;  ]Mr.  Rhodes  prefers  the  clause  with  the  insertion  of  the 
words  "  British  goods,"  because  it  would  then  bind  the  Company  in 
the  future  never  to  put  an  excessive  rate  upon  British  manufactures, 
and  leaves — as  it  should  do — the  rest  of  the  question  open.  Mr. 
Rhodes  says  the  provision  that  our  tariff  on  British  goods  should  not 
exceed  the  present  Cape  tariff  was  suggested  by  himself  in  the 
interests  of  the  English  people,  who  are  daily  perceiving  that  the  only 
return  made  them  by  the  Colonies  and  States  that  they  have  founded, 
for  all  the  blood  and  treasure  they  have  spent,  is,  that  the  present 
occupants  place  hostile  and  prohibitive  tariffs  against  their  goods, 
thereby  removing  the  only  existing  benefit  to  the  British  manufacturer. 
Mr.  Rhodes  wishes  to  guard  against  a  repetition  of  this  in  the 
Chartered  Company's  territories.  It  rests  with  Her  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment, he  says,  whether  they  will  support  him  in  this  idea,  and  if  they 
reject  it  the  onus  of  rejection  lies  with  them ;  but,  he  says,  "  they  will 
agree  with  me  that  the  msertion  of  the  words  '  British  goods '  is 
.  immaterial  to  the  Charter,  and  dictated  solely  in  the  interests  of  the 
English  people."  The  latter  part  of  the  suggested  proviso  has  been 
objected  to,  as  giving  a  preferential  right  to  the  products  of  the  Cape 
Colony ;  but  Mr.  Rhodes  would  point  out  that  this  has  already  been 
arranged  for  in  the  present  "  Cape  Customs  Union,"  in  which  the 
products  of  the  Cape  and  Orange  Free  State  pass  free.  It  is  highly 
probable  that  the  Chartered  territories  will  in  the  future  desire  to  join 
the  "  Cape  Customs  Union,"  just  as  the  present  Government  has 
allowed    Her    Majesty's   Protectorate    of  Bechuanaland  to  enter  the 

Y    2 

324  7 he  Downfall  of  Lobengttla. 

same  Union.  In  this  Customs  Union  it  is  provided  that  the  products 
of  the  territories  shall  pass  free  between  each  other,  and  under  this 
clause  they  have  a  preferential  rate  against  goods  imported  from  other 
territories.  It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  the  objection  made  against 
the  latter  portion  of  this  clause,  that  Her  Majesty's  Government  could 
not  propose  to  Parliament  special  preferential  rights  of  free  import  for 
the  Cape  Colony,  applies  with  equal  force  to  the  action  of  Her 
Majesty's  Government  in  sanctioning  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate 
joining  the  Cape  Customs  Union. 

It  is  to  be  observed  that  the  whole  proviso  proposed  by  Mr.  Rhodes 
would  not  have  run  counter  to  Her  Majesty's  Treaty  obligations,  to 
which,  oi  course,  the  fiscal  arrangements  in  Matabeliland  and 
Mashonaland  would  be  subject,  and  would  have  had  a  free  trade  rather 
than  a  protective  tendency. 

Against  such  a  proposal  it  may  be  urged  that  this  agreement  for 
the  administration  of  the  territories  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company  is  of  a  more  or  less  temporary  character,  and  that  such  a 
provision  could  be  subsequently  either  inserted  or  expunged.  It  is, 
however,  considered  that  if  such  a  provision  had  been  contained  in  the 
first  instrument  of  government,  it  would  have  had  a  great  effect  in 
shaping  the  policy  of  the  community  upon  which  a  constitution  is  now 
being  conferred. 

The  provision  would  no  doubt  have  a  great  effect  upon  the  future 
fiscal  policy  of  South  Africa,  but  it  was  on  account  of  its  bearing  upon 
the  future  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company  and  the  territories 
under  its  control,  that  my  Board  wished  to  press  the  proposed  proviso 
upon  Her  Majesty's  Government.  Lord  Ripon  will  appreciate  how 
much  the  success  of  such  an  enterprise  as  the  Company  has  undertaken 
depends  upon  the  good  will,  support,  and  sympathy  of  the  community 
at  home.  His  Lordship  is  also  well  aware  that  in  many  quarters  there 
is  a  feeling  that  Chartered  Companies  in  general  are  a  source  of 
weakness  and  embarrassment  in  the  Empire,  carrying  with  them  no 
counterbalancing  advantages.  This  Company,  which  is  placed  in  the 
position  of  founders,  as  it  were,  of  what  it  is  hoped  will  prove  a  wealthy 
and  prosperous  country,  wished  to  take  the  first  opportunity  of 
acknowledging  its  debt  to  the  Mother  Country,  and  of  providing  on  its 
part  that  within  its  territories  the  produce  of  English  labour  should  not 
be  subjected  to  a  hostile  protective  tariff. 

The  Settlement  and  Administration  of  Zainbesia.       325 

My  Directors  regret  that  Her  Majesty's  Government  has  been 
unable  to  adopt  the  proviso  so  strongly  advocated  by  Mr.  Rhodes,  but 
they  do  not  further  press  the  point,  and  are  ready,  as  stated,  to  seal 
and  complete  the  agreement  forthwith. 

I  am,  &c., 


The  Under-Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies, 

Colonial  Office,  Downing  Street,  S.W. 

The  following  is  the  Marquis  of  Ripon's  reply,  dated   nth  June, 

I  have  laid  before  the  Marquis  of  Ripon  your  letter  of  the  22nd 
ultimo,  recording  the  acceptance  by  the  British  South  Africa  Company 
of  the  Memorandum  of  Settlement  respecting  the  affairs  of  Mashonaland 
and  Matabeliland,  but  putting  on  record  the  reasons  why  Mr.  Rhodes, 
with  the  support  of  his  colleagues,  desired  that  a  proviso  should  be 
added  to  Clause  13  of  the  Memorandum!,  dealing  with  the  taxation  of 
British  and  Cape  goods. 

The  Memorandum  having  been  duly  executed  without  the  proviso, 
it  now  only  remains  for  Lord  Ripon  to  notice  the  nature  of  that  proviso, 
and  the  reasons  which  you  have  set  forth  as  having  influenced  Mr. 
Rhodes  in  desiring  its  adoption,  and  to  explain  what  were  the  con- 
siderations which  prevented  him  from  accepting  the  proposal  made  by 
Mr.  Rhodes. 

In  the  first  place  the  proviso  is,  in  Lord  Ripon's  opinion, 
unnecessary.  The  Company  can  only  impose  taxation  by  Ordinance, 
and  such  Ordinances  are  subject  to  disallowance  by  the  Secretary  of 
State:  consequently  no  Customs  Duties  could  be  levied  which  the 
Secretary  of  State  was  not  prepared  to  sanction.  There  is  therefore  no 
reason  to  fear  that  the  Company  would  be  allowed,  so  long  as  the 
Memorandum  remains  in  force,  to  im.pose  excessive  duties. 

Instead  of  acting  as  a  restriction  on  the  imposition  of  duties  by  the 
British  South  Africa  Company,  the  proposed  proviso  would  have  tended 
to  hinder. the   Secretary  of  State   \\\  the  free  exercise  of  his  power  to 

326:        ,■  The  Downfall  of  Lobengula. 

control,  inasmuch  as  if  he  were  at  any  time  to  desire  to  prevent  the 
levying  of  Customs  Duties  in  excess  of  what  he  thought  proper,  but  not 
in  excess  of  those  levied  under  the  tariff  at  present  in  force  within  the 
South  African  Customs  Union,  the  Company  might  have  objected  that 
the  wording  of  the  proviso  implied  that  they  would  be  permitted  to 
impose  without  check  any  duties  they  pleased,  so  long  as  they  were 
not  greater  than  those  raised  by  the  Customs  Union.  Lord  Ripon  is 
not  prepared  to  bind  himself  or  his  successors  to  permit,  as  a  matter  of 
course,  Customs  Duties  to  be  levied  up  to  that  amount. 

The  Customs  Tariff  of  the  Company  must,  in  his  Lordship's 
opinion,  be  regulated  by  the  circumistances  of  the  time,  by  the  require- 
ments of  the  administration  of  the  Company's  territory,  and  by  the 
relation  which  its  Customs  receipts  bear  to  the  other  sources  of  taxation 
which  may  be  available ;  and  the  Company  may  rest  assured  that 
neither  the  present  nor  any  future  Secretary  of  State,  so  long  as  he 
possesses  the  powers  conferred  on  him  by  the  Charter  and  Memorandum 
of  Settlement,  will  allow  any  Customs  Duties  to  be  levied  in  excess 
of  what  is  necessary,  and  that  he  will  not  fail  to  protect  "  the  best 
interests  of  the  English  people." 

If  the  Company's  territory  should  hereafter  pass  into  the  condition 
of  a  self-governing  Colony,  the  inhabitants  will  enjoy  all  the  freedom 
which  that  status  involves. 

But  altogether  apart  from  this,  the  proposal,  in  Lord  Ripon's 
opinion,  lies  entirely  outside  the  scope  of  such  an  instrument  as  the 
Memorandum.  Indeed,  it  is  stated  in  your  letter  that  "  the  insertion  of 
the  words  '  British  goods '  is  immaterial  to  the  Charter  " ;  which  is  taken 
to  mean  that  the  insertion  of  the  proviso  was  proposed,  not  as  a  matter 
material  to  the  settlement  of  the  questions  immediately  affecting  the 
administration  of  the  Company's  territories,  but  as  embodying  the 
general  principle  of  fiscal  policy  indicated  in  your  letter.  The  principles 
and  objects  of  that  policy  are  well  known,  and  they  have  been  advocated 
by  various  persons  in  this  country  for  some  time.  But  whatever  may 
be  their  merits  or  demerits,  the  adoption  of  this  policy  would  involve  a 
departure  from  the  course  pursued  now  for  many  years  by  the  British 
Government,  and  it  would  be  altogether  out  of  the  question  for  Her 
Majesty's  Government  to  inaugurate  such  a  change  indirectly,  and  as  it 

The  Settlement  and  Administration  of  Zambesia.      327 

were  by  a  side  wind,  in  a  document  of  the  nature  of  the  Memorandum, 
which  calls  for  no  such  provision,  and  to  the  purposes  of  which  it  is 
admittedly  immaterial.  It  is  not  necessary  to  say  more  in  explana- 
tion of  the  grounds  upon  which  Lord  Ripon,  although  desirous  of 
meeting  Mr,  Rhodes'  wishes  as  far  as  possible,  has  felt  bound  to 
decline  to  accept  the  proviso  which  the  Directors  were  anxious  to 

But  there  are  other  portions  of  your  letter  which  seem  to  his 
Lordship  to  call  for  some  further  observations.  One  reason  stated 
in  favour  of  the  proviso  is  that  the  policy  of  this  country  in  giving 
complete  fiscal  and  financial  freedom  to  the  Colonies  has  been  mis- 
taken, and  that  when  self-government  was  given  to  them  it  ought 
to  have  been  accompanied  by  conditions  preventing  them  from 
taxing  British  goods  beyond  a  certain  limit.  Whether  it  would  at 
any  time  have  been  practicable  or  expedient  to  impose  any  limit, 
in  the  manner  suggested,  on  the  financial  freedom  of  the  self- 
governing  Colonies  may  well  be  doubted. 

The  particular  proposal  now  under  consideration  is  not  a  proposal 
to  prohibit  protection  in  general,  but  to  prohibit  anything  like  protective 
duties  on  British  goods,  thus  leaving  a  presumption  that  the  Company 
should  be  free  so  far  as  may  be  possible  to  impose  what  duties  it  pleases 
on  foreign  goods,  and  the  proposal  is  supported  by  the  suggestion  that 
the  Mother  Country  herself  may  very  possibly  hereafter  depart  from  her 
own  Free  Trade  policy  by  levying  protective  or  prohibitive  duties  on 
foreign  goods.  Upon  this  it  is  only  necessary  to  observe  that  the  Home 
Government  and  Parliament  have,  in  the  interests  of  the  people  of  this 
country,  consistently  refrained  for  many  years  from  all  attempts  to 
either  nurse,  fetter,  or  interfere  with  the  free  action  and  development  of 
its  commerce  by  protective  duties,  whether  upon  colonial  or  on  foreign 
goods,  and  there  are  at  present  no  signs  that  this  policy  is  likely  to  be 

Lord  Ripon  does  not  doubt  that  the  Directors  of  the  British  South 
Africa  Company  desire  to  retain  the  good  will,  support,  and  sympathy 
of  the  community  at  home  in  the  task  which  they  have  undertaken,  but 
the  fiscal  policy  which  they  now  advocate  is  not  the  one  which  has 
eommended  itself  for  the  last  half  century  to  the  large  majority  of  the 

2,2S  The  Doiv}ifall  of  Lobengula. 

people  of  this  country,  and,  as  has  been  shown  above,  the  Memorandum 
as  finally  agreed  upon  provides  ample  securities  that  in  the  territories 
of  the  British  South  Africa  Company  the  produce  of  British  labour  will 
not  be  liable  to  be  subjected  to  a  hostile  Protective  Tariff. 

I  am,  &c., 

(Signed)    R.  H.  Meade. 
The  Secretary  of  the 

British  South  Africa  Company. 

The  above  correspondence  is  chiefly  interesting  as  embodying  the 
views  of  the  present  Cape  Ministry  upon  the  fiscal  policy  of  the  Empire, 
and  as  being  one  of  the  efforts  lately  made  by  individual  colonies  to 
place  themselves  in  closer  touch  with  other  portions  of  the  British 
dominions.  The  logical  force  of  the  attitude  assumed  by  the  Colonial 
Office  with  respect  to  this  particular  matter  is  much  weakened  by  the 
fact  that  the  suggested  provisoes  were  rather  in  the  direction  of  free  trade 
than  of  protection,  and  also  by  the  fact  that  Her  Majesty's  Government 
has  already  permitted  the  inhabitants  of  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate 
to  range  themselves  within  the  Cape  Customs  Union. 

The  chief  cause  which  has  militated  against  the  more  rapid 
development  of  Mashonaland  has  been  the  difficulty  of  transport. 
Formerly  the  cost  of  carrying  machinery  from  the  coast  to  Fort 
Salisbury  was  prohibitive.  That  obstacle,  however,  has  been  ener- 
getically grappled  with,  and  is  being  rapidly  overcome.  Matabeliland 
is  to  be  opened  up  by  a  railway  from  the  south,  and  both  Mashonaland 
and  Matabeliland  by  a  line  from  the  eastern  seaboard.  Already 
considerable  progress  has  been  made  with  both  lines.  In  the  first  year 
the  British  South  Africa  Company  extended  the  Cape  Colony  Railway 
from  Kimberley  to  Vryburg,  the  Cape  Government  having  since  taken 
over  this  section  of  the  line.  Arrangements  have  also  been  made  with 
the  Bechuanaland  Railway  Company,  Limited  (incorporated  in  May, 
1893),  to  extend  the  Cape  system  from  Vryburg  to  Palapye  (a  distance 
of  400  miles).  The  first  section  to  Mafeking  (lOO  miles)  is  nearing 
completion,  the  rails  having  now  (August^  1894),  been  laid  to  within 
fifteen  miles  of  Mafeking. 

On   the  east   seventy-five,  miles    of  the  Beira  line,  starting    from 

The    Settlement  and  Administratioyi  of  Zauibesia.       329 

king,    a 

819  miles. 
of  corn- 
has  proved 
mous  util- 
effic  lent 
tion  of  the 
during  the 
esti  mate 
of  the  business  transacted 
with  the  department  b}'  pri- 
vate persons  (Cape  Govern- 
ment messages  being  carried 
free)  may  be  founded  upon  the 
fact  that  the  line  is  already 
returning  some  4  per  cent, 
upon  the  cost  of  its  construc- 
tion. So  successful  indeed  has 
the  experiment  proved  that  it 
has  been  decided  to  extend 
the    system    northward    into 

Fontesvilla,  were  opened  in 
October,  1893,  and  the  line 
is  being  extended  to  Chi- 
moio,  a  further  distance  of 
forty-three  miles.  This  ex- 
tension will,  it  is  believed,  be 
completed  by  not  later  than 
December,  1894. 

At  an  early  period  in  its 
history  as  a  white  settlement, 
Mashonaland  was  connected 
with  the  outside  world  by  an 
of  the  Cape 
system  north- 
from  Mafe- 
distance  of 
This  means 
to  be  of  enor- 
ity  in  the 
ad  minis  tra- 
country,  and 
war.  Some 
of  the  volume 


^K '^■m^^^^^^M 

^             fcfii 


^^^^I^b9k~'  '-'i 



^^^hHH^^'  ^ 


Eland  Shcoting— A  Water  Buck  fkom  Lake  'Ngami. 

33Qr,  '^^^^  Downjail  of  Lobengiila. 

Nyasaland,  thence  via 'Lake  Tanganyika  to  Uganda,  and,  if  and  when 
possible,  across  the  Egyptian  Soudan.  This  will  bring  an  immense  and 
hitherto  hardly  accessible  central  African  region  into  immediate  and  close 
communication  with  the  civilised  world.  It  will  do  much  towards  the 
establishment  of  law  and  order  in  the  wild  districts  traversed,  will  develop 
their  commerce^  [and  will  undoubtedly  pave  the  way  for  the  proper 
and  effective  opening  up  of  the  Lakes  route  as  a  great  central  African 
trade  route.  Meantime  the  telegraph  poles  have  already  been 
laid  from.  Salisbury  to  Zomba  in  Nyasaland  (a  distance  of  400 
miles)  b}^  the  African  Transcontinental  Telegraph  Company,  an  under- 
taking which  chiefly  owes  its  funds  to  Mr.  Rhodes'  munificence  and 
public  spirit.  A  branch  telegraph  line  from  Palapye  into  Matabeliland 
has  also  been  rapidly  pushed  forward.  A  station  was  opened  to 
Mangwe  on  the  25th  April,  1894,  and  Buluwayo  itself  was  reached  in 
July,  1894 — within  nine  months  from  its  occupation  by  the  combined 
columns.  The  distance  of  io8A^  miles  from  Tati  to  Buluwayo  was 
completed  in   the  short  time  of  133   days,  and  at  the  cost  of  under 

Proper  arrangements  for  the  conveyance  of  mails  and  passengers  in 
Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland  have  also  been  made,  and  regular 
services  have  been  contracted  for  as  follows  : — 

Palapye  to  Tati;  time  occupied,  25  hours 
Tati  to  Buluwayo;  time  occupied,  33  hours    ... 
Buluwayo  to  Falisbury  ;  time  occupied,  5  days 
Chimoio  to  Salisbury  ;  time  occupied,  84  hours 
Tuli  to  Buluwayo;  time  occupied  48  hours     ... 

During  the  dry  season  there  is,  in  addition  to  the  above,  a  weekly 
service  each  way  with  oxen  between  Tuli  and  Victoria,  the  time  occupied 
being  84  hours.  The  latest  time  tables  for  the  mail  and  passenger  service 
of  Mashonaland  and  Matabeliland  are  inserted,  as  in  addition  to  their  own 
inherent  interest,  they  may  prove  of  utility  for  purposes  of  reference  to 
those  corresponding  with  persons  resident  in  Mashonaland  and 
Matabeliland,  or  for  intending  travellers  to  those  interesting  and 
attractive  countries. 










O    O    T 

The  Settlenunt  and  Adiniuistralioii  of  Zanibesia. 


BuLUWAYO  TO   Salisbury 

Depart.  Arrive.  Iji^tance. 

Buluwayo     Tuesday  3  a.m.  Salisbury    Saturday  3  a.m.  260   miles. 

Salisbury      Monday  6  p.m.  Buluwayo    Friday  6  p.m.  260       ,, 

Salisbury  to  Chimoio. 

Depart.                                                           arrive.  Approx.  Dist. 

Salisbury      Tuesday  6  a.m.             Umtali        Wednesday  6  p.m.  i49j  niiles. 

Umtali         Thursday  6  a.m.            Chimoio      Friday  6  p.m.  73       ,, 


Chimoio      Tuesday  6  a.m.  Umtali        Wednesday  6  p.m.  73       ,, 

Umtali         Thursday  6  a.m.  Salisbury     Friday  6  p.m.  i49i     j> 

TuLi  TO  Buluwayo. 
Depart.  Arrive.  Approx.  Dist. 

Tuli  Monday  10  a.m.  Buluwayo  Wednesday  10  a.m.         200   miles. 

Buluwayo    Thursday  6  p.m.  Tuli  Saturday  6  p.m.  200       „ 

Cape   Town  to    Buluwayo    via    Palapye. 

Depart.                                                           Arkivf.  Afprox.  Dist. 

Cape  Town  Thursday  9  p.m.         Mafeking    Sunday  6.30  p.m.  871  miles. 

Mafeking    Monday  noon.             Palapye       Saturday  10  a.m.  293  „ 

Palapye       Saturday  10  a.m.         Tati             Sunday  6  p.m.  90  ,, 

Tati             Sunday  6  p.m.              Buluwayo  Tuesday  10  am.*  150  „ 


Buluwayo    Saturday  8  a.m.  Tati             Sunday  midnight.  150  ,, 

Tati             Monday  i  a.m.  Palapye       Tuesday  5  a.m.  90  ,, 

Palapye      Tuesday  5.30  a.m.  Mafeking    Sunday  5  a.m.  293  ,, 

Mafeking    Sunday  5.30  a.m.  Cape  Town  Wednesday  i  p.m.  871  ,, 

Cape  Town  to  Tuli  via  Pretoria  {connecting  with  Tuli-Buluwayo  Service.) 
Depart.  Arrive.  Approx.  Dist. 

Cape  Town     Sunday  9.m.  Pretoria  Wednesday  7.30  a.m.     1,031  miles. 

Pretoria  Thursday  5  a.m.    Pietersburg     Friday  9  p.m. 

Pietersburg     Saturday  3  a.m,     Hendrikzdal   Sunday  noon. 
Hendrikzdal  Sunday  noon.        Tuli  Sunday  8  p.m. 


Tuli  Sunday  4  a.m.  Hendrikzdal  Sunday  noon. 

Hendrikzal  Sunday  i  p.m.  Pietersburg     Monday  Noon. 

Pietersburg  Monday  9  p.m.  Pretoria  Wednesday  6  p.m. 

Pretoria  Wednesday  8.30  p.m  Cape  Town     Saturday  6.40  a.m.  1,031     ,, 

*/\o  hours'  allowance.     Tuesday  3  a.m.   contract  time. 

Postage  and  Revenue  Stamps,  Southern  Zamdesia. 



B.CtA.  B:C':i 

Postage  Stamps,  Kokthern  Zambesia. 

334  ■^^'■^  DoiLmfall  of  Lobeiigtda, 

'■'-  Comparatively  unimportant,  but  interesting  as  an  evidence  of  the 
trade  and  development  of  the  Rhodesian  colonies,  is  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  issue  of  postage  and  revenue  stamps.  Two  sets  of  the 
postage  stamps,  one  of  Southern  Zambesia  (Mashonaland  and  Matabeli- 
land),  and  the  other  of  Northern  Zambesia  (Nyasaland),  have  been 
photographed  to  form  an  accompanying  illustration  hereto.  The 
Southern  Zambesia  issue,  which  dates  from  1891,  originally  included  only 
the  id.,  6d.,  and  is.  values,  but  it  now  ranges  from  |d.  to  £\o,  and  is 
available  indiscriminately  for  postage  or  revenual  purposes.  The 
aggregate  face  value  is  ^19  17s.  Qd.  There  is  also  an  issue  of  registered 
letter  envelopes  and  post  cards  — inland  (id.),  international  (i^d.),  and 
reply  (id.  on  each  half).  The  issue  designed  for  Northern  Zambesia 
also  dates  from  1891,  when  Mr.  H.  H.  Johnston  went  out  to  Nyasaland, 
and  is  distinguished  by  the  over-printed  letters  "B.C. A."  (British  Central 
Africa).  The  postage  issue  includes  stamps  having  face  values  ranging 
from  id.  to  _^io  (total  values  ^^19  los.  3d.),  registered  letter  envelopes, 
and  postcards  of  i|d.  and  2^d.  each.  The  revenue  issue  of  Nyasaland, 
also  inaugurated  in  1S91,  has  stamps  of  an  entirely  different  and  oblong 
pattern,  ranging  in  face  value  from  is.  to  £,^0,  with  a  total  value  of 
£%6  1 8s.  Up  to  August,  1893,  ^^"78,000  worth  of  stamps  had  been  sent 
out,  and  as  an  interesting  indication  of  the  increasing  business  of  the 
country  it  may  be  mentioned  that  since  that  date  no  less  than  785,026 
postage  stamps  have  been  issued.  The  design  of  the- stamps  is  handsome 
and  effective,  consisting  of  the  Compan3''s  arms  above  its  proud  motto  : 
'■Justice,  Freedom,  Commerce."  It  may  be  of  interest  to  philatelists 
to  know  that  an  issue  of  postage  stamps  of  a  somewhat  new  design  is, 
we  believe,  contemplated  in  the  ensuing  }-ear. 

To  touch  upon  one  more  point,  and  that  point  an  all-important  one. 
Dr.  Jameson  reported  at  the  end  of  June  last: — "As  a  proof  of  the 
peaceable  state  of  the  countr)'  and  the  satisfied  feeling  of  the  natives, 
I  may  state  that  there  is  abundant  labour  to  be  obtained  at  Buluwayo, 
and  by  the  large  number  of  prospectors  no^v  distributed  through  the 
country;  and  there  is  less  complaint  of  want  of  labour  than  we  have 
experienced  during  the  last  three  years  in  Mashonaland." 

Within  the  next  {q.\m  months  Dr.  Jameson  (whose  portrait,  taken 
ten  years  ago,  appears  on    a  preceding  page)    will   for    a    brief  space 

COLONEL   F.   W.  RHODES,   D.S.O. 

The  Settlement  and  Administration  of  Zambesia.      335 

return  to  Europe  for  a  well-earned  holiday,  leaving  the  onerous  duties 
of  his  official  position  in  the  hands  of  Colonel  Francis  W.  Rhodes  as 
Acting-Administrator.  A  brief  allusion  to  that  officer's  distinguished 
career  has  been  made  in  preceding  pages,  but  it  may  be  added  that 
Colonel  Rhodes  is  understood  to  have  considerable  administrative 
capacity ;  and  the  deep  interest  which  he  has  displayed  in  the 
development  of  Uganda,  the  opening  up  of  the  Lakes  Route,  and  other 
important  African  questions,  justifies  the  confidence  placed  in  him. 

As  the  book  goes  to  press,  Mr.  James  Dawson,  who  was  of  late 
years  Lobengula's  chief  adviser,  has  reached  England  after  a  lengthy 
residence  in  South  Africa.  Mr.  Dawson  had  great  influence,  which  he 
always  used  in  a  proper  way,  over  the  King,  and  it  was  he  who  brought 
down  Lobengula's  indunas  (two  of  whom  were  unfortunately  killed)  to 
Tati.  He  is  a  Scotchman,  and  began  his  career  many  years  ago  as  a 
trader  at  Khama's  capital,  Palachwe,  but  afterwards  removed  to 
Buluwayo,  where  he  went  into  partnership  with  the  late  Mr.  James 
Fairbairn.  Proverbially  hospitable,  he  is  enterprising,  able,  and 
cultured,  and  universally  popular  up-country.  After  re-entering 
Buluwayo  he  volunteered  to  go  to  the  King,  who  was  then  believed 
to  be  on  the  Shangani,  with  the  object  of  inducing  him  to 
surrender — a  most  dangerous  mission,  especially  in  view  of  the  Tati 
incident.  Mr.  P.  Riley,  another  up-country  trader,  also  volunteered, 
and  the  two  went  on  in  ignorance  of  the  King's  death,  ultimately 
discovering  the  remains  of  Wilson  and  his  comrades  on  the  spot 
where  they  fell.  Before  returning,  however,  they  materially  assisted 
in  the  work  of  pacification  by  inducing  'Mjan,  and  the  other  leading  in- 
dunas who  had  followed  the  King,  to  come  in  and  offer  their  submission. 
Mr.  Dav/son  is  much  trusted  by  Dr.  Jameson,  who  thinks  very  highly  of 
his  character  and  abilities.  Of  the  other  Buluwayo  traders,  the  late 
Mr.  James  Fairbairn  was  an  Edinburgh  man.  He  and  Mr,  Usher, 
a  Cape  colonist,  were  the  only  two  whites  left  in  Buluwayo  when 
Mr.  Dawson  went  down  with  the  indunas  to  Tati,  and  the  forces  on 
their  arrival  were  considerably  astonished  to  find  that  their  lives  had 
been  spared.  After  the  occupation  of  Buluwayo  Mr.  Fairbairn  rendered 
very  valuable  service — knowing  so  many  of  the  native  chiefs — in 
inducing  them  -to  come  in   and   lay  down  their  arms. 


Price   3d.       Subscription    (Post   Free)  15s.,  or   £1  is.  od.  Abroad. 

Upe  Hfrican  IRet^ieS, 




Conducted  by  H.  RIDER  HAGGARD  and  W.  A.  WILLS. 


Political,  Social,  Mining,  Financial  Shipping, 
and  Commercial   Intelligence. 

Reliable    Statistics   and  Information  comtected  njith  the   Sont/i  African 
Diamond,  Gold,  Coal,  Ccpper,  a)id  Silver  Mining  hidustries. 

The    most    trustworthy    Journal    for    Investors,    and    all    those 
interested   in   the   South  African   Industries. 



Advertisement  TaiiTcn  application  to  the  Publishers, 





Benjamin  Edgington's 

XTents  anb  ©utfits 




MR.    H.    M.    STANLEY.        Capt.    STAIRS,    R.E.        MR.    H.    H.    JOHNSTONE. 

Lieut.  WISSMANN.     Sir    F.   De  WINTON.      Bishop   HANNINGTON. 

Rev.  Mr.  ASHE.     Rev.   Mr.  COMBER.     The  CONGO  STATE  GOVERNMENT^ 

The    imperial    BRITISH    EAST   AFRICA    COMPANY,    &c. 

Surgeon-Major  Parke  wrote,  March  28,   1893: 

"  I  lived  under  canvas  almost  continuously  from  1882  until  we  emerged  from  Africa  with 
Emin  Pasha  in  December,  1889.      Unquestiotmbly  yours  are  the  hrsi  Tents  made." 

Strong  Camp  Bedsteads,  Chairs,  and  Camp  Furniture  of  all  kinds. 



For  Price  Lists  and  Particulars,  address — 

BENJ!i.  EDGINGTON,  Limited,  2,  DUKE  STREET  (foot  of  London  Bridge),  S.E, 




l_  I  .\l  1  1  h- 1 ), 

Naturalists  to  the  Court, 

By  Special  Appointment  to  His  Royal  Hii:;hness  the  Prince  of  J  J  ales,  His  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  Edinburgh,  and  the  Courts  of  Europe. 

"THE     JUNGLE,"     i66,     PICCADILLY,     LONDON,    W., 

practical  anb  artistic  ^ayibcrmists. 

Designers  of  Trophies 
of  Natural  History, 
Preservers  and  Adapters 
of  all  Specimens  of 
Animal  Life.  Natural 
Features  of  Animals 
adapted  in  Original 
Designs  for  Decorative 
Purposes,  and  every- 
day uses.  Furriers  and 
Plumassiers,  and  Col- 
lectors in  Natural  His- 


To  Practical  Collecting,  Preserving,  and  Artistic  Setting  up  of  Trophies  and  Specimens 
P.y    ROWLAND    WARD,    F.Z.S.        jj.  6d.     By  Post,  js.  qd. 



LENGTH,  Etc. 

Beingr  a  Record   for  the  Use  of   SPORTSMEN  and   NATURALISTS. 

By  ROWLAND  WARD,  F.Z.S.       Price  21s.     By  Post,  21s.  6d. 





ROWLAND    WARD    AND    CO.,     Ltd. 

THE    "JUNGLE,"     iG6,    PICCADILLY. 


Charles  Lancaster, 
sport  withthe  golindian 


(^PP^ICE  Fi^O[^27£ 


Non-fouling  :^ 

-Smooth  Oval  bore 


o^^^^--^**..^.  BALlf^HdTotjN'  ,J^j$^^^^^ 
Without  CHOICE  bomnc.  or  cr^ooved  kifliNg  theheby  fREVENTiNOLEAoiHo. 

BULLETS    ACCUKATLY    TO    lOOYAROS  G  H  AS  L.ANC  A  STER.     151  hiEW  BO  M  D  ^"  S 

i5i,  NEW  BOND  ST.,  LONDON,  W. 


Natal  Direct  Line. 

Taking  GOODS  and   PASSENGERS 



Sail   every   Three    Weeks  from    the    East   India    Docks,    ea/Zino-    alternately  at 
Las  Palmas  and  Teneriffe. 

Also  a  monthly  direct  line  between  Cape  Colony,  Natal,  East  Africa,  ami  India  (Madras 
2nd  Calcutta),  and  a  through  service  for  passensjers  and  ravcro  between  China,  Japan,  and 
South  African  Ports,  via  Calcutta. 

All  Steamers  have  splendid  accommodation  for  Cabin  Passengers  at  moderate  rates,  are 
t'ltted  throughout  wiih  the  Electric  Light,  and  carry  a  Surgeon  and  Stewardess.  Saloons  on 
deck,  two-l)erth  State  rooms,  of  whirh  inspection  is  invited. — Return  tickets  issued. 

/•'or  Freis;hl  or  rns.un;;',  apply  lo  /tie  Oioi/rrs, 



MAI3KAS         Parry  &  Co. 

Calcutta     ...         Anderson,  Wright  &  Co. 
IION'(',  KoNi;,  &c.       Dodwell,  Carlill  Sc  Co. 

Capf,  Town-         Viiwell  &  Co. 

Port  Elizabeth  ...  Keith  &  Co. 

Delagoa  Bay     I..  Cohen  &  Co. 

Head   Office  for  South   Africa:— KING    &    SONS,    Durban.  Natal 


Gold  Miners  and  Prospectors  are  informed  that  the 
TERRITORIES  of  this  Company  are  THROWN  OPEN  TO 
PROSPECTORS    of    all     Nations. 

Mining  Claims,  330  ft.  x  330  ft.,  10/-  Per  Month. 

Copies  of  the  Company's  Mining  Regulations,  which  are  more  liberal  than 
thof:e  nf  the  Transvaal,  can  be  obtained  on  application  to : — 

The    Department    of    Mines,    The    Mozambique    Company,    Beira, 

East  Africa. 
The  London  Office  of  the  Mozambique  Company,  Broad  Street  House, 

Old  Broad  Street,  E.C. 
Dr.  AIagin,  Ph.D.,    M.E.,  National    Bank    Buildings.  Johannesburg ; 

C.  J-  Alford,  Mining  Commissioner  of  the    Mozambique  Company, 
"  Umtali,  East  Africa. 

By  Order  of  the 

London  Office:  MOZAMBIQUE     COMPANY. 

Broad  Street  House,  Old  Broad  Street,  K.C. 





Cape  of  Good  Hope,  Natal,  &  East  African  Royal  Mail  Service. 



Foris  called  a^— Lisbon,  Madeira  and  Teneriffe  (Canary  Islands),  CAPE  TOWN,  Mossel 
Bay,  PORT  ELIZABETH,  EAST  LONDON,  NATAL,  Delagoa  Bay,  Inhambane,  BEIRA, 
Chinde,  Quillimane,  Mozambique,  Ibo,  and  Zanzibar. 

St.  Helena  and  Ascension  called  at  at  intervals. 


Return    Tickets    Issued.       Free   Rail  Tickets  London  and   Plymouth  to  Southampton  for 

Passengers.     Cheap  Railway  Tickets  for  Passengers'  Friends. 

Surgeon  and  Stewardesses  carried.  Electric  Light,  Refrigerators,  &'c. 



Canute  Road,  SOUTHAMPTON;    14,  Cockspur  Street,  LONDON,  S.W.  ;    and 

South    African    House,    94   to    96,    Bishopsgate   Street   Within,    LONDON,    E.G. 






The  Royal  Mail  Steamers  of 


Leave  London  every  alternate  Friday,  and  sail  frtnn  Southampton  on  the  following  day, 
with  Mails,  Passengers,  and  Cargo,  for  Cape  Colony  and  Natal,  calling  at  Madeira. 

Intermediate  Steamers  are  despatched  every  14  days  from  London  and  Southampton, 
for  Cape  Colony,  Natal,  Delagoa  Bay,  &c.,  via  Grand  Canary,  thus  forming  a  weekly 
service  from  London  and  Southampton. 

Passengers  and  Cargo  are  taken  every  fortnight  for  Delagoa  Bay  and  Beira  (Pungwe 
River)  and  every  tour  weeks  for  St.  Hklena,  Madagascar,  and  l\L\UKnTUS. 

Return  Tickets  issued  for  ALL  PORTS.  Handbook  of  intormalion  for  Passengers  gratis 
on  application.  I^oading  Berth —  India  Dock  Basin,  Blackwall,  K.  /'Vee  Railway 
Tickets  are  granted  /rom  London  to  Southampton.  Experienced  Surgeons  and  Stewardesses  on 
every  Steamer.     Superior  Accommodation.     Excellent  Cuisine. 


London — i,   2,   3  and  4,   Feuchurch  Street,    l^.C.  ;     Manchester — 15,   Cross  Street; 
Liverpool — 25,  Castle  Street  ;   Glasgow — 40,  St.   Enoch  Square.